Daqing

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Daqing

大庆市
San Yong Hu Deng Ta 2017Xia .jpg
Around Sanyong Lake, 2017
Location of Daqing Prefecture within Heilongjiang (China).png
Location of Daqing City (yellow) in Heilongjiang (light gray) and China
China Heilongjiang location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Daqing
Location of the city centre in Heilongjiang
Coordinates(Daqing municipal government): 46°35′20″N125°06′14″E / 46.589°N 125.104°E / 46.589; 125.104 Coordinates: 46°35′20″N125°06′14″E / 46.589°N 125.104°E / 46.589; 125.104
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 9
Government
  Type Prefecture-level city
   CPC Daqing SecretaryHan Xuejian (韩学键)
  MayorXia Lihua (夏立华)
Area
   Prefecture-level city 22,161 km2 (8,556 sq mi)
  Urban
 (2018) [1]
376 km2 (145 sq mi)
  Metro
2,734.6 km2 (1,055.8 sq mi)
Elevation
149 m (489 ft)
Population
 (2010 census) [2]
   Prefecture-level city 2,904,532
  Density130/km2 (340/sq mi)
   Urban
 (2018) [3]
1,580,000
  Urban density4,200/km2 (11,000/sq mi)
   Metro
1,415,268
  Metro density520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
163000
Area code(s) 0459
ISO 3166 code CN-HL-06
Licence plates 黑E
GDP (2010) CNY 290.0 billion (35th)
 - per capita CNY 103,576 (5th)
Climate Dwa
Website www.daqing.gov.cn
Daqing
DQ name.svg
"Daqing", as written in Chinese
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 大庆
Traditional Chinese 大慶
Postal Taching
Literal meaningGreat Celebration
Manchu name
Manchu script ᡩᠠᡴᠠᠩ
Romanization Daking

Daqing (Chinese :大庆; pinyin :Dàqìng; formerly romanized as Taching) is a prefecture-level city in the west of Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. The name literally means "Great Celebration". Daqing is known as the "Oil Capital of China" and has experienced a phenomenal boom since oil was discovered at the Daqing Oil Field in 1959. [4]

Contents

Its population was 2,963,458 at the 2010 Census, of whom 1,415,268 lived in the built-up area in four out of the total of five urban districts: Sartu, Longfeng, Ranghulu and Honggang. [2] [5]

History

The region now known as Daqing Prefecture was a reasonably insignificant place until the Qing Dynasty, known only as an unsettled hunting ground of Dörbet Oirat tribes due to its wetland and prairies. The region began to grow slightly after Czarist Russia constructed the Chinese Eastern Railway (KVZhD) through the area in 1898. [6] The railway has a station at Sartu in today's Sartu District. It was not until 1959 that oil was discovered in the region as part of the large scale oil exploration put into motion across the Northeast China Plain. [4] The Daqing oilfield was discovered in the late 1950s, and drilling began in 1958. A town with the same name was founded in 1959 to house workers extracting oil and gas from the Daqing oilfield and to host industries which could take advantage of the energy and petrochemicals, shortly before the 10th anniversary of the founding of the PRC. The name Daqing literally means "Great Celebration". On 26 May 1960, Anda City was established at former Anda town (today's Anda City in Suihua prefecture), administering Daqing oilfield area. Five months later, the administrative organs of the oilfield relocated in Sartu. On 23 June 1964, the city was established Anda special administrative region, with Anda county administering its surrounding area. On 14 December 1979, the city was separated from Anda and was renamed Daqing after the oilfield. [7]

Since its foundation it has been advocated as a model of good practice in industry and healthcare by the Chinese government.

Learn from Daqing in industry

The fact that Mao Zedong promulgated his Supreme Directive, Learn from Daqing in industry|In industry, learn from Daqing, in the 1960s reflects how important a role Daqing has historically played in industry in China. [8] Learn from Daqing in industry (Chinese : ; pinyin :gōngyè xué dàqìng) was a slogan during the Cultural Revolution telling the people to use the city as an example for industrial production. [8] [9]

The film Entrepreneurial Pioneers (创业), made in the early 1970s, is a literary rendition of the history of Daqing. During the Mao era, Daqing's agricultural counterpart was Dazhai, a village in the hilly Xiyang county, Shanxi Province, for which Chairman Mao issued the directive In agriculture, learn from Dazhai , also in the 1960s. [10]

Administrative divisions

Daqing is divided into 9 county-level divisions: 5 districts, 3 counties and 1 autonomous county.

Map
Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population
(2010 Census)
Area
(km²)
Density
(/km²)
Sartu District 萨尔图区Sà'ěrtú Qū328,808549599
Longfeng District 龙凤区Lóngfèng Qū352,404510691
Ranghulu District 让胡路区Rànghúlù Qū564,5341,394405
Datong District 大同区Dàtóng Qū234,5572,235105
Honggang District 红岗区Hónggǎng Qū169,522812209
Zhaozhou County 肇州县Zhàozhōu Xiàn387,4632,445158
Zhaoyuan County 肇源县Zhàoyuán Xiàn388,8284,19893
Lindian County 林甸县Líndiàn Xiàn244,5783,59168
Dorbod Mongol Autonomous County 杜尔伯特蒙古族自治县Dù'ěrbótè Měnggǔzú Zìzhìxiàn233,8386,42736

Demographics

Daqing has a population of 2.9 million, of them mainly Han Chinese, with a few population of other 31 minority ethnic groups including Manchu, Mongolian, Korean, and Hui nationalities. The population density is 112.69/km², urban population density 205.07/km². [5]

Climate

Located in the north temperate zone, Daqing has a humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) and is affected by the Siberian high and the East Asian monsoon. Generally, winter is bitterly cold with occasional snowfalls, and spring and autumn are prevailed by monsoons. The vast majority of the annual rainfall occurs during summer. The diurnal temperature variation can be up to 14 °C (25 °F) during the growing period. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −18.5 °C (−1.3 °F) in January to 23.3 °C (73.9 °F) in July, and the annual mean is +4.2 °C (39.6 °F). A majority of the annual precipitation falls in July and August alone. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 53% in July to 70% in February, the city receives 2,726 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperature ranges from −39.2 °C (−38.6 °F) to 39.8 °C (103.6 °F)

Economy

Well Sa-55 first drilled by Wang Jinxi and his colleagues Iron Man First Oil Well 2017 summer.jpg
Well Sa-55 first drilled by Wang Jinxi and his colleagues
Wildcat in Daqing Da Qing You Tian Di San Cai You Han Chou You Ji 1-2017.jpg
Wildcat in Daqing

Daqing's economy highly depends on petroleum and related industries. Daqing's oilfield is China's largest and the world's fourth most productive. Petroleum accounts for 60.8% of GDP. In 2011, Daqing's gross domestic product (GDP) was RMB374 billion yuan, representing a rise of 12.1% year on year. Primary industries output (including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and the fisheries) increased by 13.5% to RMB13.29 billion. Secondary and value-added industries and construction output experienced an increase of 10.1%, reaching RMB307 billion, while the tertiary industry output increased 22.9% to RMB53.74 billion. [11] In 2015 Daqing had a GDP of RMB 298.35 billion. [12]

Foreign trade

Daqing exports over 10 million tons of crude oil each year. Over 160 varieties of paraffin wax, ethylene, tar oil and benzene are exported to more than 10 nations and regions including the US, the UK, Thailand and Hong Kong.

In 2011, total import and export volume in Daqing reached US$2.16 billion, up by 40.1%. [11] Export volume was US$550 million and import volume was US$1.61 billion. Daqing's main exports include six categories of petrochemical products, construction materials, processed foodstuffs, office furniture and mechanical and electronic equipment. [13]

Banking and insurance

There were 32 banking institutions in Daqing by the end of 2006; none were foreign-invested banks. [13] In 2011, savings deposits in Renminbi and foreign exchange totaled 170.5 billion RMB. [11] The local finance sector plays an important role in building up Daqing's Century Oilfield and in developing new industries.

The Industrial and Commercial Bank of China, China Agricultural Bank, China Construction Bank, Bank of China, China Communications Bank, the Everbright Bank, Guangdong Development Bank, the Daqing Urban Commercial Bank, Daqing Rural Credit Cooperative Union and the County Urban Credit Cooperative are the major banks serving Daqing.

Transportation

Daqing Passenger Hub Da Qing Ke Yun Shu Niu Zhan 2017Xia .jpg
Daqing Passenger Hub

Railway

Daqing is a major railway hub in western Heilongjiang province and is located on the junction of Harbin-Manzhouli Railway and Tongliao-Ranghulu Railway. Daqing has three major railway stations: Daqing station, Daqing West station (formerly Ranghulu railway station) and Daqing East station. Trains from Daqing connect the city with Beijing, Harbin, Dalian and several other cities in China. The newly-built Harbin–Qiqihar Intercity Railway has stops at both Daqing West station and Daqing East station.

Airport

Daqing Sartu Airport was opened on 1 September 2009. [14] There are flights to several large cities including Beijing, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Qingdao and Shanghai.

Highway

Daqing is linked to the national highway network through the G45 Daqing–Guangzhou Expressway and G10 Suifenhe-Manzhouli Expressway.

Culture

Daqing Museum Da Qing Bo Wu Guan Ce Mian 2017Xia .jpg
Daqing Museum
The Iron Man Wang Jinxi Memorial Hall Da Qing Tie Ren Wang Jin Xi Ji Nian Guan Ru Kou 2017Xia .jpg
The Iron Man Wang Jinxi Memorial Hall

Daqing spirit

Generated by the history of the city, Daqing has a culture centering around the Iron man spirit. It consists of patriotism, truth-seeking, entrepreneurial spirit and dedication. Wang Jinxi (Chinese :王进喜; pinyin :Wáng Jìnxǐ, known as "Iron Man" Wang, who led No. 1205 drilling team), a petroleum worker on the Daqing Oilfield, was honored as a national hero due to his contributions to the petroleum industry of China. Daqing was established by the central government as a model for the secondary industry during the 1960s. In order to illuminate the entrepreneurial history of Daqing and its people, several films were made by companies in China. [15]

Sports

Daqing Olympic Park Stadium Daqing Olympic Park Stadium cropped 01.jpg
Daqing Olympic Park Stadium

The most popular sport in Daqing is association football. The largest sports venue by capacity is the 32,000-capacity Daqing Olympic Park Stadium.

Sister Cities

Domestic

International

See also

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