Location of Datong City jurisdiction in Shanxi
|Coordinates(Datong municipal government): Coordinates:|
|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Pingcheng District|
|• Type||Prefecture-level city|
|• Party Secretary||Zhang Jifu|
|• Prefecture-level city||14,176 km2 (5,473 sq mi)|
|• Urban||130.20 km2 (50.27 sq mi)|
|• Districts||2,080.0 km2 (803.1 sq mi)|
|Elevation||1,042 m (3,419 ft)|
|• Prefecture-level city||3,318,057|
|• Density||230/km2 (610/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||9,700/km2 (25,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+8 (China Standard)|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-SX-02|
|Administrative division code||140200|
|Literal meaning||Great Unity|
|Traditional Chinese||平城 縣|
|Simplified Chinese||平城 县|
|Literal meaning||Peaceful City County |
Pacified City County
|Literal meaning||Western Capital|
Datong is a prefecture-level city in northern Shanxi Province in the People's Republic of China. It is located in the Datong Basin at an elevation of 1,040 metres (3,410 ft) and borders Inner Mongolia to the north and west and Hebei to the east. It had a population of 3,318,057 during the 2010 census, of whom 1,629,035 lived in the built-up area made of the three urban districts of Chengqu, Kuangqu and Nanjiao.
The area of present-day Datong was close to the state of Dai, which was conquered by the Zhao clan of Jin in 457 BC. It was a frontier land between the agricultural Chinese and the nomads of the Great Steppe. The area was well known for its trade in horses.
Pingcheng County formed part of the Qin commandery of Yanmen. BC following their victory against the Xiongnu nomads at the Battle of Baideng. Located near a pass to Inner Mongolia along the Great Wall, Pingcheng blossomed during the following period and became a stop-off point for camel caravans moving from China into Mongolia and beyond. It was sacked at the end of the Eastern Han. Pingcheng became the capital of Northern Wei from AD 398–494. The Yungang Grottoes were constructed during the later part of this period (460–494). During the mid to late 520s, Pingcheng was the seat of Northern Wei's Dai Commandery.It continued under the Han, who founded a site within present-day Datong in 200
The city was renamed Datong in 1048. It was the Xijing ("Western Capital") of the Jurchen Jin dynasty prior to being sacked by the Mongols. It was sacked again at the end of the Ming in 1649, but promptly rebuilt in 1652.
By 1982 a portion of its city walls remained so it became one of the National Historical and Cultural Cities that year. Prior to 2008, about 100,000 people lived in the old city. In 2008 mayor Geng Yanbo decided to redevelop much of the inner city, with over 3 square kilometres (1.2 sq mi) being redeveloped, and with Geng becoming known as the "Demolition Mayor". Geng and his group anticipated that 30,000 to 50,000 people would remain in the old city.
In 2013 Geng left his position. Su Jiede of Sixth Tone wrote that much of the city was still under construction at the time and that Geng's efforts resulted in "a half-finished city center and a complicated legacy" and that "To critics, the city had spent enormous sums of money without much to show for it."By 2020 the population of the old city was below 30,000 and there were fewer governmental facilities available for the residents. That year Su stated that the old city "still presents a headache for the local government."
Su Jiede wrote that since Pingcheng District, which had most of its urbanized area, had 807,000 people as of 2020, "Datong is a small city by Chinese standards".
Datong is the northernmost city of Shanxi, and is located in the Datong Basin, with an administrative area spanning latitude 39° 03'–40° 44' N and longitude 112° 34'–114° 33' E. The urban area is surrounded on three sides by mountains, with passes only to the east and southwest. Within the prefecture-level city elevations generally increase from southeast to northwest. Datong borders Ulanqab (Inner Mongolia) to the northwest and Zhangjiakou (Hebei) to the east, Shuozhou (Shanxi) to the southwest and Xinzhou (Shanxi) to the south.
The well-known Datong Volcanic Arc lies nearby in the Datong Basin.
It is 250 kilometres (160 mi) west of Beijing.
Datong has a continental, monsoon-influenced steppe climate (Köppen BSk), influenced by the 1,000 metres (3,300 ft)+ elevation, with rather long, cold, very dry winters, and very warm summers. Monthly mean temperatures range from −10.5 °C (13.1 °F) in January to 22.6 °C (72.7 °F) in July; the annual mean temperature is 7.33 °C (45.2 °F). Due to the aridity and elevation, diurnal temperature variation is often large, averaging 13.2 °C (23.8 °F) annually. There barely is any precipitation during winter, and more than 3⁄4 of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 54% in July to 66% in October, sunshine is abundant year-round, and the city receives 2,671 hours (about 60% of the possible total) of bright sunshine per year.
|Climate data for Datong (1981–2010 normals, extremes 1951–2010)|
|Record high °C (°F)||11.2|
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.4|
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−10.5|
|Average low °C (°F)||−16.4|
|Record low °C (°F)||−31.1|
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||1.7|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||2.0||2.5||4.5||4.1||7.0||9.8||13.5||12.2||8.8||4.8||2.8||1.9||73.9|
|Average relative humidity (%)||53||46||42||38||40||49||62||67||61||54||51||52||51|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||184.1||189.4||222.3||243.5||272.5||265.7||244.8||233.9||234.6||226.8||185.8||167.5||2,670.9|
|Percent possible sunshine||62||63||60||62||62||59||54||55||63||66||62||58||61|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days and sunshine 1971–2000)|
(2003 est.)[ citation needed ]
|Pingcheng District||平城区||Píngchéng Qū||580,000||246||2,358|
|Yungang District||云冈区||Yúngāng Qū||280,000||684||409|
|Xinrong District||新荣区||Xīnróng Qū||110,000||1,102||109|
|Yunzhou District||云州区||Yúnzhōu Qū||170,000||1,501||113|
|Yanggao County||阳高县||Yánggāo Xiàn||290,000||1,678||173|
|Tianzhen County||天镇县||Tiānzhèn Xiàn||210,000||1,635||128|
|Guangling County||广灵县||Guǎnglíng Xiàn||180,000||1,283||140|
|Lingqiu County||灵丘县||Língqiū Xiàn||230,000||2,720||85|
|Hunyuan County||浑源县||Húnyuán Xiàn||350,000||1,965||178|
|Zuoyun County||左云县||Zuǒyún Xiàn||140,000||1,314||107|
The Yungang Grottoes are a collection of shallow caves located 16 km (9.9 mi) west of Datong. There are over 50,000 carved images and statues of Buddhas and bodhisattvas within these grottoes, ranging from 4 centimeters to 7 meters tall. Most of these icons are around 1000 years old.
Within the city itself, there are a few surviving sites of historical interest such as the Nine-Dragon Wall, the Huayan Monastery (华严寺; Huáyán Sì), and the Shanhua Temple. Further afield is the Hanging Temple built into a cliff face near Mount Heng. Most of the historical sites in this region date to the Tang and Ming dynasties, but the Hanging Temple dates to the Northern Wei dynasty (386–534).
The railway locomotive works (see below) began to attract increasing numbers of railway enthusiasts from the 1970s. When construction of steam locomotives was phased out, the authorities did not want to lose this valuable tourism market, and pondered the possibility of developing a steam railway operating centre as an attraction. A number of study visits were undertaken to the East Lancashire Railway at Bury, and a twinning arrangement was concluded with that town.
In 2010, work began on reconstructing the city's 14th century Ming dynasty defensive wall. The controversial reconstruction project was in its final phase at the end of 2014.The documentary The Chinese Mayor documents two years of vigorous and highly controversial (due to summary demolition of about 200,000 homes) effort by Mayor Geng Yanbo to push the reconstruction project forward.
The GDP per capita was ¥17,852 (US$2,570) per annum in 2008, ranked no. 242 among 659 Chinese cities. Coal mining is the dominant industry of Datong. Its history and development are very much linked to this commodity.
Development zones Datong Economic and Technological Development Zone
Due to its strategic position it is also an important distribution and warehousing center for Shanxi, Hebei and Inner Mongolia.
Datong is an old fashioned coal mining city, and still sits on significant reserves of this commodity. Consequently, it has developed a reputation as one of China's most polluted cities. The Datong Coal Mining Group is based here and is China's third largest such enterprise. Datong is indeed however an emerging economy, as the city seeks to loosen its dependence on coal, introduce more environmentally friendly and efficient methods of extraction and move into other areas of business services. Local government has continued to upgrade its pillar coal sector (and related industries like coal chemicals, power and metallurgy), while also developing "substitute industries" such as machinery manufacturing, tourism and distribution, warehousing and logistics services. This has had some impact. Datong's GDP grew by 5.1 percent in 2008 to RMB56.6 billion.
While coal will continue to dominate, Datong has been identified as one of the key cities requiring redevelopment, with part of this being in environmental cleanup, rehabilitation and industrial refocusing. Datong is a pilot city for rehabilitation studies following years of pollution. To this end it has already struck up strong relationships with other cities worldwide with similar backgrounds, and has begun plans, for example, to develop a tourism base focused on steam engine technology with antique locomotives to be used along designated tracks.
Datong has a large railway locomotive works 'Datong locomotive factory', where the 'Aiming Higher'[ clarification needed ] class of steam locomotive was built as late as the 1970s, steam locomotive production ended in the late 1980s and the plants main products (as of 2010) is main line electric locomotives
Hebei is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The modern province was established in 1911 as Chihli Province. Its capital and largest city is Shijiazhuang. Its one-character abbreviation is "冀" (Jì), named after Ji Province, a Han dynasty province (zhou) that included what is now southern Hebei. The name Hebei literally means "north of the river", referring to its location entirely to the north of the Yellow River.
Shanxi is a landlocked province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the North China region. The capital and largest city of the province is Taiyuan, while its next most populated prefecture-level cities are Changzhi and Datong. Its one-character abbreviation is "晋", after the state of Jin that existed there during the Spring and Autumn period.
Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province, People's Republic of China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng.
Datong (大同市) is a prefecture-level city in Shanxi province, China.
The Yungang Grottoes, formerly the Wuzhoushan Grottoes, are ancient Chinese Buddhist temple grottoes near the city of Datong in the province of Shanxi. They are excellent examples of rock-cut architecture and one of the three most famous ancient Buddhist sculptural sites of China. The others are Longmen and Mogao.
Xicheng District is a district of Beijing. Xicheng District spans 32 square kilometres (12 sq mi), making it the largest portion of the old city, and has 706,691 inhabitants. Its postal code is 100032. Xicheng is subdivided into 15 subdistricts of the city proper of Beijing. The former Xuanwu District was merged into Xicheng in July 2010.
Xuhui District is a core urban district of Shanghai. It has a land area of 54.76 km2 (21.14 sq mi) and a population of 982,200 as of 2008.
The Japanese offensive called 太原作戦 or the Battle of Taiyuan was a major battle fought in 1937 between China and Japan named for Taiyuan, which lay in the 2nd Military Region. The battle concluded in loss for the NRA, including part of Suiyuan, most of Shanxi and their most modern arsenal at Taiyuan and effectively ended large-scale organized resistance in the North China area.
Huainan is a prefecture-level city with 2,334,000 inhabitants in north-central Anhui province, China. It is named for the Han-era Principality of Huainan. It borders the provincial capital of Hefei to the south, Lu'an to the southwest, Fuyang to the west, Bozhou to the northwest, Bengbu to the northeast and Chuzhou to the east. Huainan is one of the core cities of Hefei Metropolitan Circle and is known for its coal industry and thermal power plants. Its built-up area is home to 1,938,212 inhabitants in 2010. Its city flower is the Chinese rose and its city tree is the Old-World Plane Tree. It is also considered to be the hometown and birthplace of tofu.
Jiaozuo is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Henan province, China. Sitting on the northern bank of the Yellow River, it borders the provincial capital of Zhengzhou to the south, Xinxiang to the east, Jiyuan to the west, Luoyang to the southwest, and the province of Shanxi to the north. Jiaozuo is one of the core cities of the Central Plains urban agglomeration and a regional central city along the Shanxi–Henan border area.
Wuhu is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Anhui province, China. Sitting on the southeast bank of the Yangtze River, Wuhu borders Xuancheng to the southeast, Chizhou and Tongling to the southwest, Hefei city to the northwest, Ma'anshan city to the northeast, Jiangsu Province to the east, and is approximately 90 km (56 mi) southwest of Nanjing. As of 2017, the city had a population of approximately 3,696,000 officially registered inhabitants.
Datong Yungang Airport is an airport serving the city of Datong in Shanxi Province, China. It is located north of the town of Beijiazao in Datong County, 15.2 kilometers from the city center.
Wuhou District is one of 12 urban districts of the prefecture-level city of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. It contains the historic site, Wuhou Temple and Jinli Street. The district is bordered by Jinjiang District to the east, Shuangliu County to the south and west, and Qingyang District to the north.
Guangling County is in the northeast of Shanxi province, China. It is under the administration of Datong city. Guangling is a basin surrounded by Taihang Mountains. The temperature ranges from −34.0 to 38.2 °C, with an annual mean of 7.0 °C (44.6 °F). Guangling has nine township level divisions. Famous tourist attractions include: Temple of Water God (水神堂), Temple of Holy Spring (圣泉寺), Zhao Great Wall (赵长城). Local products include: papercut, millet, sunflower seeds, dry Tofu etc.
CRRC Datong Co. Ltd. is a Chinese railway locomotive manufacturing plant based in Datong, Shanxi, China, founded 1953. The factory was a major producer of steam locomotives for the Chinese market up to 1988 when production switched to diesel powered locomotives. By the 1990s electric locomotives had begun to be produced, and became the major product of the works.
Feng Lixiang is a Chinese politician from Shanxi province who served as the Communist Party Secretary of Datong from 2008 to 2014. In 2014, he was investigated for corruption, expelled from the Communist Party, and indicted on bribery charges.
Hu Fuguo is a People's Republic of China politician currently serving as president of China Association of Poverty Alleviation & Development. He was Communist Party Secretary, Governor and CPPCC chairman of his home province Shaanxi.
In 2001, the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences organized a poll for China's 100 major archaeological discoveries in the 20th century. The participants included eight national-level institutions for archaeology and cultural relics, provincial-level archaeological institutes from 28 provinces, municipalities, and autonomous regions, as well as from Hong Kong, the archaeological departments of 11 major national universities, and many other scholars in Beijing. After three months and three rounds of voting, the results were announced on 29 March 2001 and were published in the journal Kaogu (Archaeology). In 2002, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences Press published the book China's 100 Major Archaeological Discoveries in the 20th Century (二十世纪中国百项考古大发现), with more than 500 pages and 1,512 pictures.
Huayan Temple or Huayan Monastery is a Buddhist temple located in Datong, Shanxi, China.
Shanxi architecture, or Shansi architecture, or Jin architecture, refers to the architectural style of the Shanxi province in northern China. Shanxi has preserved numerous ancient architectures scattered throughout the province. All of the four remaining wooden structures preserved from Tang dynasty in China are found in Shanxi. The old buildings of Pingyao ancient city and numerous family compounds of Shanxi merchants in the Ming and Qing dynasties are representative of the architecture styles of vernacular architecture in North China. Religious temples in Mount Wutai and Yungang Grottoes in Datong exemplify the sacred buddhist architecture in China.
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