Darmstadt

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Darmstadt
Luisenplatz, Darmstadt.jpg
Central Darmstadt in January 2005
Hissflagge der Stadt Darmstadt.svg
Flag
Wappen Darmstadt.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Darmstadt within Hessen
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Darmstadt
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Darmstadt
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Darmstadt
Coordinates: 49°52′20″N8°39′10″E / 49.87222°N 8.65278°E / 49.87222; 8.65278 Coordinates: 49°52′20″N8°39′10″E / 49.87222°N 8.65278°E / 49.87222; 8.65278
Country Germany
State Hesse
Admin. region Darmstadt
District Urban district
Subdivisions9 boroughs
Government
   Lord Mayor Jochen Partsch (Alliance '90/The Greens)
Area
  Total122.23 km2 (47.19 sq mi)
Elevation
144 m (472 ft)
Population
 (2018-12-31) [1]
  Total159,207
  Density1,300/km2 (3,400/sq mi)
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Postal codes
64283–64297
Dialling codes 06151, 06150
Vehicle registration DA
Website www.darmstadt.de
Landmark of Darmstadt: "Hochzeitsturm" ("Wedding Tower"), built 1908 in Jugendstil architecture. Hochzeitsturm-Dach-Uhr.jpg
Landmark of Darmstadt: "Hochzeitsturm" ("Wedding Tower"), built 1908 in Jugendstil architecture.
360deg Panorama of Darmstadt 360deg Panorama Bundesdatenschau (MRMCD17) Panorama.jpg
360° Panorama of Darmstadt 360° Panorama

Darmstadt ( /ˈdɑːrmstæt/ , also UK: /-ʃtæt/ , US: /-stɑːt,-ʃtɑːt/ , [2] [3] [4] German: [ˈdaʁmʃtat] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area (Frankfurt Metropolitan Region). Darmstadt had a population of around 157,437 at the end of 2016. [5] The Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants. [6]

Contents

Darmstadt holds the official title "City of Science" (German : Wissenschaftsstadt) as it is a major centre of scientific institutions, universities, and high-technology companies. The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and the European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium (1981), meitnerium (1982), hassium (1984), darmstadtium (1994), roentgenium (1994), and copernicium (1996) were discovered. [7] The existence of the following elements were also confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium (2012), flerovium (2009), moscovium (2012), livermorium (2010), and tennessine (2012). [8] The Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) is an international accelerator facility under construction. Darmstadt is also the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, Merck, which is the city's largest employer.

View across Darmstadt towards Frankfurt skyline P2250381 Darmstadt in Frankfurt-Rhein-Main.jpg
View across Darmstadt towards Frankfurt skyline

Darmstadt was formerly the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany. As the capital of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. [9] In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals), as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. It is also home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98. Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia, the wife of Nicholas II of Russia, was born in this city.

History

Darmstadt in 1626. Darmstadt in 1626 Thesaurus Philopoliticus.jpg
Darmstadt in 1626.
The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II Darmstadt um 1900.jpg
The 'Schlossplatz', a market square in front of the Ducal Palace around 1900: One of the few areas to survive in similar style after World War II

Origins

The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century, then as Darmundestat. Its origins are unknown. [10] 'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the 'Darmbach' (a small stream formerly running through the city).[ citation needed ] In fact, the stream received its current name much later, after the city, not vice versa. [10]

Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen. [11] The city, then called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice. [12]

When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, and was seat of the ruling landgraves (1567–1806) and thereafter (to 1918) of the grand dukes of Hesse. [13]

Industrial age

Darmstadt in 1909 Luisenplatz Darmstadt 1909.jpg
Darmstadt in 1909

The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. [14] A polytechnical school, which later became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877. [15]

In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. Also during this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA (ecstasy) in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, and in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district (Kreis).

Nazi Germany

Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany. The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". [16] In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, and later deported to concentration camps [17] where most eventually died.

Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime.

Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end. The old city centre was largely destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, which was subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed. Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, and 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless. [17] Over three-quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed. [18] Post-war rebuilding was done in a relatively plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armored Division.

Post–World War II

Largest groups of foreign residents [19]
NationalityPopulation (31.12.2016)
Turkey 4,454
Italy 2,222
Poland 1,939
China 1,313
Morocco 1,042
Spain 1,006
Croatia 887
Romania 850
India 841
Greece 778

Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, and has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997. It is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations (the European Space Operations Centre, European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites), chemistry, pharmacy, information technology, biotechnology, telecommunications (substantial Deutsche Telekom presence) and mechatronics. In 2000, its region also scored Rank 3 amongst 97 German regions in the WirtschaftsWoche test ranking Germany's high-tech regions. [11]

The roots of Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences goes back to 1876 [20] along with Technische Universität Darmstadt(the first electrical engineering chair and inventions fame), when both these Universities were an integrated entities, a need for a separate industry based research educational institution was felt in the early 1930s, finally University of Applied sciences emerged as a separate industry based research educational institution in 1971 and is the largest University of Applied Sciences in Hesse (German: Hessen) with about 11,000 students.

The TU Darmstadt is one of the important technical institutes in Germany and is well known for its research and teaching in the Electrical, Mechanical and Civil Engineering disciplines. Together with other tertiary institutions, the TU is responsible for the large student population of the city, which stood at 33,547 in 2004. [11]

Boroughs

Karolinenplatz Karolinen-Platz-Darmstadt.jpg
Karolinenplatz
Darmstadt at night Darmstadt bei Nacht (Westen).jpg
Darmstadt at night
Rheinstrasse in central Darmstadt Darmstadt Blick auf Rheinstrasse.jpg
Rheinstrasse in central Darmstadt

Darmstadt has nine official 'Stadtteile' (boroughs). These are: [21]

Population development

YearPopulation
187133,800
189055,883
190072,381
192589,465
193393,222
194569,539
1956123,306
1975137,018
1990138,920
2000138,242
2010144,402 [22]
2015155,353

Lord mayors since 1945

Term of officeNameParty
1945–1950Ludwig Metzger (1902–1993)SPD
1951–1971Ludwig Engel (1906–1975)SPD
1971–1981Heinz Winfried Sabais (1922–1981)SPD
1981–1993Günther Metzger (1933–2013)SPD
1993–2005Peter Benz (born 1942)SPD
2005–2011Walter Hoffmann (born 1952)SPD
2011–presentJochen Partsch (born 1962)Greens

Transport

Darmstadt is highly connected to all means of transportation, including the Autobahn Network, the Intercity-Express Network and a major international airport.

Roads

Darmstadt is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen (Bundesautobahn 5 and Bundesautobahn 67). The main road passing west–east is the Bundesstraße 26, the Bundesstraße 3 runs north–south. The rural areas east of the city in the Odenwald are accessed by several secondary roads.

Public transport in Darmstadt

The extensive public transport system of Darmstadt is integrated in the RMV (the transportation authority of the Frankfurt Metropolitan Area). The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt is its modern tram system with 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city. Darmstadt is furthermore connected to the Frankfurt S-Bahn system and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines (R64, R65, R66) connect six secondary railway stations within the city.

Darmstadt is connected to the Frankfurt rapid transit network by S-Bahn line S3. Besides that, a number of regional trains connect secondary railway stations within Darmstadt and the region with Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof (main station), offering a net of inner city and regional train links.

By its main railway station "Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof", which is located in the western part of the central city, Darmstadt is connected to the rest of Germany and Europe by the Intercity-Express network and other long-distance trains. Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof is a busy station with 12 platforms which serves as a transportation hub for the southern Hesse/Odenwald region.

Airports

Darmstadt can be easily accessed from around the world via Frankfurt Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt am Main) which is located 20 km (12 mi) north of central Darmstadt and connected to it via Autobahn 5, S-Bahn, several bus lines and a direct express bus-link ("Airliner"). The airport ranks among the world's busiest airports by passenger traffic and is the second-busiest airport by cargo traffic in Europe. The airport also serves as the main hub for German flag carrier Lufthansa.

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport (Flugplatz Frankfurt-Egelsbach) is a busy general aviation airport located 5 km north of Darmstadt, near the town of Egelsbach.

Despite the name, Frankfurt Hahn Airport (Flughafen Frankfurt-Hahn) is located far outside the Frankfurt Metro Area, approximately 120 km (75 mi) to the west in Lautzenhausen (Rhineland-Palatinate). Hahn Airport is a major base for low-cost carrier Ryanair. This airport can only be reached by car or bus.

National coach services

Darmstadt is served by several national and European bus links which connect Darmstadt with other German and European cities.

Parks, architecture and attractions

The Mathildenhohe La Mathildenhohe, colline jugendstil (Darmstadt) (7882270018).jpg
The Mathildenhöhe

Castles and historical buildings

Darmstadt was the capital of an independent country (the Grand Duchy of Hesse) until 1871 and the capital of the German state of Hesse until 1945. It is due to its past as a capital city that it has many architectural testimonies of this period. Many of its major architectural landmarks were created by Georg Moller who was appointed the court master builder of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. Due to the fact that the last ruling Grand Duke of Hesse, Ernst Ludwig was a grandson of Queen Victoria and brother to Empress Alexandra of Russia, the architecture of Darmstadt has been influenced by British and Russian imperial architecture with many examples still existing, such as the Luisenplatz with its grand-ducal column, the old Hessian State Theatre (at Karolinenplatz) and the Russian Chapel by Leon Benois. The Russian church, St. Mary Magdalene Chapel, is named in honor of the patron saint of Tsar Nicholas' mother and was built of Russian stone on Russian soil brought to Darmstadt by train. It was used by the Russian imperial family and court during regular visits to the Tsarina's brother and family in Darmstadt. [23] The grand-ducal palace of Darmstadt is located in the city centre. It was the residence of the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt, later as Grand Dukes of Hesse by the grace of Napoleon. The rulers of Hesse also owned Jagdschloss Kranichstein, a hunting lodge in Kranichstein which is a nowadays used as a five star hotel. The most famous castle in the Darmstadt region is Frankenstein Castle due to claims that the real castle may have had an influence on Mary Shelley's decision to choose the name Frankenstein for her monster-creating scientist. This castle dates back to the 13th century, but it was acquired by the counts of Hesse-Darmstadt in 1662.

Modern architecture

The Waldspirale Darmstadt-Waldspirale-Hundertwasser3.jpg
The Waldspirale

Darmstadt has a rich tradition in modern architecture. After 1945 several "Meisterbauten" (Masterful Architectonic Creations) were built that set standards for modern architecture. These buildings still exist and are used for various public and private purposes. In the late 1990s the Waldspirale ('Forest Spiral') was built, a residential complex by Austrian Friedensreich Hundertwasser. As an almost surreal building, it is internationally famous for its almost absolute rejection of rectangular forms, down to every window having a different shape, the style being a trademark of Hundertwasser's work. Hundertwasser died before the Waldspirale was finished.

Art Nouveau

Darmstadt was a centre of the Art Nouveau movement. Surviving examples of the Jugendstil period include the Rosenhöhe, a landscaped English-style rose garden from the 19th century, recently renovated and replanted, [24] the Mathildenhöhe, [25] with the Hochzeitsturm ('Wedding tower', also commonly known as the 'Five-Finger-Tower') by Joseph Maria Olbrich, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt and large exhibition halls as well as many private villas built by Jugendstil architects who had settled in Darmstadt. German Art Nouveau is commonly known by its German name, Jugendstil. The name is taken from the artistic journal, Die Jugend, which was published in Munich and which espoused the new artistic movement. It was founded in 1896 by Georg Hirth (Hirth remained editor until his death in 1916, and the magazine continued to be published until 1940). The magazine was instrumental in promoting the style in Germany. As a result, its name was adopted as the most common German-language term for the style: Jugendstil ("young style"). Although, during the early 20th century, the word was applied to only two-dimensional examples of the graphic arts, especially the forms of organic typography and graphic design found in and influenced by German magazines like Jugend, Pan, and Simplicissimus, it is now applied to more general manifestations of Art Nouveau visual arts in Germany, the Netherlands, the Baltic states, and Nordic countries. The two main centres for Jugendstil art in Germany were Munich and Darmstadt.

Squares

The Luisenplatz, the central square of the city, forms the centre of the city and is the main public transport hub. In 1844 the Ludwigsäule (called Langer Lui, meaning Long Ludwig), a 33-metre (108 ft) column commemorating Ludwig I, first Grand Duke of Hesse, was placed in the middle of the square. While the column still stands, the square is today surrounded by mostly modern buildings. Other important squares are the Marktplatz (see image) near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe.

Parks

Park Rosenhohe Darmstadt Eingang Rosenhohe.jpg
Park Rosenhöhe

The city has a high density of parks. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the dukes of Darmstadt. Today it is a public park, heavily used in every season of the year. Other important parks are the French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie, the modern style Bürgerpark ("People's Park") in northern Darmstadt and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe, ("Rose Heights") which also serves as the cemetery for the dukes, with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts. The Botanischer Garten in eastern Darmstadt is a botanical garden maintained by the Technische Universität Darmstadt with a fine collection of rare plants and trees.

Churches

Russian Chapel in Darmstadt Russian Chapel in Darmstadt, Germany.jpg
Russian Chapel in Darmstadt

The Protestant Stadtkirche church, [26] built in 1369, is in the pedestrian zone of the downtown city center, next to the historic Hotel Bockshaut. [27] The church has gothic elements along with renaissance and baroque, it houses the royal crypt. Hotel Bockshaut was built in 1580 for a church presbytery. The most important Catholic Church is St. Ludwig in central Darmstadt. The Russian Chapel in Darmstadt is a Russian orthodox church which is still in use. It was built and used as a private chapel by the last Tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, whose wife Alexandra was born in Darmstadt. Although Russian orthodox churches also exist in other cities outside Russia, the Russian Chapel in Darmstadt was the only official Russian church used by the Tsar outside the Russian Empire. It is said that the chapel was built on Russian soil that was brought to Darmstadt exclusively for the purpose of building the Tsar's private chapel on it.

Festivals

Every year on the first weekend of July the Heinerfest festival is held in the streets surrounding the old ducal palace. It is a traditional German festival with music acts, beer halls, amusement rides and booths selling trinkets and food. The similar 'Schloßgrabenfest', which is more live music-oriented, is held in the same location every year in May. These two festivals attract 700,000 [28] and 400,000 [29] visitors respectively.

Culture

State Theater Darmstadt - Grand Hall Darmstadt Staatstheater Zuschauerraum vom Rang.jpg
State Theater Darmstadt – Grand Hall

Darmstadt has a rich cultural heritage. The Staatstheater Darmstadt (State Theatre Darmstadt) dates back to the year 1711. The present building has been in use since 1972 and has three halls which can be used independently. The "Grand Hall" (Großes Haus) provides seats for 956 people and serves as Darmstadt's opera house. The "Small Hall" (Kleines Haus) is mostly used for plays and dance and has 482 seats. A separate small hall (Kammerspiele) with 120 seats is used for chamber plays.

Among the museums in Darmstadt the most important are the Hessisches Landesmuseum (Hessian State Museum), the Porcelain Museum (exhibition of the ducal porcelain), the Schlossmuseum (exhibition of the ducal residence and possessions), the Kunsthalle Darmstadt (exhibitions of modern art), the exhibition centre Mathildenhöhe and the Museum Künstlerkolonie (Art Nouveau museum).

The Jazz-Institut Darmstadt is Germany's largest publicly accessible jazz archive. [30]

The Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt, harboring one of the world's largest collections of post-war sheet music, [31] also hosts the biennial Internationale Ferienkurse für Neue Musik , a summer school in contemporary classical music founded by Wolfgang Steinecke. A large number of avant-garde composers have attended and given lectures there, including Olivier Messiaen, Luciano Berio, Milton Babbitt, Pierre Boulez, Luigi Nono, John Cage, György Ligeti, Iannis Xenakis, Karlheinz Stockhausen, Mauricio Kagel, and Helmut Lachenmann.

The Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung provides writers and scholars with a place to research the German language. [32] The Academy's annual Georg Büchner Prize, named in memory of Georg Büchner, is considered the most prestigious literary award for writers of German language.

Geography

Vineyards south of Darmstadt - view towards the Rhine Plain Bergstrasse westblick bei heppenheim ds wv 11 2007.jpg
Vineyards south of Darmstadt – view towards the Rhine Plain

Darmstadt is located in the Upper Rhine Plain (German: Oberrheinische Tiefebene), a major rift, about 350 km (217 mi) long and on average 50 km (31 mi) wde, between the cities of Frankfurt in the north and Basel in the south. Darmstadt's southeastern boroughs are located in the spurs of the Odenwald, a low mountain range in Southern Hesse between the Main and Neckar rivers.

Climate

Southern Hesse is well known for its mild climate which allows winegrowing on a large scale in the region south of Darmstadt. The weather is often volatile with the summers being warm and humid with frequent thunderstorms, the winters mostly relatively mild with frequent periods of high fog. Snowfall is most likely in January and February, but mild winters without considerable snowfall can occur.

Climate data for Darmstadt
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)15
(59)
17
(63)
24
(75)
29
(84)
31
(88)
35
(95)
35
(95)
38
(100)
30
(86)
26
(79)
18
(64)
15
(59)
38
(100)
Average high °C (°F)5
(41)
7
(45)
11
(52)
15
(59)
20
(68)
23
(73)
25
(77)
25
(77)
20
(68)
14
(57)
8
(46)
5
(41)
15
(59)
Daily mean °C (°F)1.4
(34.5)
2.1
(35.8)
5.9
(42.6)
9.7
(49.5)
14.3
(57.7)
17.3
(63.1)
19.3
(66.7)
18.7
(65.7)
14.5
(58.1)
10
(50)
5.3
(41.5)
2.2
(36.0)
10.1
(50.2)
Average low °C (°F)−1
(30)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
11
(52)
13
(55)
15
(59)
15
(59)
11
(52)
7
(45)
4
(39)
1
(34)
7
(45)
Record low °C (°F)−14
(7)
−12
(10)
−10
(14)
−4
(25)
1
(34)
3
(37)
6
(43)
7
(45)
2
(36)
−4
(25)
−8
(18)
−11
(12)
−14
(7)
Average precipitation mm (inches)55
(2.2)
53
(2.1)
66
(2.6)
49
(1.9)
76
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
75
(3.0)
66
(2.6)
63
(2.5)
66
(2.6)
63
(2.5)
66
(2.6)
765
(30.1)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 478012017620821423221815810350371,643
Source: Daily mean / Avg. precipitation / Mean sunshine hours (1981–2010), DWD [33]

Education

Schools

The City of Darmstadt offers students a broad variety of public primary, secondary and tertiary schools. Besides them private schools exist, e.g. the catholic secondary school Edith-Stein-Schule, the Adventists' Schulzentrum Marienhöhe, an anthroposophic Waldorf School, a Comenius School and other faith based private schools.

Universities

Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences - Main Building H-da-Hochhaus nach Renovierung2011.jpg
Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences – Main Building
Technical University - Main Entrance Karo5 Eingangsgebaeude Verwaltungsgebaeude TU Darmstadt.jpg
Technical University – Main Entrance

Institutions

Technology

The ESOC European Space Operations Command in Darmstadt. Views in the Main Control Room (12052189474).jpg
The ESOC European Space Operations Command in Darmstadt.

Darmstadt is home to many research institutions such as the Fraunhofer Society (Fraunhofer IGD, Fraunhofer LBF, Fraunhofer SIT) and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI, "Society for heavy ion Research"), which operates a particle accelerator in northern Darmstadt. The GSI, amongst other elements, discovered the chemical element darmstadtium (atomic number: 110), named after the city in 2003. This makes Darmstadt one of only eight settlements with elements named after them (the others being Ytterby in Sweden (four elements); Stockholm in Sweden (holmium); Strontian in Scotland; Copenhagen in Denmark (whose Latin name gives hafnium); Paris (whose Latin name gives lutetium); Berkeley, California; and Dubna in Russia). Various other elements, including meitnerium (atomic number: 109) (1982), hassium (atomic number: 108) (1984), roentgenium (atomic number: 111) (1994) and copernicium (atomic number: 112) (1996) were also synthesized in the Darmstadt facility.

The European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) of the European Space Agency is located in Darmstadt. From here, various deep-space exploration spacecraft and Earth-orbiting satellites are operated for the purposes of scientific research, and technology development and demonstration.

EUMETSAT, the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites, operates the principal European meteorological satellites from its headquarters, including the first and second generations of Meteosat geostationary satellites, and the polar-orbiting Metop series.

Darmstadt is a centre for the pharmaceutical and chemical industry, with Merck, Röhm and Schenck RoTec (part of The Dürr Group) having their main plants and centres here.

United States military presence

U.S. forces entered the city of Darmstadt on 25 March 1945. At the end of World War II, Darmstadt was among the 112 communities where U.S. forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School.

Over the years, the U.S. military community Darmstadt – under a variety of designations – served as home for thousands of American soldiers and their families. It included six principal installations in Darmstadt and nearby Babenhausen, Griesheim and Münster, plus several housing areas, an airfield and a large number of smaller facilities as far away as Bensheim and Aschaffenburg. The military newspaper European Stars and Stripes also had its headquarters there. As of 1993, the Darmstadt military community also assumed responsibility for the remaining U.S. Army facilities in the Frankfurt area.

As part of the U.S. Army's ongoing transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt military community, by then designated U.S. Army Garrison Darmstadt, inactivated on 30 September 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there is still one unit active in Darmstadt: The 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg,. [34] It draws its support from the nearby U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden. The website of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade claims they moved out in 2008, but Google Maps and Bing satellite imagery still show a respectively full and quarter-full parking lot,[ original research? ] and the U.S. Army Garrison Wiesbaden's website mentions the unit still being active in Darmstadt, and a Marine Corps company being stationed there as well. With the exception of Dagger Complex, all remaining US installations are now empty and closed to the public, pending property disposal by the German authorities.

Tourist sights in Darmstadt

Waldspirale Limmeuble Waldspirale (Darmstadt) (7954668126).jpg
Waldspirale
Wedding Tower and the Russian Tsar's Chapel at Mathildenhohe Chapel and Wedding Tower.jpg
Wedding Tower and the Russian Tsar's Chapel at Mathildenhöhe

City

Region

Notable persons

International relations

Twin towns - sister cities

Darmstadt train showcasing the Sister City partnership with San Antonio Darmstadt Strassenbahn.jpg
Darmstadt train showcasing the Sister City partnership with San Antonio

Darmstadt is twinned with: [35]

See also

Related Research Articles

Frankfurt city in Hesse, Germany

Frankfurt is a metropolis and the largest city of the German state of Hesse. Its 753,056 (2018) inhabitants make it the fifth-largest city in Germany. On the River Main, it forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring city of Offenbach am Main and its urban area has a population of 2.3 million. The city is at the centre of the larger Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, which has a population of 5.5 million and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr Region. Frankfurt's central business district lies about 90 km (56 mi) northwest of the geographic centre of the EU at Gadheim, Lower Franconia. Like France and Franconia, the city is named after the Franks. Frankfurt is the largest city in the Rhine Franconian dialect area.

Hesse State in Germany

Hesse or Hessia, officially the State of Hesse, is a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, and the largest metropolitan area is Frankfurt am Main.

Art Nouveau Style of art and architecture about 1890 to 1911

Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, known in different languages by different names: Jugendstil in German, Stile Liberty in Italian, Modernismo catalán in Spanish, etc. In English it is also known as the Modern Style. The style was most popular between 1890 and 1910. It was a reaction against the academic art, eclecticism and historicism of 19th century architecture and decoration. It was often inspired by natural forms such as the sinuous curves of plants and flowers. Other characteristics of Art Nouveau were a sense of dynamism and movement, often given by asymmetry or whiplash lines, and the use of modern materials, particularly iron, glass, ceramics and later concrete, to create unusual forms and larger open spaces.

Jugendstil artistic movement; German equivalent of art nouveau

Jugendstil was an artistic movement, particularly in the decorative arts, that was influential primarily in Germany and elsewhere in Europe to a lesser extent from about 1895 until about 1910. It was the German counterpart of Art Nouveau. The members of the movement were reacting against the historicism and neo-classicism of the official art and architecture academies. It took its name from the art journal Jugend, founded by the German artist Georg Hirth. It was especially active in the graphic arts and interior decoration.

Offenbach am Main Place in Hesse, Germany

Offenbach am Main is a city in Hesse, Germany, on the left bank of the river Main. It borders Frankfurt and is part of the Frankfurt urban area and the larger Frankfurt Rhein-Main urban area. It has a population of 138,335.

Hanau Place in Hesse, Germany

Hanau[ˈhaːnaʊ̯] is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main and is part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region. Its station is a major railway junction and it has a port on the river Main, making it an important transport centre. The town is known for being the birthplace of Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm and Franciscus Sylvius. Since the 16th century it was a centre of precious metal working with many goldsmiths. It is home to Heraeus, one of the largest family-owned companies in Germany.

Rödermark Place in Hesse, Germany

Rödermark is a town in the Offenbach district in the Regierungsbezirk of Darmstadt in Hesse, Germany, southeast of Frankfurt am Main and northeast of Darmstadt.

Riga Technical University technical university in Latvia

Riga Technical University (RTU) is the oldest technical university in the Baltics established on October 14, 1862. It is Located in Riga, Latvia it was previously known as Riga Polytechnical Institute and Riga Polytechnicum.

Peter Behrens German architect and designer

Peter Behrens was a leading German architect and industrial designer, best known for his early pioneering AEG Turbine Hall in Berlin in 1909. He had a long career, designing objects, typefaces, and important buildings in a range of styles from the 1900s to the 1930s. He was a foundation member of the German Werkbund in 1907, when he also began designing for AEG, pioneered corporate design, producing typefaces, objects, and buildings for the company. In the next few years, he became a successful architect, a leader of the rationalist / classical German Reform Movement of the 1910s. After WW1 he turned to Brick Expressionism, designing the remarkable Hoechst Administration Building outside Frankfurt, and from the mid 1920s increasingly to New Objectivity. He was also an educator, heading the architecture school at Academy of Fine Arts Vienna from 1922-1936. As a well known architect he produced design across Germany, in other European countries, Russia and England. Several of the leading names of European modernism worked for him when they were starting out in the 1910s, including Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier and Walter Gropius.

Joseph Maria Olbrich Austrian architect

Joseph Maria Olbrich was an Austrian architect and one of the Vienna Secession founders.

Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences university in Darmstadt, Germany

The Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences, also known as h_da, is a University of Applied Sciences located in Darmstadt, Germany.

Hamburg Hauptbahnhof railway station for the German city of Hamburg

Hamburg Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station of the city of Hamburg, Germany and is classed by Deutsche Bahn as a category 1 railway station. Opened in 1906 to replace 4 separate terminal stations, today Hamburg Hauptbahnhof is operated by DB Station&Service AG. With an average of 550,000 passengers a day, it is Germany's busiest railway station and the second-busiest in Europe after the Gare du Nord in Paris.

Darmstadt Artists Colony artist collective

The Darmstadt Artists’ Colony refers both to a group of Jugendstil artists as well as to the buildings in Mathildenhöhe in Darmstadt in which these artists lived and worked. The artists were largely financed by patrons and worked together with other members of the group who ideally had concordant artistic tastes.

Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof railway station in Darmstadt, Germany

Darmstadt Hauptbahnhof is the main railway station in the German city Darmstadt. After Frankfurt Hbf and Wiesbaden Hbf, it is the third largest station in the state of Hesse with 35,000 passengers and 220 trains per day.

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport airport in Germany

Frankfurt Egelsbach Airport is a general aviation airport located near Egelsbach, a town in the German state of Hesse. It is just southeast of Frankfurt Airport.

The Main-Neckar Railway is a main line railway west of the Odenwald in the Upper Rhine Plain of Germany that connects Frankfurt am Main to Heidelberg via Darmstadt, Bensheim and Weinheim. It was opened in 1846 and is one of the oldest railways in Germany.

The Rhine-Main Railway, is a railway line in southern Germany from Mainz via Darmstadt to Aschaffenburg. It was built by the Hessian Ludwig Railway and opened on 1 August 1858 and is one of the oldest railways in Germany. Until 1862, when the railway bridge over the Rhine river constructed and assembled by MAN-Werk Gustavsburg was finished, a train ferry operated on the river.

Lutherkirche, Wiesbaden Protestant church in Wiesbaden

The Lutherkirche is one of four main Protestant churches in Wiesbaden, the capital of Hesse, Germany. It was built between 1908 and 1910 in Jugendstil and in accordance with the Wiesbadener Programm, to a design by Friedrich Pützer. With two organs and good acoustics, it is also a concert venue.

Frankfurt Rhine-Main Place in Germany

The Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region, often simply referred to as Frankfurt Rhine-Main, Frankfurt Rhine-Main area or Rhine-Main area is the second largest metropolitan region in Germany, with a total population exceeding 5.8 million. The metropolitan region is located in the central western part of Germany, and stretches over parts of three federal states: Hesse, Rhineland-Palatinate and Bavaria, as well as the cities of Frankfurt am Main, Wiesbaden, Offenbach, Mainz, Darmstadt and Aschaffenburg.

Art Nouveau temples are churches, chapels, synagogues, and mosques built in the style known as Art Nouveau in French and English languages, Jugendstil in Germany and Nordic countries, Secessionsstil in countries of former Austro-Hungary, Modernisme in Catalan or Modern in Russian. As National Romantic style is also referred to Art Nouveau, churches of that style are also listed here, as well as some temples not of pure Art Nouveau style but with distinctive Art Nouveau features.

References

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  9. City of London richest area in Europe, The Guardian, 30 January 2002
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  20. http://www2.h-da.de/mse/msc_brochure.pdf%5B%5D
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  22. statistik-hessen.de Archived 23 May 2012 at Archive.today
  23. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 April 2014. Retrieved 14 October 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. Rosenhöhe – planted with roses Archived 28 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine (from the official city website)
  25. Mathildenhöhe (Artists' Colony) Archived 13 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine (from the official city website)
  26. German wikipedia Protestant Stadtkirche church
  27. Historic hotel Bockshaut
  28. Information about the Heinerfest (in German)
  29. Schloßgrabenfest 2006 (in German)
  30. Jazz-Institut Darmstadt Archived 27 April 2007 at the Wayback Machine (official institute website)
  31. Internationales Musikinstitut Darmstadt (official institute website, in German)
  32. Deutsche Akademie für Sprache und Dichtung (official academy website, in German)
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  34. 49°50′38″N8°35′03″E / 49.843786°N 8.584211°E
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36. 2019 JKVGSS inaugurated in Darmstadt City