Daoguang Emperor

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Daoguang Emperor
道光帝
Qing Yi Ming  <<Qing Xuan Zong Dao Guang Huang Di Zhao Fu Xiang >> .jpg
Prince Zhi of the First Rank
(智親王)
Reign1813 – 3 October 1820
Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Reign3 October 1820 – 26 February 1850
Predecessor Jiaqing Emperor
Successor Xianfeng Emperor
BornAisin Gioro Mianning
(愛新覺羅·綿寧)
(1782-09-16)16 September 1782
(乾隆四十七年 八月 十日)
Xiefang Hall, Forbidden City
Died26 February 1850(1850-02-26) (aged 67)
(道光三十年 正月 十五日)
Jiuzhou Qingyan Hall, Old Summer Palace
Burial
Mu Mausoleum, Western Qing tombs
Consorts
(m. 1796;died 1808)

(m. 1809;died 1833)

(m. 1821;died 1840)

(m. 18251850)
IssueYiwei
Xianfeng Emperor
Yicong, Prince Dunqin of the First Rank
Yixin, Prince Gongzhong of the First Rank
Yixuan, Prince Chunxian of the First Rank
Yihe, Prince Zhongduan of the Second Rank
Yihui, Prince Fujing of the Second Rank
Princess Shou'an of the First Rank
Princess Shouzang of the Second Rank
Princess Shou'en of the First Rank
Princess Shouxi of the Second Rank
Princess Shouzhuang of the First Rank
Names
Aisin Gioro Minning
(愛新覺羅 旻寧)
Manchu: Min ning (ᠮᡳᠨ ᠨᡳᠩ)
Era dates
Daoguang
(道光; 3 February 1821 – 31 January 1851)
Manchu: Doro eldengge (ᡩᠣᡵᠣ ᡝᠯᡩᡝᠩᡤᡝ)
Mongolian: Төр Гэрэлт (ᠲᠥᠷᠥ ᠭᠡᠷᠡᠯᠲᠦ)
Posthumous name
Emperor Xiaotian Fuyun Lizhong Tizheng Zhiwen Shengwu Zhiyong Renci Jianqin Xiaomin Kuanding Cheng
(效天符運立中體正至文聖武智勇仁慈儉勤孝敏寬定成皇帝)
Manchu: Šanggan hūwangdi (ᡧᠠᠩᡤᠠᠨ
ᡥᡡᠸᠠᠩᡩᡳ
)
Temple name
Xuanzong
(宣宗)
Manchu: Siowandzung (ᠰᡳᡠᠸᠠᠨᡯᡠᠩ)
House Aisin Gioro
Father Jiaqing Emperor
Mother Empress Xiaoshurui
Daoguang Emperor
Chinese 道光帝

The Daoguang Emperor (Chinese :道光帝; pinyin :Dàoguāng Dì; 16 September 1782 – 26 February 1850) was the seventh Emperor of the Qing dynasty, and the sixth Qing emperor to rule over China proper, reigning from 1820 to 1850. His reign was marked by "external disaster and internal rebellion," that is, by the First Opium War, and the beginning of the Taiping Rebellion which nearly brought down the dynasty. The historian Jonathan Spence characterizes the Daoguang Emperor as a "well meaning but ineffective man" who promoted officials who "presented a purist view even if they had nothing to say about the domestic and foreign problems surrounding the dynasty." [1]

Contents

Early years

The Daoguang Emperor was born in the Forbidden City, Beijing, in 1782, and was given the name Mianning (绵宁; 綿寧; Miánníng; Mien-ning). It was later changed to Minning (旻宁; 旻寧; Mǐnníng; Min-ning) when he became emperor. The first character of his private name was changed from Mian to Min to avoid the relatively common character Mian. This novelty was introduced by his grandfather, the reigning Qianlong Emperor, who thought it inappropriate to use a common character in the emperor's private name due to the longstanding practice of naming taboo.

Mianning was the second son of Prince Yongyan, the 15th son and heir of the Qianlong Emperor. Even though he was Yongyan's second son, he was first in line after Prince Yongyan to his grandfather's throne. This was because according to the dishu system, his mother, Lady Hitara, was Yongyan's primary spouse whereas his elder brother was born to Yongyan's concubine. Mianning was favoured by his grandfather, the Qianlong Emperor. He frequently accompanied his grandfather on hunting trips. On one such trip, at the age of nine, Mianning successfully hunted a deer, which greatly amused the Qianlong Emperor. The emperor would abdicate five years after that incident, in 1796, when Mianning was 14. Mianning’s father Prince Yongyan was then enthroned as the Jiaqing Emperor, after which he made Lady Hitara (Mianning's mother) his empress consort. The elderly Qianlong would live three more years in retirement before dying in 1799, aged 88, when Mianning was 17.

In 1813, while he was still a prince, Mianning also played a vital role in repelling and killing Eight Trigrams invaders who stormed the Forbidden City.

Reign

The Daoguang Emperor inspecting his guards at the Meridian Gate of the Forbidden City Emperor Taou-Kwang reviewing his guards.jpg
The Daoguang Emperor inspecting his guards at the Meridian Gate of the Forbidden City

Khoja rebellion in Xinjiang

The Daoguang Emperor is presented with prisoners of the campaign to pacify rebels in Xinjiang at the Meridian Gate in 1828 The Emperor is presented with prisoners at the Wu-men 1828.jpg
The Daoguang Emperor is presented with prisoners of the campaign to pacify rebels in Xinjiang at the Meridian Gate in 1828

In September 1820, at the age of 38, Mianning inherited the throne after the Jiaqing Emperor died suddenly of unknown causes. He became the first Qing emperor who was the eldest legitimate son of his father. Now known as the Daoguang Emperor, he inherited a declining empire with Westerners encroaching upon the borders of China. The Daoguang Emperor had been ruling for six years when the exiled heir to the Khojas, Jahangir Khoja, attacked Xinjiang from Kokand in the Afaqi Khoja revolts. By the end of 1826, the former Qing cities of Kashgar, Yarkand, Khotan, and Yangihissar had all fallen to the rebels. [2] [3] After a friend betrayed him in March 1827, Khoja was sent to Beijing in an iron litter and subsequently executed, [4] while the Qing Empire regained control of their lost territory. The Uyghur Muslim Sayyid and Naqshbandi Sufi rebel of the Afaqi suborder, Jahangir Khoja was sliced to death (Lingchi) in 1828 by the Manchus for leading a rebellion against the Qing.

First Opium War

During the Daoguang Emperor's reign, China experienced major problems with opium, which was imported into China by British merchants. Opium had started to trickle into China during the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor, but was limited to approximately 200 chests annually. By the time of the Qianlong era, this amount had increased to 1,000 chests, 4,000 chests by the Jiaqing era and more than 30,000 chests during the Daoguang era.

Destroying Chinese war junks during the First Opium War Destroying Chinese war junks, by E. Duncan (1843).jpg
Destroying Chinese war junks during the First Opium War

The Daoguang Emperor issued many imperial edicts banning opium in the 1820s and 1830s, which were carried out by Lin Zexu, whom he appointed as an Imperial Commissioner. Lin Zexu's efforts to halt the spread of opium in China led directly to the First Opium War. With the development of the First Opium War, Lin Zexu was made a scapegoat. The Daoguang Emperor removed his authority and banished him to Yili. Meanwhile, in the Himalayas, the Sikh Empire attempted an occupation of Tibet but was defeated in the Sino-Sikh war (1841–1842). On the coasts, the Qing Empire lost the war, exposing their technological and military inferiority to European powers, and ceded Hong Kong to the British in the Treaty of Nanjing in August 1842.

Anti-Christianity

In 1811, a clause sentencing Europeans to death for spreading Catholicism had been added to the statute called "Prohibitions Concerning Sorcerers and Sorceresses" (禁止師巫邪術) in the Great Qing Legal Code. [5] Protestants hoped that the Qing government would discriminate between Protestantism and Catholicism, since the law mentioned the latter by name, but after Protestant missionaries gave Christian books to Chinese people[ who? ] in 1835 and 1836, the Daoguang Emperor demanded to know who were the "traitorous natives" in Guangzhou who had supplied them with books. [6] [ page needed ]

Nobility titles

The Daoguang Emperor granted the title of "Wujing Boshi" (五經博士; Wǔjīng Bóshì) to the descendants of Ran Qiu. [7]

Death and legacy

The Daoguang Emperor died on 26 February 1850 at the Old Summer Palace, 8 km/5 miles northwest of Beijing, being the last Qing emperor to pass away in that Palace before it was burnt down by Anglo-French troops during the Second Opium War, a decade later. He was succeeded by his eldest surviving son, Yizhu, who was later enthroned as the Xianfeng Emperor. The Daoguang Emperor failed to understand the intention or determination of the Europeans, or the basic economics of a war on drugs. Although the Europeans were outnumbered and thousands of miles away from logistical support in their native countries, they could bring far superior firepower to bear at any point of contact along the Chinese coast. The Qing government was highly dependent on the continued flow of taxes from southern China via the Grand Canal, which the British expeditionary force easily cut off at Zhenjiang. The Daoguang Emperor ultimately had a poor understanding of the British and the industrial revolution that Britain and Western Europe had undergone, preferring to turn a blind eye to the rest of the world, though the distance from China to Europe most likely played a part. It was said that the emperor did not even know where Britain was located in the world. His 30-year reign introduced the initial onslaught by Western imperialism and foreign invasions that would plague China, in one form or another, for the next one hundred years.

The Daoguang Emperor was interred in the Mu (慕; lit. "Longing" or "Admiration") mausoleum complex, which is part of the Western Qing Tombs, 120 kilometers/75 miles southwest of Beijing.

On a side note, the Daoguang Emperor was the last Qing emperor to be able to choose an heir among his sons since his successors either had only one surviving son or had no offspring.

Family

From top to bottom, left to right: Empress Xiaoquancheng, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank, Yizhu, a lady-in-waiting, Yixin, Noble Consort Jing and Noble Consort Tong; circa 1837 Chun Yi Qiu Ting Tu .gif
From top to bottom, left to right: Empress Xiaoquancheng, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank, Yizhu, a lady-in-waiting, Yixin, Noble Consort Jing and Noble Consort Tong; circa 1837
From left to right: Yixin, Yizhu, Yihe, Yihui, Yixuan, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank and Princess Shou'en of the First Rank; circa 1848 Dao Guang Di Xing Le Tu Juan .gif
From left to right: Yixin, Yizhu, Yihe, Yihui, Yixuan, the Daoguang Emperor, Princess Shou'an of the First Rank and Princess Shou'en of the First Rank; circa 1848

Consorts and Issue

Ancestry

Kangxi Emperor (1654–1722)
Yongzheng Emperor (1678–1735)
Empress Xiaogongren (1660–1723)
Qianlong Emperor (1711–1799)
Lingzhu (1664–1754)
Empress Xiaoshengxian (1692–1777)
Lady Peng
Jiaqing Emperor (1760–1820)
Jiuling
Qingtai
Empress Xiaoyichun (1727–1775)
Lady Yanggiya
Daoguang Emperor (1782–1850)
Aixing'a
Chang'an
Lady Wanggiya
He'erjing'e
Lady Ligiya
Empress Xiaoshurui (1760–1797)
Lady Wanggiya

See also

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Empress Xiaoquancheng

Empress Xiaoquancheng, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1834 until her death in 1840.

Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun

Imperial Noble Consort Gongshun (恭順皇貴妃) of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan (鈕祜祿氏) was a consort of the Jiaqing Emperor. She was 27 years his junior.

Empress Xiaoherui Empress Dowager Gongci

Empress Xiaoherui, of the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Niohuru clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second empress consort of Yongyan, the Jiaqing Emperor. She was Empress consort of Qing from 1801 until her husband's death in 1820, after which she was honoured as Empress Dowager Gongci during the reign of her step-son, Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was the longest-serving empress consort in Qing history.

Empress Xiaojingcheng, of the Manchu Plain Yellow Banner Borjigit clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to a consort of Mianning, the Daoguang Emperor. She was honoured as Empress Dowager Kangci during the reign of her step-son, Yizhu, the Xianfeng Emperor. She was the only Qing empress dowager who was neither her husband's empress consort nor emperor's mother.

Imperial Noble Consort Zhuangshun, of the Manchu Uya clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 40 years his junior.

Consort Xiang

Consort Xiang, of the Manchu Niohuru clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 26 years his junior and of the same age as his eldest son Prince Yiwei.

Noble Lady Shun

Noble Lady Shun was a consort (fei) of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.

Succession War is Hong Kong historical drama created and produced by Chong Wai-kin for TVB, starring Ruco Chan, Shaun Tam, Selena Lee, Natalie Tong and Elaine Yiu as the main leads. The show is a fictional biography story about the last 28 days of the life of Qing dynasty court official Heshen, who is known for being the most corrupt court official in Chinese history. Succession War premiered on 25 June 2018 on TVB Jade.

Noble Consort Tong

Noble Consort Tong, of the Manchu Šumuru clan, was a consort of the Daoguang Emperor. She was 35 years his junior.

Noble Consort Cheng was a consort of Daoguang Emperor.

Consort Zhuang was a consort of the Jiaqing Emperor.

The Jiaqing Emperor had a total number of 14 consorts, including 2 empresses, 2 imperial noble consorts, 4 consorts and 6 concubines.

Daoguang Emperor had fifteen consorts, including four empresses, one imperial noble consort, three noble consorts, three consorts and four concubines.

The Xianfeng Emperor had eighteen consorts, including three empresses, two imperial noble consorts, two noble consorts, four consorts, four concubines and three first attendants. The consorts are classified according to their posthumous titles.

References

Citations

  1. Spence 1990, pp. 149, 166.
  2. Millward 1998, p. 34.
  3. "Zhuozhou Celebrity — Lu Kun (涿州名人-卢坤)". Xinhuanet (in Chinese). 15 June 2012. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  4. Rahul 2000, p. 98.
  5. Maclay 1861, pp. 336–337.
  6. Maclay 1861.
  7. Qin ding da Qing hui dian (Jiaqing chao)0. 1818. p. 1084.

Sources

Further reading

Daoguang Emperor
Born: 16 September 1782 Died: 26 February 1850
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Jiaqing Emperor
Emperor of the Qing dynasty
Emperor of China

1820–1850
Succeeded by
Xianfeng Emperor