Daryal radar

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Daryal
Pechora-pan-cropped.jpg
Daryal radar in Pechora
Country of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Introduced1984
No. built8 planned, 2 operational
Type Early-warning radar
Frequency150–200  MHz (VHF)
RangeAround 6,000 kilometres (3,728 mi) [1] [2] :74
DiameterTransmitter 30×40 m
Receiver 80×80 m
separated by 0.5–1.5 km
Azimuth 90° [1] [2] :74
Elevation40° [2] :74 [1]
Other Names NATO: Pechora
GRAU: 5N79, 90N6.

The Daryal-type radar (Russian : Дарьял) (NATO: Pechora) is a Soviet bistatic early-warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres (1,640 ft) to 1.5 kilometres (4,921 ft). The transmitter array is 30 m × 40 m (98 ft × 131 ft) and the receiver is 80 m × 80 m (260 ft × 260 ft) in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters (150 to 200 MHz). Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW. [3] [ failed verification ]

Contents

The designer of the radars, RTI Mints, says that each Daryal receiver is 100 × 100 m and has 4,000 cross dipoles. Each transmitter is 40 × 40 m with 1,260 modules, each capable of 300 kW. They say the radar has a range of 6,000 km with targets between 0.1–0.12 m2. [4] [2] :74 It can track 20 objects at the same time and can cope with four jamming sources. [2] :74 The designer, Viktor Ivantsov, was awarded the title "Hero of Labour" for his work on the Daryal. [5]

The first Daryal type radar was an active electronically scanned array built at Olenegorsk in 1977. It was the receiver building only and was called a Daugava rather than a Daryal. It used the transmitter of the adjacent Dnestr-M radar. Following this two Daryal radars were constructed in Pechora (1983) and Qabala (1985). New Daryal-U radars were planned for Balkhash-9 near Sary Shagan in Kazakhstan, Mishelevka near Irkutsk and Yeniseysk-15 near Krasnoyarsk in Siberia. Two Daryal-UM systems were to be constructed in Skrunda, Latvia, and Mukachevo, Ukraine. [6] [7] [8]

Originally, at least seven Daryal facilities were planned, however, only the first two facilities completed, named Pechora and Gabala, were ever operational.

The American Clinton administration offered financial assistance in completing the Mishelevka facility in exchange for amending the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty to allow US deployment of a national missile defense system. [9] Russia rejected this proposal and in 2002 the US unilaterally withdrew from the ABM treaty. The Mukachevo one in Ukraine was never completed after the fall of the Soviet Union and the Skrunda facility was demolished by a newly independent Latvia, arranged by the US Department of Defence. [6] [10] The Yeniseysk (Krasnoyarsk) Daryal-U site caused concern in the west over compliance with the ABM Treaty during its construction in the 1980s. Article VI(b) requires radars to be on the periphery of national territory and to face outwards and the Yeniseysk radar faced over Siberia. Following negotiations, in September 1989 the Soviets admitted it was a violation of the treaty, construction ceased and the facility was eventually dismantled. [6] [8] [11] [12]

Variants

The prototype Daryal receiver is called a Daugava (5U83) and works with a Dnestr-M transmitter. It is half the size of the Daryal receivers but has the same equipment and computer systems. [13]

The original Daryal (5N79) was improved by revisions Daryal-U (90N6) and Daryal-UM. [14] [15] A Daryal-U had half the transmitters of a Daryal. [13] The Volga radar (70M6) is a Daryal-like radar operating on a decimeter wavelength (UHF) rather than the meter wavelength (VHF) of the Daryal. It was originally planned that there would be a number of these to complement the Daryal. The only Volga built is the one at Baranavichy which originally started in 1982, stopped in the early 1990s, restarted in 1999 and became operational in 2003. [6]

Locations

DesignationLocationCoordinatesAzimuth [6] TypeBuiltDetails
RO-1 Olenegorsk-1, Olenegorsk, Kola Peninsula, Russia 68°6′59.63″N33°55′8.69″E / 68.1165639°N 33.9190806°E / 68.1165639; 33.9190806 (Olenegorsk Daugava radar) receiver308°Daugava1975–1977Uses the Dnestr-M radar as transmitter. [6] Operational. [16] [17]
RO-2 Skrunda-1, Latvia 56°43′40.92″N21°58′58.10″E / 56.7280333°N 21.9828056°E / 56.7280333; 21.9828056 (Skrunda Daryal radar receiver) receiver308°Daryal-UM1986–1991Demolished 1995. [10]
- Hantsavichy Radar Station (often listed as Baranavichy), Kleck-2, Belarus 52°49′59.95″N26°28′31.83″E / 52.8333194°N 26.4755083°E / 52.8333194; 26.4755083 (Hantsavichy Volga radar transmitter) transmitter
52°51′41.98″N26°28′2.88″E / 52.8616611°N 26.4674667°E / 52.8616611; 26.4674667 (Hantsavichy Volga radar receiver) receiver
262.5°Volga1986–2003In operation.
RO-5 Mukachevo Radar Station, Ukraine 48°23′6.56″N22°48′1.72″E / 48.3851556°N 22.8004778°E / 48.3851556; 22.8004778 (Mukachevo Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
48°23′18.41″N22°47′37.71″E / 48.3884472°N 22.7938083°E / 48.3884472; 22.7938083 (Mukachevo Daryal radar receiver) receiver
218°Daryal-UM1986–1991Demolished 2011.
RO-7 Gabala Radar Station, Qabala, Azerbaijan 40°52′16.62″N47°48′32.25″E / 40.8712833°N 47.8089583°E / 40.8712833; 47.8089583 (Gabala Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
40°52′4.54″N47°47′44.60″E / 40.8679278°N 47.7957222°E / 40.8679278; 47.7957222 (Gabala Daryal radar receiver) receiver
162°Daryal1977–1985Halted in 2012. [18]
RO-30 Pechora Radar Station, Pechora, Komi Republic, Russia 65°12′36.59″N57°17′43.38″E / 65.2101639°N 57.2953833°E / 65.2101639; 57.2953833 (Pechora Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
65°12′36.55″N57°16′34.68″E / 65.2101528°N 57.2763000°E / 65.2101528; 57.2763000 (Pechora Daryal radar receiver) receiver
2° (estimated)Daryal1975–1984In operation. [19]
OS-1 Mishelevka Radar Station, Usolye-Sibirskoye, Irkutsk, Russia 52°51′20.11″N103°13′53.94″E / 52.8555861°N 103.2316500°E / 52.8555861; 103.2316500 (Mishelevka Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
52°51′42.02″N103°14′20.49″E / 52.8616722°N 103.2390250°E / 52.8616722; 103.2390250 (Mishelevka Daryal radar receiver) receiver
135°Daryal-U1979–1984Demolished 2011. Replaced by a Voronezh radar. [20]
OS-2 Balkhash Radar Station, Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan 46°35′19.48″N74°27′59.19″E / 46.5887444°N 74.4664417°E / 46.5887444; 74.4664417 (Balkhash Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
46°36′2.70″N74°29′51.67″E / 46.6007500°N 74.4976861°E / 46.6007500; 74.4976861 (Balkhash Daryal radar receiver) receiver
152° (estimated)Daryal-U1984–1992Receiver destroyed by fire 2004, [21] ruined 2010.
OS-3 Yeniseysk-15, Krasnoyarsk, Russia 57°52′5.67″N93°7′7.26″E / 57.8682417°N 93.1186833°E / 57.8682417; 93.1186833 (Yeniseysk Daryal radar transmitter) transmitter
57°52′24.22″N93°6′28.09″E / 57.8733944°N 93.1078028°E / 57.8733944; 93.1078028 (Yeniseysk Daryal radar receiver) receiver
40° (estimated)Daryal-U1983–1987Halted in 1989 and dismantled. [22] [23]

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References

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