Daniel Featley, also called Fairclough and sometimes called Richard Fairclough/Featley (15 March 1582 –17 April 1645), was an English theologian and controversialist. A leading Calvinist disputant of the 1620s, he fell into difficulties with Parliament due to his loyalty to Charles I in the 1640s, and he was harshly treated and imprisoned at the end of his life.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
Theology is the systematic study of the nature of the divine and, more broadly, of religious belief. It is taught as an academic discipline, typically in universities and seminaries. It occupies itself with the unique content of analyzing the supernatural, but also deals with religious epistemology, asks and seeks to answer the question of revelation. Revelation pertains to the acceptance of God, gods, or deities, as not only transcendent or above the natural world, but also willing and able to interact with the natural world and, in particular, to reveal themselves to humankind. While theology has turned into a secular field, religious adherents still consider theology to be a discipline that helps them live and understand concepts such as life and love and that helps them lead lives of obedience to the deities they follow or worship.
Featley was born at Charlton-upon-Otmoor, Oxfordshire, on 15 March 1582, the second son of John Fairclough.by his wife Marian Thrift. His father was cook to Laurence Humphrey, President of Magdalen College, Oxford, and afterwards to Corpus Christi College in the same university. Featley was the first of his family to adopt the surname.
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west.
Magdalen College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford. It was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete. Today, it is one of the wealthiest colleges, with a financial endowment of £273.2 million as of 2018, and one of the strongest academically, setting the record for the highest Norrington Score in 2010 and topping the table twice since then.
Corpus Christi College, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1517, it is the 12th oldest college in Oxford.
He was educated as a chorister of Magdalen College. John Rainolds, President of Corpus, was his godfather and benefactor, and Featley is noted as a protégé of Rainolds, a leading Puritan spokesman.He was admitted scholar of Corpus Christi College 13 December 1594, and probationer fellow 20 September 1602, having taken his BA degree on 13 February 1601. He proceeded MA on 17 April 1606, and became noted as a disputant and preacher. In 1607 he delivered an oration at Rainolds' funeral.
John Rainolds was an English academic and churchman, of Puritan views. He is remembered for his role in the Authorized Version of the Bible, a project of which he was initiator.
A Bachelor of Arts is a bachelor's degree awarded for an undergraduate course or program in either the liberal arts, sciences, or both. Bachelor of Arts programs generally take three to four years depending on the country, institution, and specific specializations, majors, or minors. The word baccalaureus should not be confused with baccalaureatus, which refers to the one- to two-year postgraduate Bachelor of Arts with Honors degree in some countries.
A Master of Arts is a person who was admitted to a type of master's degree awarded by universities in many countries, and the degree is also named Master of Arts in colloquial speech. The degree is usually contrasted with the Master of Science. Those admitted to the degree typically study linguistics, history, communication studies, diplomacy, public administration, political science, or other subjects within the scope of the humanities and social sciences; however, different universities have different conventions and may also offer the degree for fields typically considered within the natural sciences and mathematics. The degree can be conferred in respect of completing courses and passing examinations, research, or a combination of the two.
In 1610 and for the two following years he was chaplain to Sir Thomas Edmondes, the English ambassador at Paris, and was noticed for his attacks on Catholic doctrine and his disputations with Jesuits. Twenty-one of the sermons preached by him in the ambassador's chapel are printed.Featley commenced BD on 8 July 1613, and was the preacher at the act of that year. He seems to have given offence by his plain speaking, even in consecration sermons.
In Western universities, a Bachelor of Divinity or Baccalaureate in Divinity is an undergraduate or postgraduate academic degree awarded for a course taken in the study of divinity or related disciplines, such as theology or, rarely, religious studies. In most modern universities, the BD as a first degree is essentially equivalent to a Bachelor of Arts degree with a speciality in divinity. Relatively few institutions award undergraduate Bachelor of Divinity degrees today, and the distinction between institutions that do award such degrees and those that award BA degrees for theological subjects is usually one of bureaucracy rather than curriculum.
Featley was domestic chaplain to George Abbot, Archbishop of Canterbury. For the benefit of Marc Anthony de Dominis and at Abbot's request, Featley in 1617 kept his exercise for the degree of DD under John Prideaux; Prideaux lost his temper, and Abbot had some difficulty in effecting a reconciliation. De Dominis, soon after appointed master of the Savoy, gave Featley a brother's place in that hospital. In 1610 he had preached the rehearsal sermon at Oxford, and by the Bishop of London's appointment he discharged the same duty at St. Paul's Cross in 1618.
Doctor of Divinity is an advanced or honorary academic degree in divinity.
John Prideaux D.D. was an English academic and Bishop of Worcester.
At the invitation of an old pupil, Ezekiel Arscot, Featley accepted the rectory of North Hill, Cornwall, which he soon vacated on his institution by Abbot to the rectory of Lambeth, 6 February 1619. On 27 June 1623 a famous conference was held at the house of Sir Humphrey Lynde between Featley and Francis White, the dean of Carlisle, and the Jesuits John Piercy (alias Fisher) and John Sweet; an account was surreptitiously printed the same year, with the title The Fisher catched in his owne Net. Featley, by Abbot's command, prepared an elaborate report of that and other controversies.The king, James I, himself asked to engage with him in a disputation, which Featley afterwards published. Some time before 1625 Abbot gave him the rectory of Allhallows, Bread Street, which Featley was afterwards allowed to exchange for the rectory of Acton, Middlesex, to which he was instituted on 30 January 1627.
North Hill is a village and civil parish in Cornwall, England, United Kingdom. The village is situated on the east side of the River Lynher approximately six miles (10 km) southwest of Launceston.
Lambeth is a district in South London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is situated 1 mile (1.6 km) south of Charing Cross. The population of the London Borough of Lambeth was 303,086 in 2011. The area experienced some slight growth in the medieval period as part of the manor of Lambeth Palace. By the Victorian era the area had seen significant development as London expanded, with dense industrial, commercial and residential buildings located adjacent to one another. The changes brought by World War II altered much of the fabric of Lambeth. Subsequent development in the late 20th and early 21st centuries has seen an increase in the number of high-rise buildings. The area is home to the International Maritime Organization.
The Dean of Carlisle is based in Carlisle, UK and is the head of the Chapter of Carlisle Cathedral. There have been 39 previous incumbents and the current holder of the post is Mark Boyling.
In 1622 Featley had married Mrs. Joyce Halloway, or Holloway. She was the daughter of William Kerwyn, and had already been twice married. There being at the time no parsonage at Lambeth, Featley resided in his wife's house at the end of Kennington Lane. He concealed his marriage for some time, in case it should interfere with his residence at Lambeth Palace; but in 1625 he ceased to be chaplain to Abbot. Featley had been refused admission to the palace, because an illness from which he was suffering was supposed to be the plague; it proved to be a sharp attack of ague, and he abruptly resigned.
Featley was also a chaplain in ordinary to Charles I of England, and was appointed Provost of the declining Chelsea College in 1630. A devotional manual entitled Ancilla Pietatis was published in 1626 and proved very popular; a sixth edition appeared in 1639, translations into French and other languages were made, and it was a special favourite with Charles I in his troubles.
Featley and William Laud, Abbot's successor, were never on good terms. The Laudian Peter Heylyn said that Featley was 'a Calvinist always in his heart,' though he defended the Church of England and episcopacy in the 1640s. He refused to turn the communion table in his church at Lambeth 'altar-wise.' He was a witness against Laud in 1634, when the primate was charged with having made superstitious innovations in Lambeth Chapel. Laud, two years later, ordered many passages reflecting on the Roman Catholics in Featley's Clavis Mystica to be obliterated, before allowing the book to be printed. These passages were reproduced by William Prynne, in his Canterburies Doome.
In 1641 Featley was nominated by the House of Lords as one of the subcommittee 'to settle religion,' which met at the Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster, under the presidency of John Williams, then Dean of Westminster. He wrote animadversions on a Catholic tract called 'A Safegard from Shipwracke to a prudent Catholike, to which he gave the title of 'Vertumnus Romanus,' (1642); and began marginal annotations on St. Paul's Epistles, which were printed in the Bible issued by the Westminster Assembly in 1645. As the First English Civil War broke out, he was harassed and in some danger. After the Battle of Brentford, 13 November 1642, some of the Earl of Essex's troops, who were quartered at Acton, set fire to his barns and stables, broke open the church, pulled down the font, smashed the windows and burnt the communion rails in the street. On 10 February 1643, in the middle of a service, five soldiers rushed into Lambeth Church intending to murder Featley, who had been warned, and kept out of the way. Two parishioners were wounded and died.
He was next brought before the Committee for Plundered Ministers, on articles exhibited against him by three of his Lambeth parishioners, whom he styles 'semi-separatists.' On 16 March 1643 he was called into the exchequer chamber to answer the charges. The committee refused to hear his witnesses, and voted him out of his living on 23 March, four only out of seventeen being present. The order was not reported to the Commons until 11 July, when it was negatived. Earlier in the year he had been offered, says his nephew John Featley, the chair of divinity at Leyden, but declined it because of age. He attended the meetings of Westminster Assembly, of which he was nominated a member in June. He spoke on behalf of episcopacy, and denounced the alienation of church property and the toleration of new sects. He also refused to assent to all of the solemn league and covenant. His speeches, together with 'sixteen reasons for episcopal government,' are printed in Sacra Nemesis; the speeches alone, as Orationes Synodicae, in the sixth edition of his Dippers Dipt. In consequence of a message from King Charles, whose chaplain he was, Featley eventually withdrew from the assembly. Soon afterwards he was detected in a correspondence with Archbishop James Ussher, then with the King at Oxford, and he was imprisoned as a spy, in Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate Street. According to his sentence, his rectories and library only were ordered to be sequestered, but he was despoiled; Richard Baxter among others sympathised.
During his imprisonment Featley returned to controversy. At the request of the parliament he wrote a treatise against the Catholics.While writing it, says his nephew, he was allowed three books at a time from his library. In January 1644 he published as the third section of The Gentle Lash his 'Challenge' against the puritan divines of the day, in which he offered to vindicate the articles, discipline, and liturgy of the Church of England. Another controversy was with a fellow-prisoner, the Baptist minister, Henry Denne. Featley had on 17 October 1643 held fierce argument in Southwark with William Kiffin and three other baptists, the substance of which he embodied in his best-known work entitled The Dippers Dipt Denne, hurt by the tone of Featley's diatribe, offered to dispute the ten arguments with him face to face; and then drew up his Antichrist Unmasked, which appeared by 1 April 1645, when Featley was already a dying man; another reply by Samuel Richardson, entitled Some brief Considerations, followed soon afterwards.
Featley was in bad health before his imprisonment, and after eighteen months' confinement he was permitted out on bail to move to Chelsea College for change of air. There he died of asthma and dropsy, 17 April 1645, and on the 21st was buried in the chancel of Lambeth church. The sermon was preached by Dr. William Leo, an old friend.
He was involved in the translation of the King James Version of the Bible. In the project, Featley served in the "First Oxford Company", responsible for the later books of the Old Testament.
His works include:
Featley also published, London, 1638, Sir Humphrey Lynde's posthumous reply to the Jesuit Robert Jenison, entitled A Case for the Spectacle, or a Defence of Via Tuta, together with a treatise of his own called Strictura in Lyndomasttigem, by way of supplement to the Knight's Answer, and a 'Sermon [on Numb. xxiii, 10] preached at his Funerall at Cobham, June the 14th, 1636;' reprinted in the supplement to Edmund Gibson's Preservative from Popery (vol. v. ed. 1849). A set of Latin verses, written by him in 1606, giving an exposition of Jesuitical amphibology, was prefixed to Henry Mason's New Art of Lying, London, 1634.
George Gillespie was a Scottish theologian.
Cornelius Burges or Burgess, DD, was an English minister. He was active in religious controversy prior to and around the time of the Commonwealth of England and The Protectorate, following the English Civil War. In the years from 1640 he was a particularly influential preacher.
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Herbert Palmer (1601–1647) was an English Puritan clergyman, member of the Westminster Assembly, and President of Queens' College, Cambridge. He is now remembered for his work on the Westminster Shorter Catechism, and as a leading opponent of John Milton's divorce tracts.
Richard Crakanthorpe (1567–1624) was an English clergyman, remembered both as a logician and as a religious controversialist.
George Walker (c.1581–1651) was an English clergyman, known for his strong Puritan views. He was imprisoned in 1638 by William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, an affair that was later raised against Laud at his trial. He became a member of the Westminster Assembly in 1643.
Peter Smart (1569-1652?) was an Anglican Puritan clergyman, kept imprisoned for 12 years after he preached against innovations in the ceremonies at Durham Cathedral.
Obadiah Sedgwick (1600?–1658) was an English clergyman of presbyterian views, and a member of the Westminster Assembly.
Thomas Goad (1576–1638) was an English clergyman, controversial writer, and rector of Hadleigh, Suffolk. A participant at the Synod of Dort, he changed his views there from Calvinist to Arminian, against the sense of the meeting.
Josias Shute (1588–1643) was an English churchman, for many years rector of St Mary Woolnoth in London, archdeacon of Colchester, and elected a member of the Westminster Assembly.
John Ley was an English clergyman and member of the Westminster Assembly.
Richard Byfield (1598?–1664) was an English clergyman, Sabbatarian controversialist, member of the Westminster Assembly, and ejected minister.
Robert Mapletoft was an English churchman and academic, Master of Pembroke College, Cambridge and Dean of Ely.
John Shawe or Shaw (1608–1672) was an English Puritan minister, an influential preacher in the north of England during the Interregnum.
Sir Humphrey Lynde (1579–1636) was an English lay Puritan controversialist and politician who sat in the House of Commons in 1626.
John Featley, also known as John Fairclough, was a chorister and divine. He was a chaplain to Charles I. His uncle was the theologian Daniel Featley.
Henry Denne (1606?-1660) was a Church of England clergyman and controversialist, later a prominent Baptist.
John Reading (1588–1667) was an English priest of Calvinist views and Biblical commentator.