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|Prince Zhi of the First Rank|
|Reign||1813 – 3 October 1820|
|Emperor of the Qing dynasty|
|Reign||3 October 1820 – 26 February 1850|
|Born||Aisin Gioro Mianning|
16 September 1782
(乾隆四十七年 八月 十日)
Xiefang Hall, Forbidden City
|Died||26 February 1850 67) (aged|
(道光三十年 正月 十五日)
Jiuzhou Qingyan Hall, Old Summer Palace
Mu Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
(m. 1796;died 1808)
(m. 1809;died 1833)
(m. 1821;died 1840)
Yicong, Prince Dunqin of the First Rank
Yixin, Prince Gongzhong of the First Rank
Yixuan, Prince Chunxian of the First Rank
Yihe, Prince Zhongduan of the Second Rank
Yihui, Prince Fujing of the Second Rank
Princess Shou'an of the First Rank
Princess Shouzang of the Second Rank
Princess Shou'en of the First Rank
Princess Shouxi of the Second Rank
Princess Shouzhuang of the First Rank
The Daoguang Emperor (Chinese :道光帝; pinyin :Dàoguāng Dì; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850) was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigning from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes the Daoguang Emperor as a "well meaning but ineffective man" who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty."
The Daoguang Emperor was born in the Forbidden City, Beijing, in 1782, and was given the name Mianning (绵宁; 綿寧; Miánníng; Mien-ning). It was later changed to Minning (旻宁; 旻寧; Mǐnníng; Min-ning) when he became emperor. The first character of his private name was changed from Mian to Min to avoid the relatively common character Mian. This novelty was introduced by his grandfather, the reigning Qianlong Emperor, who thought it inappropriate to use a common character in the emperor's private name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo.
Mianning was the second son of Prince Yongyan, the 15th son and heir of the Qianlong Emperor. Even though he was Yongyan's second son, he was first in line after Prince Yongyan to his grandfather's throne. This was because according to the dishu system, his mother, Lady Hitara, was Yongyan's primary spouse whereas his elder brother was born to Yongyan's concubine. Mianning was favoured by his grandfather, the Qianlong Emperor. He frequently accompanied his grandfather on hunting trips. On one such trip, at the age of nine, Mianning successfully hunted a deer, which greatly amused the Qianlong Emperor. The emperor would abdicate five years after that incident, in 1796, when Mianning was 14. Mianning’s father Prince Yongyan was then enthroned as the Jiaqing Emperor, after which he made Lady Hitara (Mianning's mother) his empress consort. The elderly Qianlong would live three more years in retirement before dying in 1799, aged 88, when Mianning was 17.
In 1813, while he was still a prince, Mianning also played a vital role in repelling and killing Eight Trigrams invaders who stormed the Forbidden City.
In September 1820, at the age of 38, Mianning inherited the throne after the Jiaqing Emperor died suddenly of unknown causes. He became the first Qing emperor who was the eldest legitimate son of his father. Now known as the Daoguang Emperor, he inherited a declining empire with Westerners encroaching upon the borders of China. The Daoguang Emperor had been ruling for six years when the exiled heir to the Khojas, Jahangir Khoja, attacked Xinjiang from Kokand in the Afaqi Khoja revolts. By the end of 1826, the former Qing cities of Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, and Yangihissar had all fallen to the rebels.After a friend betrayed him in March 1827, Khoja was sent to Beijing in an iron litter and subsequently executed, while the Qing Empire regained control of their lost territory. The Uyghur Muslim Sayyid and Naqshbandi Sufi rebel of the Afaqi suborder, Jahangir Khoja was sliced to death (Lingchi) in 1828 by the Manchus for leading a rebellion against the Qing.
During the Daoguang Emperor's reign, China experienced major problems with opium, which was imported into China by British merchants. Opium had started to trickle into China during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, but was limited to approximately 200 chests annually. By the time of the Qianlong era, this amount had increased to 1,000 chests, 4,000 chests by the Jiaqing era and more than 30,000 chests during the Daoguang era.
The Daoguang Emperor issued many imperial edicts banning opium in the 1820s and 1830s, which were carried out by Lin Zexu, whom he appointed as an Imperial Commissioner. Lin Zexu's efforts to halt the spread of opium in China led directly to the First Opium War. With the development of the First Opium War, Lin Zexu was made a scapegoat. The Daoguang Emperor removed his authority and banished him to Yili. Meanwhile, in the Himalayas, the Sikh Empire attempted an occupation of Tibet but was defeated in the Sino-Sikh war (1841–1842). On the coasts, the Qing Empire lost the war, exposing their technological and military inferiority to European powers, and ceded Hong Kong to the British in the Treaty of Nanjing in August 1842.
In 1811, a clause sentencing Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism had been added to the statute called "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術) in the Great Qing Legal Code. [ who? ] in 1835 and 1836, the Daoguang Emperor demanded to know who were the "traitorous natives" in Guangzhou who had supplied them with books. [ page needed ]Protestants hoped that the Qing government would discriminate between Protestantism and Catholicism, since the law mentioned the latter by name, but after Protestant missionaries gave Christian books to Chinese people
The Daoguang Emperor granted the title of "Wujing Boshi" (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Ran Qiu.
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The Daoguang Emperor died on 26 February 1850 at the Old Summer Palace, 8 km/5 miles northwest of Beijing, being the last Qing emperor to pass away in that Palace before it was burnt down by Anglo-French troops during the Second Opium War, a decade later. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Yizhu, who was later enthroned as the Xianfeng Emperor. The Daoguang Emperor failed to understand the intention or determination of the Europeans, or the basic economics of a war on drugs. Although the Europeans were outnumbered and thousands of miles away from logistical support in their native countries, they could bring far superior firepower to bear at any point of contact along the Chinese coast. The Qing government was highly dependent on the continued flow of taxes from southern China via the Grand Canal, which the British expeditionary force easily cut off at Zhenjiang. The Daoguang Emperor ultimately had a poor understanding of the British and the industrial revolution that Britain and Western Europe had undergone, preferring to turn a blind eye to the rest of the world, though the distance from China to Europe most likely played a part. It was said that the emperor did not even know where Britain was located in the world. His 30-year reign introduced the initial onslaught by Western imperialism and foreign invasions that would plague China, in one form or another, for the next one hundred years.
The Daoguang Emperor was interred in the Mu (慕; lit. "Longing" or "Admiration") mausoleum complex, which is part of the Western Qing Tombs, 120 kilometers/75 miles southwest of Beijing.
On a side note, the Daoguang Emperor was the last Qing emperor to be able to choose an heir among his sons since his successors either had only one surviving son or had no offspring.
|Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722)|
|Yongzheng Emperor (1678–1735)|
|Empress Xiaogongren (1660–1723)|
|Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799)|
|Empress Xiaoshengxian (1692–1777)|
|Jiaqing Emperor (1760–1820)|
|Empress Xiaoyichun (1727–1775)|
|Daoguang Emperor (1782–1850)|
|Empress Xiaoshurui (1760–1797)|
The Kangxi emperor, personal name Xuanye, was the third Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the second Qing emperor to rule over China proper.
The Tongzhi Emperor, born Zaichun of the Aisin Gioro clan, was the ninth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China proper. His reign, from 1861 to 1875, which effectively lasted through his adolescence, was largely overshadowed by the rule of his mother, Empress Dowager Cixi. Although he had little influence over state affairs, the events of his reign gave rise to what historians call the "Tongzhi Restoration", an unsuccessful modernization program.
The Xianfeng Emperor, or by temple name Emperor Wenzong of Qing (清文宗), given name Yizhu (奕詝), was the eighth Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the seventh Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigned from 1850 to 1861. During his reign the Qing dynasty experienced several wars and rebellions including the Taiping Rebellion, Nian Rebellion, and Second Opium War. He was the last Chinese emperor to have total executive ruling power. After his death, the Qing dynasty was controlled by Empress Dowager Cixi.
The Jiaqing Emperor, personal name Yongyan, was the sixth emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, from 1796 to 1820. He was the 15th son of the Qianlong Emperor. During his reign, he prosecuted Heshen, the corrupt favorite of his father, and attempted to restore order within the Qing Empire while curbing the smuggling of opium into China.
Yixin, better known in English as Prince Kung or Gong, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and an important statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China. He was a regent of the empire from 1861 to 1865 and wielded great influence at other times as well.
Yixuan, formally known as Prince Chun, was an imperial prince of the Aisin Gioro clan and a statesman of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty in China. He was the father of the Guangxu Emperor, and the paternal grandfather of Puyi through his fifth son Zaifeng.
Empress Xiaoquancheng, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1834 until her death in 1840.
Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun (恭順皇貴妃) of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan (鈕祜祿氏) was a consort of the Jiaqing Emperor. She was 27 years his junior.
Empress Xiaoherui, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1801 until her husband's death in 1820, after which she was honoured as Empress Dowager Gongci during the reign of her step-son, Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was the longest-serving empress consort in Qing history.
Empress Xiaojingcheng, of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Borjigit clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to a consort of Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was honoured as Empress Dowager Kangci during the reign of her step-son, Yizhu, the Xianfeng Emperor. She was the only Qing empress dowager who was neither her husband's empress consort nor emperor's mother.
Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun, of the Manchu Uya clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 40 years his junior.
Consort Xiang, of the Manchu Niohuru clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 26 years his junior and of the same age as his eldest son Prince Yiwei.
Noble Lady Shun was a consort (fei) of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.
Succession War is Hong Kong historical drama created and produced by Chong Wai-kin for TVB, starring Ruco Chan, Shaun Tam, Selena Lee, Natalie Tong and Elaine Yiu as the main leads. The show is a fictional biography story about the last 28 days of the life of Qing dynasty court official Heshen, who is known for being the most corrupt court official in Chinese history. Succession War premiered on 25 June 2018 on TVB Jade.
Noble Consort Tong, of the Manchu Šumuru clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 35 years his junior.
Noble Consort Cheng was a consort of Daoguang Emperor.
Consort Zhuang was a consort of the Jiaqing Emperor.
The Jiaqing Emperor had a total number of 14 consorts, including 2 empresses, 2 imperial noble consorts, 4 consorts and 6 concubines.
Daoguang Emperor had fifteen consorts, including four empresses, one imperial noble consort, three noble consorts, three consorts and four concubines.
The Xianfeng Emperor had eighteen consorts, including three empresses, two imperial noble consorts, two noble consorts, four consorts, four concubines and three first attendants. The consorts are classified according to their posthumous titles.
Daoguang EmperorBorn: 16 September 1782 Died: 26 February 1850
| Emperor of the Qing dynasty |
Emperor of China