Daryl Gates

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Gates established the specialized unit to become known as SWAT (originally, "Special Weapons Attack Team" but changed to "...And Tactics" for optics) in order to deal with hostage rescue and extreme situations involving armed and dangerous suspects. Ordinary street officers, with light armament, limited weapons training and little instruction on group fighting techniques, had shown to be ineffective in dealing with snipers, bank robberies carried out by heavily armed persons, and other high-intensity situations. In 1965, Officer John Nelson came up with the idea to form a specially trained and equipped unit to respond to and manage critical situations while minimizing police casualties. [12]

As an inspector, Gates approved this idea. He formed a small select group of volunteer officers. His first team was born LAPD SWAT, D-Platoon of the Metro Division. This unit initially comprised fifteen teams of four men each, for a total staff of sixty. These officers were given special status and benefits, but in return they had to attend monthly trainings and serve as security for police facilities during episodes of civil unrest. SWAT was copied almost immediately by many US police departments, and is now used by law enforcement agencies throughout the world.

In Gates' autobiography, Chief: My Life in the LAPD (Bantam Books, 1992), he explained that he developed neither SWAT tactics nor its distinctive equipment. He wrote that he supported the concept, tried to empower his people to develop the concept, and lent them moral support. [13]

PDID

Gates made substantial use of the LAPD's Public Disorder Intelligence Division (PDID) squad, even developing an international spying operation. [14] The lawsuit CAPA v. Gates, with the Coalition Against Police Abuse (CAPA) as one of two dozen or so plaintiffs, later sued the LAPD on First Amendment grounds that exposed the unlawful harassment, surveillance, and infiltration of the progressive movement in Los Angeles by LAPD agents. The lawsuit against Gates and the LAPD proved successful. The PDID was ordered to disband, and did so in January 1983. [15] In February 1984, an out-of-court settlement awarded $1.8 million to the named plaintiffs, individuals, and organizations who had sued the City of Los Angeles.[ citation needed ]

D.A.R.E.

In collaboration with the Rotary Club of Los Angeles, Gates founded DARE, the Drug Abuse Resistance Education program, designed to educate students and children about the dangers of drug abuse. DARE has become a worldwide organization, with programs in schools across the globe. However, despite the program's wide use, peer-reviewed government-sponsored scientific research has discredited DARE's claimed effectiveness in reducing alcohol or drug use, and the program has seen a 73% reduction in taxpayer funding as a result. [16]

CRASH

Daryl Gates
DarylGatescolorportrait.jpg
Chief of the Los Angeles Police Department
In office
March 28, 1978 June 27, 1992

Gates's appointment as chief roughly coincided with the intensification of the War on Drugs. A drug-related issue that had also come to the forefront at the time was gang violence, which paralyzed many of the neighborhoods (primarily impoverished and black or Hispanic) in which gangs held sway. In response, the LAPD set up specialist gang units which gathered intelligence on and ran operations against gangs. These units were called Community Resources Against Street Hoodlums (CRASH), depicted in the 1988 film Colors . Allegations of false arrest and a general LAPD disdain for young black and Latino men were made.

Gates himself became a byword among some for excessive use of force by anti-gang units, and became a favorite lyrical target for gang-connected urban black rappers, notably Ice Cube. Nevertheless, CRASH's approach appeared successful and remained in widespread use until the Rampart Division scandal of 1999 drew attention to abuses of the law that threatened to undo hundreds of criminal convictions.

Force enlargement

Gates with a new officer, 1981 Cheryl Dorsey & LAPD Police Chief Darryl Gates.jpg
Gates with a new officer, 1981

Gates became LAPD chief of police a little over two months before the enactment of California's Proposition 13, during a time of tremendous change in California politics. While the LAPD traditionally had been a "lean and mean" department compared with other American police forces (a point of pride for Parker), traffic congestion and continually decreasing officer-to-resident ratios (approximately 7,000 police officers for 3,000,000 residents in 1978) diminished the effectiveness of LAPD's prized mobility. Gates was eager to take more recruits, particularly for CRASH units, when the city made funds available.[ citation needed ]

Gates later claimed that many officers recruited in the 1980s—a period in which the LAPD was subject to a consent decree which set minimum quotas for hiring of women and minorities—were substandard,[ citation needed ] remarking:

... [I]f you don't have all of those quotas, you can't hire all the people you need. So you've got to make all of those quotas. And when that happens, you get somebody who is on the borderline, you'd say "Yes, he's black, or he's Hispanic, or it's a female, but we want to bring in these additional people when we have the opportunity. So we'll err on the side of, 'We'll take them and hope it works out.'" And we made some mistakes. No question about it, we have made some mistakes.

Special Order 40

In 1979 Gates helped craft and implement Special Order 40, a mandate that prohibits police officers from stopping people for the sole purpose of obtaining immigration status. The mandate was created in an effort to encourage residents to report crimes without the fear of intimidation or deportation. [17]

Administrative style and personality

Like his mentor Parker,[ citation needed ] Gates publicly questioned the effectiveness of community policing, usually electing not to work with community activists and prominent persons in communities in which the LAPD was conducting major anti-gang operations. At the time of the Rodney King beating, Gates was at a community policing conference. This tendency, a logical extension of the policies implemented by Parker that discouraged LAPD officers from becoming too enmeshed in the communities in which they served, did not serve him well politically: allegations of arrogance and racism plagued the department throughout his tenure, surfacing most strongly in the Christopher Commission report.

Operation Hammer

Many commentators criticized Gates for Operation Hammer, a policing operation conducted by the LAPD in South Los Angeles. After eight people were murdered at a birthday party in a drive-by shooting in 1987, Gates responded with an extremely aggressive sweep of South Los Angeles that involved 1,000 officers at any given time.[ citation needed ]

The operation lasted several years, with multiple sweeps, and resulted in over 25,000 arrests. This was not unprecedented: during the run-up to the 1984 Olympic Games, Mayor Tom Bradley empowered Gates to take all of the city's gang members—known and suspected—into custody, where they remained until shortly after the Games' conclusion. In the years after the Olympic games Gates, Mayor Bradley and city council officials found a way to continue the sweeping policies initially meant for the duration of the Olympic games by reviving old, anti-syndicalist laws, to jail predominantly black and Latino youth, even though the overwhelming numbers of people arrested were never charged. [18]

As a vast majority of those arrested were never charged, Operation Hammer was roundly criticized as a harassment operation whose chief goal was to intimidate young black and Hispanic men. In a PBS interview, when asked whether the local people in the minority areas expressed thanks to the police for their actions, he responded:

Sure. The good people did all the time. But the community activists? No. Absolutely not. We were out there oppressing whatever the community had to be, whether it was blacks, or Hispanics. We were oppressing them. Nonsense. We're out there trying to save their communities, trying to upgrade the quality of life of people...

A similar operation was conducted in 1988 after a drive-by shooting took the life of an innocent bystander, Karen Toshima, in Westwood Village. [19]

Rodney King and the Los Angeles riots

On March 3, 1991, Rodney King was arrested and taken into custody by LAPD officers after a car chase. A bystander, George Holliday, recorded the use of force event on videotape. Gates and his department faced strong criticism in the aftermath of the use of force; Mayor Tom Bradley also called for Gates to resign, but he refused, leading to a stand-off between Gates and the mayor. [1] The Christopher Commission report, issued July 10, 1991, identified a police culture of excessive force and poor supervision, and recommended numerous reforms, as well as Gates's removal. Gates finally announced his intention to resign on July 13, 1991. [20]

The 1992 Los Angeles riots on April 29, 1992 began when a Ventura County jury in Simi Valley acquitted three white and one Hispanic Los Angeles Police Department officers accused in the videotaped beating of black motorist Rodney King following a high-speed pursuit.

Despite the announcement that the jury was preparing to deliver the verdict in the case against the four officers, the L.A. Police day shift was sent home. After the riots broke out, Gates told reporters that the situation would soon be under control, and left Parker Center to attend a previously scheduled political fundraising dinner. The fund-raising event was part of an effort to fight a city charter amendment on the June 2 ballot that would limit the power and term of the chief. [21] These actions led to charges that Gates was out of touch. General command-and-control failings in the entire LAPD hierarchy during the riots led to criticisms that he was incapable of managing his force. It took the arrival of 10,000 California Army National Guard forces, 3,500 federal troops, and 1,000 federal law enforcement officers to end the unrest over the next six days.

In the aftermath of the riots, local and national media printed and aired dozens of reports deeply critical of the LAPD under Gates, painting it as an army of racist beat cops accountable only to an arrogant leadership. The paramilitary approach that Gates represented resulted in criticism and calls for the LAPD to shift to a community policing strategy. [22]

Gates finally left the LAPD on June 28, 1992, and was replaced by Willie L. Williams, [22] who had been named Gates's successor just before the riots began. [23] A second commission, the Webster Commission, headed by former FBI and CIA Director William H. Webster, was formed in the wake of the riots. Its report, released on October 21, 1992, was generally considered to be scathingly critical of the department (as well as other government agencies) and was especially critical of Gates' management of it. [1] [24]

Ig Nobel

In 1992, the satiric Ig Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Daryl Gates "for his uniquely compelling methods of bringing people together." [25]

Controversial rhetoric

Gates earned notoriety for his controversial rhetoric on many occasions. Some of the most notable examples of this were:

Later work

Gates remained professionally active after leaving the LAPD, working with Sierra to create the computer game Police Quest: Open Season , an adventure game set in Los Angeles where gamers play the role of a Robbery/Homicide detective trying to solve a series of brutal murders. He appears in the game as Chief of Police, and can be found on one of the top floors of Parker Center. In addition, Gates had been the principal consultant for Sierra's SWAT series, appearing in them as well. In 1993, Gates was a talk show host on KFI, replacing Tom Leykis. His tenure was short lived but he remained a frequent guest on talk radio, especially in regard to policing issues.

Businessman

Gates was President/CEO of Global ePoint, a security and homeland defense company dealing primarily in digital surveillance and security technology. He also served on the Advisory Board of PropertyRoom.com, a website for police auctions.

Autobiography

In 1992 he published Chief: My Life in the LAPD, an autobiography, written with the assistance of Diane K. Shah (Bantam Books). The book has details about Gates's career and high-profile cases; the book went to press before the L.A. riots. [30]

Later years

After Bernard Parks was denied a second term as Chief of Police by Mayor James K. Hahn in 2002, Gates, aged 75, told CNN that he intended to apply for his old job as LAPD chief. [31] Hahn ultimately appointed William J. Bratton, a former police commissioner of Boston and New York City, to head the department.

Death

On April 16, 2010, Gates died at his home in Dana Point, California, at the age of 83 [2] due to complications from bladder cancer. [32]

Gates appeared as himself in season 7, episode 13 ("Fatal Obsession, Part 2") of the television show Hunter .

Gates appears in an uncredited role at the end of the 1997 film L.A. Confidential as a police officer congratulating Ed Exley, the main character.

In the 1998 film American History X , he is mentioned in relation to the application of police brutality to Rodney King.

Gene Hackman based his portrayal of Sheriff Daggett on Gates in the 1992 film Unforgiven . Clint Eastwood biographer Richard Schickel, who was on the set, wrote that Hackman referred to Daggett overseeing Ned Logan's torture as "my Rodney King scene".

In 2004, he appeared in second season of Da Ali G Show in the episode "Respek".

Gates is portrayed by actor Josh Pence in the 2013 film Gangster Squad . In the film, Gates is in his younger years, still a chauffeur for LAPD Police Chief Bill Parker (played by Nick Nolte).

Gates was mentioned in a large number of rap and metal songs in the aftermath of the LA riots. Some of the more notable include Ice Cube's "The Wrong Nigga to Fuck With", which dedicates a whole verse to a depiction of Gates's being decapitated and cooked like fried chicken, and Body Count's "Cop Killer", which caused widespread controversy.[ citation needed ]

See also

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Woo, Elaine; Eric Malnic (April 16, 2010). "Daryl F. Gates dies at 83; innovative but controversial chief of the LAPD". Los Angeles Times . Archived from the original on April 7, 2013. Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  2. 1 2 3 Schneider, Keith (April 16, 2010). "Daryl F. Gates, L.A.P.D. Chief in Rodney King-Era, Dies at 83". The New York Times . Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  3. Family Tree Legends
  4. staff (April 17, 2010). "Daryl F. Gates, 83; police chief during Rodney King riots". The Washington Post .
  5. Cannon, Lou; Lee, Gary (1992-05-02). "Much Of Blame Is Laid On Chief Gates" . The Washington Post. Retrieved 2018-11-22.
  6. Mydans, Seth (1992-10-22). "Failures of City Blamed for Riot In Los Angeles". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2018-11-23. Retrieved 2018-11-23.
  7. Schrader, Stuart (2019). Badges without Borders: How Global Counterinsurgency Transformed American Policing. Vol. 56. University of California Press. p. 216. doi:10.2307/j.ctvp2n2kv. ISBN   978-0-520-29561-2. JSTOR   j.ctvp2n2kv. S2CID   204688900.
  8. Cannon, Lou (1998), Official Negligence: How Rodney King and the Riots Changed Los Angeles and the LAPD, p.92. Crown. ISBN   0-8129-2190-9. Excerpt available at Google Books.
  9. "FBI — Robert F Kennedy (Assassination)". Archived from the original on 2017-05-22. Retrieved 2017-06-17.
  10. "Robert F. Kennedy Assassination Summary, Part 1(b), p. 35" (PDF). FBI. Retrieved 2008-07-25.
  11. "Sworn Police Officer Class Titles and Job Descriptions – Los Angeles Police Department". www.lapdonline.org. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
  12. "History of S.W.A.T. - Los Angeles Police Department".
  13. Gates, Daryl F.; Shah, Diane K. (1992), Chief: My Life in the LAPD, New York: Bantam Books, pp.  114–115, ISBN   055307301X
  14. David Cay Johnston, AlterNet , 20 April 2010, Daryl Gates, the Ruthless L.A. Police Chief Who Ran an International Spying Operation on the Side
  15. TIME , 26 December 1983, Infiltrating the Public
  16. See main DARE article
  17. Andrew Blankstein and David Zahniser (October 28, 2008). "Gates returns to police-immigration fray". Los Angeles Times .
  18. Want to Understand the 1992 LA Riots? Start with the 1984 LA Olympics
  19. Reppetto, Thomas (2012). American Police, A History: 1945–2012: The Blue Parade, Volume 2. Enigma Books. p. 135. ISBN   978-1936274444.
  20. "Gates tells officials he'll quit" Los Angeles Times , July 13, 1991.
  21. Reinhold, Robert (May 5, 1992). "Riots in Los Angeles: The Overview; As Rioting Mounted, Gates Remained at Political Event". The New York Times . Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  22. 1 2 Stolberg, Sheryl (June 28, 1992). "Once Synonymous, Gates, LAPD Go Separate Ways". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  23. "Philadelphia Chief to Head LAPD" Los Angeles Times , April 16, 1992.
  24. Serrano, Richard A. (October 21, 1992). "Redeploy Police, Riot Response Study Urges LAPD: Panel headed by ex-FBI Director Webster offers sweeping recommendations. It spreads the blame but puts brunt of criticism on former Chief Gates". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 2010-04-16.
  25. "Improbable Research". www.improbable.com. August 2006. Retrieved 2015-05-24.
  26. Ronald J. Ostrow, "Casual Drug Users Should Be Shot, Gates Says", Los Angeles Times , September 6, 1990, p. A1.
  27. Daryl Gates. "Post No Bills" interview, 12/11/99
  28. "Urban League in Los Angeles Asks Police Chief Suspension", The New York Times , May 12, 1982.
  29. Gates, Daryl F. (1992). Chief: My Life in the LAPD. New York: Bantam. p. 220. ISBN   0-553-56205-3.
  30. Reppetto, Thomas A. (1992-06-21). "He Did It His Way". The New York Times . Retrieved 2008-10-22.
  31. "Former L.A. Police Chief Gates wants old job". CNN. April 24, 2002. Archived from the original on 2008-02-20. Retrieved 2010-04-17.
  32. "Daryl Gates, L.A.'s police chief during '92 riots, dies". USA Today . Associated Press. April 16, 2010. Retrieved 2010-04-17.

Further reading

Police appointments
Preceded by Chief of Los Angeles Police Department
1978–1992
Succeeded by