Darius III

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Darius III
King of Kings
Great King
King of Persia
Pharaoh of Egypt
King of Countries
Darius III of Persia.jpg
Detail of Darius III from the Alexander Mosaic
King of Kings of the Achaemenid Empire
Reign336–330 BC
Predecessor Artaxerxes IV Arses
Successor Alexander the Great (Macedonian Empire)
Artaxerxes V Bessus (unofficially)
Pharaoh of Egypt
Reign336–332 BC
Predecessor Artaxerxes IV
Successor Alexander the Great
Bornc. 380 BC
Persia
DiedJuly 330 BC (aged 49-50)
Bactria
Burial
Spouse Stateira I
Issue Stateira II
Drypetis
House Achaemenid Dynasty
FatherArsames of Ostanes
Mother Sisygambis
Religion Zoroastrianism

Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, [1] was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia, from 336 BC to 330 BC. Artashata adopted Darius as a dynastic name. [1]

Achaemenid Empire first Persian Empire founded by Cyrus the Great

The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Great. Ranging at its greatest extent from the Balkans and Eastern Europe proper in the west to the Indus Valley in the east, it was larger than any previous empire in history, spanning 5.5 million square kilometers. Incorporating various peoples of different origins and faiths, it is notable for its successful model of a centralised, bureaucratic administration, for building infrastructure such as road systems and a postal system, the use of an official language across its territories, and the development of civil services and a large professional army. The empire's successes inspired similar systems in later empires.

Contents

His empire was unstable, with large portions governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited by disaffected and rebellious subjects.

Satrap Ruler of a province in ancient Persia

Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires. The satrap served as viceroy to the king, though with considerable autonomy; and the word also came to suggest tyranny, or ostentatious splendour.

In 334 BC, Alexander the Great began his invasion of the Persian Empire and subsequently defeated the Persians in a number of battles before looting and destroying their capital, Persepolis, by fire in 330 BC. With the Persian Empire now effectively under Alexander's control, Alexander then decided to pursue Darius. Before Alexander reached him, however, Darius was killed by his cousin Satrap Bessus.

Alexander the Great King of Macedonia

Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20. He spent most of his ruling years on an unprecedented military campaign through Asia and northeast Africa, and by the age of thirty he had created one of the largest empires of the ancient world, stretching from Greece to northwestern India. He was undefeated in battle and is widely considered one of history's most successful military commanders.

Persepolis Ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire

Persepolis was the ceremonial capital of the Achaemenid Empire. It is situated 60 km northeast of the city of Shiraz in Fars Province, Iran. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to 515 BCE. It exemplifies the Achaemenid style of architecture. UNESCO declared the ruins of Persepolis a World Heritage Site in 1979.

Bessus satrap of Bactria

Bessus, also known as Artaxerxes V, was a prominent Persian Satrap of Bactria in Persia, and later self-proclaimed King of Kings of Persia. According to classical sources, he killed his predecessor and relative, Darius III, after the Persian army had been defeated by Alexander the Great.

Early reign

Hiero Ca1.svg
Darius III
Darius III
Darius IIIDarius IIIDarius III
Hiero Ca2.svg
nomen or birth name
Darius [2]
in hieroglyphs

Artashata was the son of Arsames, son of Ostanes; and Sisygambis, daughter of Artaxerxes II Mnemon. He had distinguished himself in a combat of champions in a war against the Cadusii [3] and was serving at the time as a royal courier. [4] However, prior to being appointed as a royal courier, he had served as a satrap of Armenia. [5] [6] He may have been promoted from his satrapy to the postal service after the ascension of Arses, for he is referred to as one of the king's "friends" at court after that occasion. [6]

In Greek sources, Ostanes is given as the name of one of the sons of the Achaemenid Persian emperor Darius (II) Nothos, and the grandfather of Darius (III) Codomannos. Aside from the name and relationship to the rulers, the sources do not have any information about the person.

Sisygambis Persian princess and queen consort

Sisygambis was the mother of Darius III of Persia, whose reign was ended during the wars of Alexander the Great. After she was captured by Alexander at the Battle of Issus, she became devoted to him, and Alexander referred to her as "mother".

Artaxerxes II of Persia King of Persia from 404 to 358 BC

Artaxerxes II Mnemon was the King of Kings of Persia from 404 BC until his death in 358 BC. He was a son of Darius II and Parysatis.

In 336 BC, he took the throne at the age of 43 after the death of Artaxerxes III and Arses. According to Greek historian Diodorus of Sicily, Artashata was installed by the vizier Bagoas, after the latter had poisoned the king Artaxerxes III and subsequently his sons, including Arses, who had succeeded him on the throne. Artashata took the regnal name Darius III, [1] and quickly demonstrated his independence from his possible assassin benefactor. Bagoas then tried to poison Darius as well, when he learned that even Darius couldn't be controlled, but Darius was warned and forced Bagoas to drink the poison himself. [7] The new king found himself in control of an unstable empire, large portions of which were governed by jealous and unreliable satraps and inhabited by disaffected and rebellious subjects, such as Khabash in Egypt. Compared to his ancestors and his fellow heirs who had since perished, Darius had a distinct lack of experience ruling an empire, and a lack of any previous ambition to do so. Darius was a ruler of entirely average stamp, without the striking talents and qualities which the administration of a vast empire required during that period of crisis. [8]

Artaxerxes III Archaemenid king

Artaxerxes III Ochus of Persia was the eleventh emperor of the Achaemenid Empire, as well as the first Pharaoh of the 31st dynasty of Egypt. He was the son and successor of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by his son, Arses of Persia. His reign coincided with the reign of Philip II in Macedon and Nectanebo II in Egypt.

Vizier high-ranking political advisor or minister

A vizier is a high-ranking political advisor or minister. The Abbasid caliphs gave the title wazir to a minister formerly called katib (secretary), who was at first merely a helper but afterwards became the representative and successor of the dapir of the Sassanian kings.

Bagoas was a prominent Persian official who served as the vizier of the Achaemenid Empire until his death.

Conflict with the Greeks

Philip's campaign

In 336 BC Philip II of Macedon was authorized by the League of Corinth as its Hegemon to initiate a sacred war of vengeance against the Persians for desecrating and burning the Athenian temples during the Second Persian War, over a century before. He sent an advance force into Asia Minor under the command of his generals Parmenion and Attalus to liberate the Greeks living under Persian control. After they took the Greek cities of Asia from Troy to the Maiandros river, Philip was assassinated and his campaign was suspended while his heir consolidated his control of Macedonia and the rest of Greece.

Philip II of Macedon Macedonian monarch

Philip II of Macedon was the king (basileus) of the kingdom of Macedon from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King Amyntas III of Macedon, and father of Alexander the Great and Philip III. The rise of Macedon, its conquest and political consolidation of most of Classical Greece during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Ancient Macedonian army, establishing the Macedonian phalanx that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating the Greek city-states of Athens and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a federation of Greek states known as the League of Corinth, with him as the elected hegemon and commander-in-chief of Greece for a planned invasion of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia. However, his assassination by a royal bodyguard, Pausanias of Orestis, led to the immediate succession of his son Alexander, who would go on to invade the Achaemenid Empire in his father's stead.

League of Corinth historic federation of Greek states

The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League, was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the Battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia. The name 'League of Corinth' was invented by modern historians due to the first council of the League being in Corinth. It was the first time in history that most of the Greek states managed to become part of a single political entity. Earlier, in 346 BC, Isocrates urged Philip to unify Greece against the Persians

Hegemony Form of government in which a leader state rules over a number of subordinate states

Hegemony is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others. In ancient Greece, hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon.

Alexander's campaign

Darius III portrayed (in the middle) in battle against Alexander in a Greek depiction; Possible illustration of either Battle of Issus or Battle of Gaugamela Battle of Issus mosaic - Museo Archeologico Nazionale - Naples.jpg
Darius III portrayed (in the middle) in battle against Alexander in a Greek depiction; Possible illustration of either Battle of Issus or Battle of Gaugamela
Darius's flight at the Battle of Gaugamela (18th-century ivory relief) Batalla de Gaugamela (M.A.N. Inv.1980-60-1) 02.jpg
Darius’s flight at the Battle of Gaugamela (18th-century ivory relief)

In the spring of 334 BC, Philip's heir, Alexander, who had himself been confirmed as Hegemon by the League of Corinth, invaded Asia Minor at the head of an army of Macedonian and other Greek soldiers. This invasion, which marked the beginning of the Wars of Alexander the Great, was followed almost immediately by the victory of Alexander over the Persians at Battle of the Granicus. Darius never showed up for the battle, because there was no reason for him to suppose that Alexander intended to conquer the whole of Asia, and Darius may well have supposed that the satraps of the ‘lower’ satrapies could deal with the crisis, [9] so he instead decided to remain at home in Persepolis and let his satraps handle it. In the previous invasion of Asia Minor by the Spartan king Agesilaus II, the Persians had pinned him in Asia Minor while fomenting rebellion in Greece. Darius attempted to employ the same strategy, with the Spartans rebelling against the Macedonians, but the Spartans were defeated at Megalopolis.

Darius did not actually take the field against Alexander’s army until a year and a half after Granicus, at the Battle of Issus in 333 BC. His forces outnumbered Alexander's soldiers by at least a 2 to 1 ratio, but Darius was still outflanked, defeated, and forced to flee. It is told by Arrian that at the Battle of Issus the moment the Persian left went to pieces under Alexander’s attack and Darius, in his war-chariot, saw that it was cut off, he incontinently fled – indeed, he led the race for safety. [10] On the way, he left behind his chariot, his bow, and his royal mantle, all of which were later picked up by Alexander. Greek sources such as Diodorus Siculus' Library of History and Justin's Epitoma Historiarum Philippicarum recount that Darius fled out of fear at the Battle of Issus and again two years later at the Battle of Gaugamela despite commanding a larger force in a defensive position each time. [11] At the Battle of Issus, Darius III even caught Alexander by surprise and failed to defeat Alexander's forces. [12] Darius fled so far so fast that Alexander was able to capture Darius’ headquarters and take Darius’ family as prisoners in the process. Darius petitioned to Alexander through letters several times to get his family back, but Alexander refused to do so unless Darius would acknowledge him as the new emperor of Persia.

Circumstances were more in Darius’ favor at the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC. He had a good number of troops who had been organized on the battlefield properly, he had the support of the armies of several of his satraps, and the ground on the battlefield was almost perfectly even, so as not to impede movement of his scythed chariots. Despite all these beneficial factors, he still fled the battle before any victor had been decided and deserted his experienced commanders as well as one of the largest armies ever assembled. [13] Another source accounts that when Darius perceived the fierce attack of Alexander, as at Issus he turned his chariot around, and was the first to flee, [14] once again abandoning all of his soldiers and his property to be taken by Alexander. Many Persian soldiers lost their lives that day, so many in fact that after the battle the casualties of the enemy ensured that Darius would never again raise an imperial army. [15] Darius then fled to Ecbatana and attempted to raise a third army, while Alexander took possession of Babylon, Susa, and the Persian capital at Persepolis. Darius reportedly offered all of his empire west of the Euphrates River to Alexander in exchange for peace several times, each time denied by Alexander against the advice of his senior commanders. [16] Alexander could have declared victory after the capture of Persepolis, but he instead decided to pursue Darius.

The Battle of Gaugamela, in which Alexander the Great defeated Darius III of Persia in 331 BC, took place approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) west of Erbil, Iraq. After the battle, Darius managed to flee to the city. However, somewhat inaccurately, the confrontation is sometimes known as the "Battle of Arbela."

Flight, imprisonment and death

Murder of Darius and Alexander at the side of the dying king depicted in a 15th-century manuscript Murder of Darius and Alexander at the side of the dying king.jpg
Murder of Darius and Alexander at the side of the dying king depicted in a 15th-century manuscript

Darius did attempt to restore his once great army after his defeat at the hands of Alexander, but he failed to raise a force comparable to that which had fought at Gaugamela, partly because the defeat had undermined his authority, and also because Alexander’s liberal policy, for instance in Babylonia and in Persis, offered an acceptable alternative to Persian policies. [15]

Alexander standing over the body of Darius III. Alexander and the body of Darius.jpg
Alexander standing over the body of Darius III.

When at Ecbatana, Darius learned of Alexander's approaching army, he decided to retreat to Bactria where he could better use his cavalry and mercenary forces on the more even ground of the plains of Asia. He led his army through the Caspian Gates, the main road through the mountains that would work to slow a following army. [17] Persian forces became increasingly demoralized with the constant threat of a surprise attack from Alexander, leading to many desertions and eventually a coup led by Bessus, a satrap, and Nabarzanes, who managed all audiences with the King and was in charge of the palace guard. [18] The two men suggested to Darius that the army regroup under Bessus and that power would be transferred back to the King once Alexander was defeated. Darius obviously did not accept this plan and his conspirators became more anxious to remove him for his successive failures against Alexander and his forces. Patron, a Greek mercenary, encouraged Darius to accept a bodyguard of Greek mercenaries rather than his usual Persian guard to protect him from Bessus and Nabarzanes, but the King could not accept for political reasons and grew accustomed to his fate. [19] Bessus and Nabarzanes eventually bound Darius and threw him in an ox-cart while they ordered the Persian forces to continue on. According to Curtius' History of Alexander, at this point Alexander and a small, mobile force arrived and threw the Persians into a panic, leading Bessus and two other conspirators, Satibarzanes and Barsaentes, to wound the king with their javelins and leave him to die. [20]

Alexander covers the corpse of Darius with his cloak (18th-century engraving) Den Leichnam des Darius.jpg
Alexander covers the corpse of Darius with his cloak (18th-century engraving)
The Family of Darius before Alexander, by Paolo Veronese, 1570. The Family of Darius before Alexander by Paolo Veronese 1570.jpg
The Family of Darius before Alexander, by Paolo Veronese, 1570.

A Macedonian soldier found Darius either dead or dying in the wagon shortly thereafter—a disappointment to Alexander, who wanted to capture Darius alive. Alexander saw Darius’ dead body in the wagon, and took the signet ring off the dead king’s finger. Afterwards he sent Darius’s body back to Persepolis, gave him a magnificent funeral and ordered that he be buried, like all his royal predecessors, in the royal tombs. [21] Darius’s tomb has not yet been discovered. [22] Alexander eventually married Darius' daughter Stateira at Susa in 324 BC.

With the old king defeated and given a proper burial, Alexander's rulership of Persia became official. This led to Darius being regarded by some historians as cowardly and inefficient, [23] as under his rulership, the entirety of the Persian Empire fell to a foreign invader. After killing Darius, Bessus took the regal name Artaxerxes V and began calling himself the King of Asia. [15] He was subsequently captured by Alexander, tortured, and executed. Another of Darius' generals ingratiated himself to Alexander by giving the conqueror Darius' favored companion, Bagoas. [24]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 Heckel, Waldemar (2002). The Wars of Alexander the Great. p. 24. ISBN   978-1841764733 . Retrieved 19 June 2012.
  2. Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (= Münchner ägyptologische Studien, vol 46), Mainz am Rhein: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1999. ISBN   3-8053-2310-7, pp. 230–31.
  3. Justin 10.3; cf. Diod. 17.6.1–2
  4. Plutarch, Life of Alexander 18.7–8, First Oration on the Fortune or the Virtue of Alexander, 326.D.
  5. Kia, Mehrdad (2016). The Persian Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 160. ISBN   978-1610693912.
  6. 1 2 "Darius v. Darius III". Encyclopaedia Iranica, Vol. VI, Fasc. 1. 1994. pp. 51–54.
  7. Diodorus 17.5.6.
  8. Hermann Bengtson, History of Greece from the Beginnings to the Byzantine Era, p. 205.
  9. George Cawkwell, The Greek Wars: The Failure of Persia, p. 209
  10. Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander.
  11. John Prevas, Envy of the Gods: Alexander's Ill-fated Journey across Asia (Da Capo Press, 2004), 47.
  12. Prevas 47.
  13. Prevas 48
  14. Ulrich Wilcken, Alexander the Great.
  15. 1 2 3 N.G.L. Hammond, The Genius of Alexander the Great.
  16. Prevas 52
  17. Prevas 55
  18. Prevas 60
  19. Prevas 64–65
  20. Prevas 69
  21. Prevas 71
  22. Siegfried Lauffer, Alexander der Große. third edition, Dtv, Munich 1993, ISBN   3-423-04298-2, p. 114
  23. W.W. Tarn, Alexander the Great.
  24. This was a different Bagoas than the unfaithful minister mentioned above. Crompton, Louis. Homosexuality & Civilization (Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003), p. 76.

Bibliography

Darius III
Born: ca. 380 BC Died: 330 BC
Preceded by
Artaxerxes IV Arses
King of Kings of Persia
336–330 BC
Succeeded by
Artaxerxes V Bessus
Pharaoh of Egypt
336–330 BC