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David SM Maggiore.jpg
Statue of King David (1609–1612) by Nicolas Cordier in the Borghese Chapel of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome, Italy
King of Israel
Reignc. 1010–970 BCE [lower-alpha 1]
Predecessor Ish-bosheth [3] [4]
Successor Solomon
Born Bethlehem
Diedc. 970 BCE
18+ children:
House House of David
Father Jesse
Mother Nitzevet (Talmud)
Religion Yahwism

David [lower-alpha 2] is described in the Hebrew Bible as king of the United Monarchy of Israel and Judah. [6] [7] In the Books of Samuel, David is a young shepherd who gains fame first as a musician and later by killing the giant Goliath, champion of the Philistines. He becomes a favorite of King Saul and a close friend of Saul's son Jonathan. Worried that David is trying to take his throne, Saul turns on David and tries to kill him, leading the latter to go on the run and operate as a fugitive for several years. After Saul and Jonathan are killed in battle against the Philistines, a 30-year old David is anointed king over all Israel and then conquers Jerusalem, establishing the city as his capital, and taking the Ark of the Covenant into the city to be the center of worship in the Israelite religion.


According to the Biblical narrative, King David commits adultery with Bathsheba, leading him to arrange the death of her husband Uriah the Hittite. David's son Absalom later schemes to overthrow David and, during the ensuing rebellion, David flees Jerusalem, but returns after Absalom's death to rule Israel. David desires to construct a temple to YHWH in which to house the Ark but, because he shed much blood, [8] YHWH denies David the opportunity to do so. David goes on to rule as king until his death at age 70, prior to which he chooses his son Solomon, born to him and Bathsheba, to be his successor instead of Adonijah, David's eldest surviving son. David is honored in the prophetic literature as an ideal king and the forefather of a future Messiah, and many psalms are ascribed to him. [9]

Historians of the Ancient Near East agree that David probably existed around 1000 BCE, but that there is little else that is agreed on about him as a historical figure. The Tel Dan Stele, an inscribed stone erected by a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE to commemorate his victory over two enemy kings, contains the phrase in Hebrew : ביתדוד, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". The Mesha Stele, erected by King Mesha of Moab in the 9th century BCE, may also refer to the "House of David", but this is disputed. [10] [11] Apart from this, all that is known of David comes from the biblical literature, the historicity of which is doubtful, [12] and there is little detail about David that is concrete and undisputed. [13] [14]

David is richly represented in post-biblical Jewish written and oral tradition, and is discussed in the New Testament. Early Christians interpreted the life of Jesus in light of the references to the Messiah and to David; Jesus is described as being descended from David in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. The biblical character of David has inspired many interpretations in art and literature over centuries. In the Quran and hadith, David is mentioned as a prophet-king of God. [15] [16]

Biblical account


David raises the head of Goliath as illustrated by Josephine Pollard (1899) Sweet stories of God; in the language of childhood and the beautiful delineations of sacred art (1899) (14751566596).jpg
David raises the head of Goliath as illustrated by Josephine Pollard (1899)

The First Book of Samuel and the First Book of Chronicles both identify David as the son of Jesse, the Bethlehemite, the youngest of eight sons. [17] He also had at least two sisters, Zeruiah, whose sons all went on to serve in David's army, and Abigail, whose son Amasa went on to serve in Absalom's army, Absalom being one of David's younger sons. [18] While the Bible does not name his mother, the Talmud identifies her as Nitzevet, a daughter of a man named Adael, and the Book of Ruth claims him as the great-grandson of Ruth, the Moabite, by Boaz. [19]

David is described as cementing his relations with various political and national groups through marriage. [20] In 1 Samuel 17:25, it states that King Saul had said that he would make whoever killed Goliath a very wealthy man, give his daughter to him and declare his father's family exempt from taxes in Israel. Saul offered David his oldest daughter, Merab, a marriage which David respectfully declined. [21] Saul then gave Merab in marriage to Adriel the Meholathite. [22] Having been told that his younger daughter Michal was in love with David, Saul gave her in marriage to David upon David's payment in Philistine foreskins [23] (ancient Jewish historian Josephus lists the dowry as 100 Philistine heads). [24] Saul became jealous of David and tried to have him killed. David escaped. Then Saul sent Michal to Galim to marry Palti, son of Laish. [25] David then took wives in Hebron, according to 2 Samuel 3; they were Ahinoam the Yizre'elite; Abigail, the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; Maacah, the daughter of Talmay, king of Geshur; Haggith; Abital; and Eglah. Later, David wanted Michal back and Abner, Ish-bosheth's army commander, delivered her to David, causing her husband (Palti) great grief. [26]

The Book of Chronicles lists his sons with his various wives and concubines. In Hebron, David had six sons: Amnon, by Ahinoam; Daniel, by Abigail; Absalom, by Maachah; Adonijah, by Haggith; Shephatiah, by Abital; and Ithream, by Eglah. [27] By Bathsheba, his sons were Shammua, Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon. David's sons born in Jerusalem of his other wives included Ibhar, Elishua, Eliphelet, Nogah, Nepheg, Japhia, Elishama and Eliada. [28] Jerimoth, who is not mentioned in any of the genealogies, is mentioned as another of his sons in 2 Chronicles 11:18. His daughter Tamar, by Maachah, is raped by her half-brother Amnon. David fails to bring Amnon to justice for his violation of Tamar, because he is his firstborn and he loves him, and so, Absalom (her full brother) murders Amnon to avenge Tamar. [29] Although Absalom did avenge his sister's defilement, ironically he himself showed himself not to be very much different from Amnon; as Amnon had sought the advice of Jonadab in order to rape Tamar, Absalom had sought the advice of Ahitophel who advised Absalom to have incestuous relations with his father's concubines in order to show all Israel how odious he was to his father [2 Samuel 16:20]; despite the greats sins they had committed David showed grief at the deaths of his sons; weeping twice for Amnon [2 Samuel 13:31-26] and weeping seven times for Absalom.


Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE Samuel e david.jpg
Samuel anoints David, Dura Europos, Syria, 3rd century CE

God is angered when Saul, Israel's king, unlawfully offers a sacrifice [30] and later disobeys a divine command both to kill all of the Amalekites and to destroy their confiscated property. [31] Consequently, God sends the prophet Samuel to anoint a shepherd, David, the youngest son of Jesse of Bethlehem, to be king instead. [32]

After God sends an evil spirit to torment Saul, his servants recommend that he send for a man skilled in playing the lyre. A servant proposes David, whom the servant describes as "skillful in playing, a man of valor, a warrior, prudent in speech, and a man of good presence; and the Lord is with him." David enters Saul's service as one of the royal armour-bearers and plays the lyre to soothe the king. [33]

War comes between Israel and the Philistines, and the giant Goliath challenges the Israelites to send out a champion to face him in single combat. [34] David, sent by his father to bring provisions to his brothers serving in Saul's army, declares that he can defeat Goliath. [35] Refusing the king's offer of the royal armour, [36] he kills Goliath with his sling. [37] Saul inquires the name of the young hero's father. [38]

Saul threatening David, by Jose Leonardo Jusepe Leonardo 001.jpeg
Saul threatening David, by José Leonardo

Saul sets David over his army. All Israel loves David, but his popularity causes Saul to fear him ("What else can he wish but the kingdom?"). [39] Saul plots his death, but Saul's son Jonathan, one of those who loves David, warns him of his father's schemes and David flees. He goes first to Nob, where he is fed by the priest Ahimelech and given Goliath's sword, and then to Gath, the Philistine city of Goliath, intending to seek refuge with King Achish there. Achish's servants or officials question his loyalty, and David sees that he is in danger there. [40] He goes next to the cave of Adullam, where his family join him. [41] From there he goes to seek refuge with the king of Moab, but the prophet Gad advises him to leave and he goes to the Forest of Hereth, [42] and then to Keilah, where he is involved in a further battle with the Philistines. Saul plans to besiege Keilah so that he can capture David, so David leaves the city in order to protect its inhabitants. [43] From there he takes refuge in the mountainous Wilderness of Ziph. [44]

Jonathan meets with David again and confirms his loyalty to David as the future king. After the people of Ziph notify Saul that David is taking refuge in their territory, Saul seeks confirmation and plans to capture David in the Wilderness of Maon, but his attention is diverted by a renewed Philistine invasion and David is able to secure some respite at Ein Gedi. [45] Returning from battle with the Philistines, Saul heads to Ein Gedi in pursuit of David and enters the cave where, as it happens, David and his supporters are hiding, "to attend to his needs". David realises he has an opportunity to kill Saul, but this is not his intention: he secretly cuts off a corner of Saul's robe, and when Saul has left the cave he comes out to pay homage to Saul as the king and to demonstrate, using the piece of robe, that he holds no malice towards Saul. The two are thus reconciled and Saul recognises David as his successor. [46]

A similar passage occurs in 1 Samuel 26, when David is able to infiltrate Saul's camp on the hill of Hachilah and remove his spear and a jug of water from his side while he and his guards lie asleep. In this account, David is advised by Abishai that this is his opportunity to kill Saul, but David declines, saying he will not "stretch out [his] hand against the Lord's anointed". [47] Saul confesses that he has been wrong to pursue David and blesses him. [48]

In 1 Samuel 27:1–4|NKJV, Saul ceases to pursue David because David took refuge a second [49] time with Achish, the Philistine king of Gath. Achish permits David to reside in Ziklag, close to the border between Gath and Judea, from where he leads raids against the Geshurites, the Girzites and the Amalekites, but leads Achish to believe he is attacking the Israelites in Judah, the Jerahmeelites and the Kenites. Achish believes that David had become a loyal vassal, but he never wins the trust of the princes or lords of Gath, and at their request Achish instructs David to remain behind to guard the camp when the Philistines march against Saul. [50] David returns to Ziklag and saves his wives and the citizens from the Amalekites. [51] Jonathan and Saul are killed in battle, [52] and David is anointed king over Judah. [53] In the north, Saul's son Ish-Bosheth is anointed king of Israel, and war ensues until Ish-Bosheth is murdered. [54]

With the death of Saul's son, the elders of Israel come to Hebron and David is anointed king over all of Israel. [55] He conquers Jerusalem, previously a Jebusite stronghold, and makes it his capital. [56] He brings the Ark of the Covenant to the city, [57] intending to build a temple for God, but the prophet Nathan forbids it, prophesying that the temple would be built by one of David's sons. [58] Nathan also prophesies that God has made a covenant with the house of David stating, "your throne shall be established forever". [59] David wins additional victories over the Philistines, Moabites, Edomites, Amalekites, Ammonites and king Hadadezer of Aram-Zobah, after which they become tributaries. His fame increased as a result, earning the praise of figures like king Toi of Hamath, Hadadezer's rival. [60]

The Prophet Nathan rebukes King David, oil on canvas by Eugene Siberdt, 1866-1931 (Mayfair Gallery, London) Eugene Siberdt - The Prophet Nathan rebukes King David.jpg
The Prophet Nathan rebukes King David, oil on canvas by Eugène Siberdt, 1866-1931 (Mayfair Gallery, London)

During a siege of the Ammonite capital of Rabbah, David remains in Jerusalem. He spies a woman, Bathsheba, bathing and summons her; she becomes pregnant. [61] [62] [63] The text in the Bible does not explicitly state whether Bathsheba consented to sex. [64] [65] [66] [67] David calls her husband, Uriah the Hittite, back from the battle to rest, hoping that he will go home to his wife and the child will be presumed to be his. Uriah does not visit his wife, however, so David conspires to have him killed in the heat of battle. David then marries the widowed Bathsheba. [68] In response, Nathan, after trapping the king in his guilt with a parable that actually described his sin in analogy, prophesies the punishment that will fall upon him, stating "the sword shall never depart from your house." [69] When David acknowledges that he has sinned, [70] Nathan advises him that his sin is forgiven and he will not die, [71] but the child will. [72] In fulfillment of Nathan's words, David's son Absalom, fueled by vengeance and lust for power, rebels. [73] Thanks to Hushai, a friend of David who was ordered to infiltrate Absalom's court to successfully sabotage his plans, Absalom's forces are routed at the battle of the Wood of Ephraim, and he is caught by his long hair in the branches of a tree where, contrary to David's order, he is killed by Joab, the commander of David's army. [74] David laments the death of his favourite son: "O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! Would I had died instead of you, O Absalom, my son, my son!" [75] until Joab persuades him to recover from "the extravagance of his grief" [76] and to fulfill his duty to his people. [77] David returns to Gilgal and is escorted across the River Jordan and back to Jerusalem by the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. [78]

When David is old and bedridden, Adonijah, his eldest surviving son and natural heir, declares himself king. [79] Bathsheba and Nathan go to David and obtain his agreement to crown Bathsheba's son Solomon as king, according to David's earlier promise, and the revolt of Adonijah is put down. [80] David dies at the age of 70 after reigning for 40 years, [81] and on his deathbed counsels Solomon to walk in the ways of God and to take revenge on his enemies. [82]


David Composing the Psalms, Paris Psalter, 10th century Paris psaulter gr139 fol1v.jpg
David Composing the Psalms, Paris Psalter, 10th century

The Book of Samuel calls David a skillful harp (lyre) player [84] and "the sweet psalmist of Israel." [85] Yet, while almost half of the Psalms are headed "A Psalm of David" (also translated as "to David" or "for David") and tradition identifies several with specific events in David's life (e.g., Psalms 3, 7, 18, 34, 51, 52, 54, 56, 57, 59, 60, 63 and 142), [86] the headings are late additions and no psalm can be attributed to David with certainty. [87]

Psalm 34 is attributed to David on the occasion of his escape from Abimelech (or King Achish) by pretending to be insane. [88] According to the parallel narrative in 1 Samuel 21, instead of killing the man who had exacted so many casualties from him, Abimelech allows David to leave, exclaiming, "Am I so short of madmen that you have to bring this fellow here to carry on like this in front of me? Must this man come into my house?" [89]


Tel Dan Stele

The Tel Dan Stele JRSLM 300116 Tel Dan Stele 01.jpg
The Tel Dan Stele

The Tel Dan Stele, discovered in 1993, is an inscribed stone erected by Hazael, a king of Damascus in the late 9th/early 8th centuries BCE. It commemorates the king's victory over two enemy kings, and contains the phrase Hebrew : ביתדוד, bytdwd, which most scholars translate as "House of David". [90] Other scholars have challenged this reading, [91] but it is likely that this is a reference to a dynasty of the Kingdom of Judah which traced its ancestry to a founder named David. [90]

Mesha Stele

Two epigraphers, André Lemaire and Émile Puech, hypothesised in 1994 that the Mesha Stele from Moab, dating from the 9th century, also contain the words "House of David" at the end of Line 31, although this was considered as less certain than the mention in the Tel Dan inscription. [92] In May 2019, Israel Finkelstein, Nadav Na'aman, and Thomas Römer concluded from the new images that the ruler's name contained three consonants and started with a bet, which excludes the reading "House of David" and, in conjunction with the monarch's city of residence "Horonaim" in Moab, makes it likely that the one mentioned is King Balak, a name also known from the Hebrew Bible. [93] [94] Later that year, Michael Langlois used high-resolution photographs of both the inscription itself, and the 19th-century original squeeze of the then still intact stele to reaffirm Lemaire's view that line 31 contains the phrase "House of David". [94] [95] Replying to Langlois, Na'aman argued that the "House of David" reading is unacceptable because the resulting sentence structure is extremely rare in West Semitic royal inscriptions. [96]

Bubastite Portal at Karnak

The Triumphal Relief of Shoshenq I near the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, depicting the god Amun-Re receiving a list of cities and villages conquered by the king in his Near Eastern military campaigns. Karnak Tempel 19.jpg
The Triumphal Relief of Shoshenq I near the Bubastite Portal at Karnak, depicting the god Amun-Re receiving a list of cities and villages conquered by the king in his Near Eastern military campaigns.

Besides the two steles, Bible scholar and Egyptologist Kenneth Kitchen suggests that David's name also appears in a relief of Pharaoh Shoshenq (usually identified with Shishak in the Bible. [97] [98] The relief claims that Shoshenq raided places in Palestine in 925 BCE, and Kitchen interprets one place as "Heights of David", which was in Southern Judah and the Negev where the Bible says David took refuge from Saul. The relief is damaged and interpretation is uncertain. [98]

Biblical criticism

Literary criticism

Apart from these, all that is known of David comes from the biblical literature. Some scholars have concluded that this was likely compiled from contemporary records of the 11th and 10th centuries BCE, but that there is no clear historical basis for determining the exact date of compilation. [99] Other scholars believe that the Books of Samuel were substantially composed during the time of King Josiah at the end of the 7th century BCE, extended during the Babylonian exile (6th century BCE), and substantially complete by about 550 BCE. Old Testament scholar Graeme Auld contends that further editing was done even after then—the silver quarter-shekel which Saul's servant offers to Samuel in 1 Samuel 9 "almost certainly fixes the date of the story in the Persian or Hellenistic period" because a quarter-shekel was known to exist in Hasmonean times. [100] The authors and editors of Samuel drew on many earlier sources, including, for their history of David, the "history of David's rise" [101] and the "succession narrative". [102] [103] The Book of Chronicles, which tells the story from a different point of view, was probably composed in the period 350–300 BCE, and uses Samuel and Kings as its source. [104]

Biblical evidence indicates that David's Judah was something less than a full-fledged monarchy: it often calls him negid, meaning "prince" or "chief", rather than melek, meaning "king"; the biblical David sets up none of the complex bureaucracy that a kingdom needs (even his army is made up of volunteers), and his followers are largely related to him and from his small home-area around Hebron. [105]

Beyond this, the full range of possible interpretations is available. A number of scholars consider the David story to be a heroic tale similar to King Arthur's legend or Homer's epics, [106] whereas others think that such comparisons are questionable. [107] Others hold that the David story is a political apology—an answer to contemporary charges against him, of his involvement in murders and regicide. [108] The authors and editors of Samuel and Chronicles did not aim to record history, but to promote David's reign as inevitable and desirable, and for this reason there is little about David that is concrete and undisputed. [13] [14]

Some other studies of David have been written: Baruch Halpern has pictured David as a brutal tyrant, a murdere and a lifelong vassal of Achish, the Philistine king of Gath; [109] Steven McKenzie argues that David came from a wealthy family, was "ambitious and ruthless" and a tyrant who murdered his opponents, including his own sons. [87] Joel S. Baden has described him as "an ambitious, ruthless, flesh-and-blood man who achieved power by any means necessary, including murder, theft, bribery, sex, deceit, and treason." [110] William G. Dever described him as "a serial killer". [111]

Jacob L. Wright has written that the most popular legends about David, including his killing of Goliath, his affair with Bathsheba, and his ruling of a United Kingdom of Israel rather than just Judah, are the creation of those who lived generations after him, in particular those living in the late Persian or Hellenistic periods. [112]

Isaac Kalimi wrote about the tenth century BCE that: "Almost all that one can say about King Solomon and his time is unavoidably based on the biblical texts. Nevertheless, here also one cannot always offer conclusive proof that a certain biblical passage reflects the actual historical situation in the tenth century BCE, beyond arguing that it is plausible to this or that degree." [12]

Archaeologic criticism

Isaac Kalimi wrote in 2018 that: "No contemporaneous extra-biblical source offers any account of the political situation in Israel and Judah during the tenth century BCE, and as we have seen, the archaeological remains themselves cannot provide any unambiguous evidence of events." [12]

Lester L. Grabbe wrote in 2017 that: "The main question is what kind of settlement Jerusalem was in Iron IIA: was it a minor settlement, perhaps a large village or possibly a citadel but not a city, or was it the capital of a flourishing – or at least an emerging – state? Assessments differ considerably …" [113]

John Haralson Hayes and James Maxwell Miller wrote in 2006: "On the other hand, if one is not convinced in advance by the biblical profile, then there is nothing in the archaeological evidence itself to suggest that much of consequence was going on in Palestine during the tenth century BCE, and certainly nothing to suggest that Jerusalem was a great political and cultural center." [114]

Israel Finkelstein and Neil Asher Silberman have stated that the archaeological evidence shows that Judah was sparsely inhabited and Jerusalem no more than a small village. The evidence suggested that David ruled only as a chieftain over an area which cannot be described as a state or as a kingdom, but more as a chiefdom, much smaller and always overshadowed by the older and more powerful kingdom of Israel to the north. [115] They posited that Israel and Judah were not monotheistic at the time, and that later seventh-century redactors sought to portray a past golden age of a united, monotheistic monarchy in order to serve contemporary needs. [116] They noted a lack of archeological evidence for David's military campaigns and a relative underdevelopment of Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, compared to a more developed and urbanized Samaria, capital of Israel during the 9th century BCE. [117] [118] [119]

Amihai Mazar has written that the United Monarchy of the 10th century BCE can be described as a "state in development". [120] He has also compared David to Labaya, a Caananite warlord living during the time of Pharaoh Akhenaten. While Mazar believes that David reigned over Israel during the 11th century BCE, but that much of the Biblical text is “literary-legendary nature”. [121] According to William G. Dever, the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon are reasonably well attested, but "most archeologists today would argue that the United Monarchy was not much more than a kind of hill-country chiefdom". [122] [123] [124]

Amélie Kuhrt acknowledges that "there are no royal inscriptions from the time of the united monarchy (indeed very little written material altogether), and not a single contemporary reference to either David or Solomon," but she concludes, "Against this must be set the evidence for substantial development and growth at several sites, which is plausibly related to the tenth century." [125] Kenneth Kitchen reaches a similar conclusion, arguing that "the physical archaeology of tenth-century Canaan is consistent with the former existence of a unified state on its terrain." [126]

The view of Davidic Jerusalem as a village has been challenged by Eilat Mazar's excavation of the Large Stone Structure and the Stepped Stone Structure in 2005. [127] Eilat Mazar proposed that these two structures may have been architecturally linked as one unit, and that they date back to the time of King David. Amihai Mazar, Avraham Faust, Nadav Na'aman and William G. Dever have also argued in favour of the 10th century BCE dating. [120] [128] [129] [130] [131]

In 2010 archaeologist Eilat Mazar announced the discovery of part of the ancient city walls around the City of David which she believes date to the tenth century BCE. According to Mazar, this would prove that an organized state did exist in the 10th century." [132]

Scholars such as Israel Finkelstein, Lily Singer-Avitz, Ze'ev Herzog and David Ussishkin do not accept these conclusions. [133] Finkelstein does not accept the dating of these structures to the 10th century BCE, based in part on the fact that later structures on the site penetrated deep into underlying layers, that the entire area had been excavated in the early 20th century and then backfilled, that pottery from later periods was found below earlier strata, and that consequently the finds collected by E. Mazar cannot necessarily be considered as retrieved in situ. [134] Aren Maeir said in 2010 that he has seen no evidence that these structures are from the 10th century BCE, and that proof of the existence of a strong, centralized kingdom at that time remains "tenuous." [135]

Excavations at Khirbet Qeiyafa by archaeologists Yosef Garfinkel and Saar Ganor found an urbanized settlement radiocarbon dated dating to the 10th century, which supports the existence of an urbanised kingdom. Following such discovery, the Israel Antiquities Authority stated, "The excavations at Khirbat Qeiyafa clearly reveal an urban society that existed in Judah already in the late eleventh century BCE. It can no longer be argued that the Kingdom of Judah developed only in the late eighth century BCE or at some other later date." [136] However, the techniques and interpretations to reach some conclusions related to Khirbet Qeiyafa have been criticized by other scholars, such as Israel Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv University, who have, instead, proposed that the city is to be identified as Philistine. [137]

In 2018, Avraham Faust and Yair Sapir stated that a Canaanite site at Tel Eton, about 30 miles from Jerusalem, was taken over by a Judahite community by peaceful assimilation, and transformed from a village into a central town at some point in the late 11th or early 10th century BCE. This transformation used some ashlar blocks in construction, which they argued supports the United Monarchy theory. [138] [139]

History of interpretation in the Abrahamic religions

Rabbinic Judaism

David is an important figure in Rabbinic Judaism, with many legends around him. According to one tradition, David was raised as the son of his father Jesse and spent his early years herding his father's sheep in the wilderness while his brothers were in school. [140]

David's adultery with Bathsheba is interpreted as an opportunity to demonstrate the power of repentance, and the Talmud states that it was not adultery at all, quoting a Jewish practice of divorce on the eve of battle. Furthermore, according to Talmudic sources, the death of Uriah was not to be considered murder, on the basis that Uriah had committed a capital offense by refusing to obey a direct command from the King. [141] However, in tractate Sanhedrin, David expressed remorse over his transgressions and sought forgiveness. God ultimately forgave David and Bathsheba but would not remove their sins from Scripture. [142]

In Jewish legend, David's sin with Bathsheba is the punishment for David's excessive self-consciousness who had besought God to lead him into temptation so that he might give proof of his constancy as Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (who successfully passed the test) whose names later were united with God's, while David eventually failed through the temptation of a woman. [140]

According to midrashim, Adam gave up 70 years of his life for the life of David. [143] Also, according to the Talmud Yerushalmi, David was born and died on the Jewish holiday of Shavuot (Feast of Weeks). His piety was said to be so great that his prayers could bring down things from Heaven.[ citation needed ]


King David the Prophet
King David in Prayer, by Pieter de Grebber (c. 1640)
Holy Monarch, Prophet, Reformer, Spiritual Poet and Musician, Vicegerent of God, Psalm-Receiver
Venerated in Roman Catholicism [144]
Eastern Orthodoxy [145]
Feast December 29 – Roman Catholicism
Attributes Psalms, Harp, Head of Goliath

The Messiah concept is fundamental in Christianity. Originally an earthly king ruling by divine appointment ("the anointed one", as the title Messiah had it), the "son of David" became in the last two centuries BCE the apocalyptic and heavenly one who would deliver Israel and usher in a new kingdom. This was the background to the concept of Messiahship in early Christianity, which interpreted the career of Jesus "by means of the titles and functions assigned to David in the mysticism of the Zion cult, in which he served as priest-king and in which he was the mediator between God and man". [146]

The early Church believed that "the life of David foreshadowed the life of Christ; Bethlehem is the birthplace of both; the shepherd life of David points out Christ, the Good Shepherd; the five stones chosen to slay Goliath are typical of the five wounds; the betrayal by his trusted counsellor, Ahitophel, and the passage over the Cedron remind us of Christ's Sacred Passion. Many of the Davidic Psalms, as we learn from the New Testament, are clearly typical of the future Messiah." [147] In the Middle Ages, "Charlemagne thought of himself, and was viewed by his court scholars, as a 'new David'. [This was] not in itself a new idea, but [one whose] content and significance were greatly enlarged by him". [148]

Western Rite churches (Lutheran, Roman Catholic) celebrate his feast day on 29 December, Eastern-rite on 19 December. [149] The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate the feast day of the "Holy Righteous Prophet and King David" on the Sunday of the Holy Forefathers (two Sundays before the Great Feast of the Nativity of the Lord), when he is commemorated together with other ancestors of Jesus. He is also commemorated on the Sunday after the Nativity, together with Joseph and James, the Brother of the Lord.[ citation needed ]

Middle Ages

Coat of arms attributed to King David by mediaeval heralds. (Identical to the arms of Ireland) Arms of Ireland (Variant 1) (Historical).svg
Coat of arms attributed to King David by mediaeval heralds. (Identical to the arms of Ireland)

In European Christian culture of the Middle Ages, David was made a member of the Nine Worthies, a group of heroes encapsulating all the ideal qualities of chivalry. His life was thus proposed as a valuable subject for study by those aspiring to chivalric status. This aspect of David in the Nine Worthies was popularised firstly through literature, and was thereafter adopted as a frequent subject for painters and sculptors.

David was considered as a model ruler and a symbol of divinely-ordained monarchy throughout medieval Western Europe and Eastern Christendom. David was perceived as the biblical predecessor to Christian Roman and Byzantine emperors and the name "New David" was used as an honorific reference to these rulers. [151] The Georgian Bagratids and the Solomonic dynasty of Ethiopia claimed a direct biological descent from him. [152] Likewise, kings of the Frankish Carolingian dynasty frequently connected themselves to David; Charlemagne himself occasionally used the name of David as his pseudonym. [151]


David (Arabic: داوود Dā'ūd or Dāwūd) is an important figure in Islam as one of the major prophets sent by God to guide the Israelites. David is mentioned several times in the Quran with the Arabic name داود, Dāwūd or Dā'ūd, often with his son Solomon. In the Quran David killed Goliath (Q2:251), a giant soldier in the Philistine army. When David killed Goliath, God granted him kingship and wisdom and enforced it (Q38:20). David was made God's "vicegerent on earth" (Q38:26) and God further gave David sound judgment (Q21:78; Q37:21–24, Q26) as well as the Psalms, regarded as books of divine wisdom (Q4:163; Q17:55). The birds and mountains united with David in uttering praise to God (Q21:79; Q34:10; Q38:18), while God made iron soft for David (Q34:10), [153] God also instructed David in the art of fashioning chain mail out of iron (Q21:80); [154] this knowledge gave David a major advantage over his bronze and cast iron-armed opponents, not to mention the cultural and economic impact. Together with Solomon, David gave judgment in a case of damage to the fields (Q21:78) and David judged the matter between two disputants in his prayer chamber (Q38:21–23). Since there is no mention in the Quran of the wrong David did to Uriah nor any reference to Bathsheba, Muslims reject this narrative. [155]

Muslim tradition and the hadith stress David's zeal in daily prayer as well as in fasting. [156] Quran commentators, historians and compilers of the numerous Stories of the Prophets elaborate upon David's concise quranic narratives and specifically mention David's gift in singing his Psalms as well as his beautiful recitation and vocal talents. His voice is described as having had a captivating power, weaving its influence not only over man but over all beasts and nature, who would unite with him to praise God. [157]

Art and literature


David mourning the death of Absalom, by Gustave Dore 081.David Mourns the Death of Absalom.jpg
David mourning the death of Absalom, by Gustave Doré

Literary works about David include:



David by Michelangelo Michelangelo's David 2015.jpg
David by Michelangelo


David has been depicted several times in films; these are some of the best-known:



David on an Israeli stamp Stamp of Israel - Festivals 5721 - 0.25IL (cropped).jpg
David on an Israeli stamp

Musical theater

Playing cards

For a considerable period, starting in the 15th century and continuing until the 19th, French playing card manufacturers assigned to each of the court cards names taken from history or mythology. In this context, the King of spades was often known as "David". [171] [172]

See also


  1. Some scholars think that the biblical description of David reigning for exactly "forty years", like Solomon, is formulaic in nature and not intended as historical, which calls into question our understanding of the exact length of David's reign and the exact years it traverses. [1] Some scholars propose that David's rule occupied the middle third of the 10th century BC. [2]
  2. /ˈdvɪd/ ; Hebrew: דָּוִד, Modern: Davīd, Tiberian: Dāwīḏ; Arabic: داود(traditional spelling), داوود, Dāwūd; Koinē Greek: Δαυίδ, romanized: Dauíd; Latin: Davidus, David; Ge'ez: ዳዊት, Dawit; Old Armenian: Դաւիթ, Dawitʿ; Church Slavonic: Давíдъ, Davidŭ; possibly meaning "beloved one". [5]

Related Research Articles

Books of Samuel Books of the Bible

The Book of Samuel is a book in the Hebrew Bible and two books in the Christian Old Testament. The book is part of the narrative history of Ancient Israel called the Deuteronomistic history, a series of books that constitute a theological history of the Israelites and that aim to explain God's law for Israel under the guidance of the prophets.

History of ancient Israel and Judah History of the Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah

The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were two related Israelite kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Southern Levant. After an emergent and large polity was suddenly formed based on the Gibeon-Gibeah plateau and destroyed by Shoshenq I in the first half of 10th century BCE, a return to small city-states was prevalent in the Southern Levant, but between 950 and 900 BCE another large polity emerged in the northern highlands with its capital eventually at Tirzah, that can be considered the precursor of the Kingdom of Israel. The Kingdom was consolidated as an important regional power by the first half of the 9th century BCE, before falling to the Neo-Assyrian Empire in 722 BCE.

Kingdom of Judah Historic Hebrew kingdom in the Levant

The Kingdom of Judah was an Iron Age kingdom of the Southern Levant. The Hebrew Bible depicts it as the successor to the United Monarchy, a term denoting the Kingdom of Israel under biblical kings Saul, David and Solomon and covering the territory of two historical kingdoms, Judah and Israel. However, some scholars, including Israel Finkelstein and Alexander Fantalkin, believe that the existent archaeological evidence for an extensive Kingdom of Judah before the late 8th century BCE is too weak and that the methodology used to obtain the evidence is flawed. The Tel Dan Stele shows that the kingdom, in some semblance, existed by at least the mid-9th century BCE, but it does little to show to what extent.

Kingdom of Israel (Samaria) Israelite kingdom, c. 930–720 BCE

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Kingdom of Israel, was one of two successor states to the former United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Historians often refer to the Kingdom of Israel as the "Northern Kingdom" or as the "Kingdom of Samaria" to differentiate it from the Southern Kingdom of Judah.

Solomon King of the United Kingdom of Israel and a son of David

Solomon, also called Jedidiah, was, according to the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament a fabulously wealthy and wise king of the United Kingdom of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are about 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as king of the United Monarchy, which broke apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone.

Saul First king of the United Kingdom of Israel

Saul, according to the Hebrew Bible, was the first king of the United Kingdom of Israel. His reign, traditionally placed in the late 11th century BCE, supposedly marked a transition from a tribal society to statehood.

Samuel Biblical figure

Samuel is a figure who, in the narratives of the Hebrew Bible, plays a key role in the transition from the period of the biblical judges to the institution of a kingdom under Saul, and again in the transition from Saul to David. He is venerated as a prophet by Jews, Christians, and Muslims. In addition to his role in the Hebrew Scriptures, Samuel is mentioned in the New Testament, in rabbinical literature, and in the second chapter of the Qur'an. He is also treated in the fifth through seventh books of Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews, written in the first century CE (AD). He is first called the Seer in 1 Samuel 9:9.

Goliath A Philistine giant in the Bible

Goliath is described in the biblical Book of Samuel as a Philistine giant defeated by the young David in single combat. The story signified Saul's unfitness to rule, as Saul himself should have fought for Israel. Scholars today believe that the original listed killer of Goliath was Elhanan, son of Jair, and that the authors of the Deuteronomic history changed the original text to credit the victory to the more famous character, David.

Tribe of Reuben one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel according to the Torah

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Reuben was one of the twelve tribes of Israel. Unlike the majority of the tribes, the land of Reuben, along with that of Gad and half of Manasseh, was on the eastern side of the Jordan and shared a border with Moab. According to the biblical narrative, the Tribe of Reuben descended from Reuben, the oldest son of the patriarch Jacob. Reuben, along with nine other tribes, is reckoned by the Bible as part of the northern kingdom of Israel, and disappears from history with the demise of that kingdom in c. 723 BC.

Tribe of Judah One of the twelve Tribes of Israel

According to the Hebrew Bible, the tribe of Judah was one of the twelve Tribes of Israel.

Tribe of Ephraim one of the Twelve Tribes of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible

According to the Hebrew Bible, the Tribe of Ephraim was one of the tribes of Israel. The Tribe of Manasseh together with Ephraim formed the House of Joseph. It is one of the ten lost tribes. The etymology of the name is disputed.

Historicity of the Bible Relationship between historic and Biblical events

The historicity of the Bible is the question of the Bible's relationship to history—covering not just the Bible's acceptability as history but also the ability to understand the literary forms of biblical narrative. One can extend biblical historicity to the evaluation of whether or not the Christian New Testament is an accurate record of the historical Jesus and of the Apostolic Age. This tends to vary depending upon the opinion of the scholar.

Bathsheba Biblical figure

Bathsheba was the wife of Uriah the Hittite and later of David, according to the Hebrew Bible. She is most known for the biblical narrative in which she was summoned by King David, who had seen her bathing and lusted after her. She was the mother of Solomon, who succeeded David as king, making her the Queen mother.

Israel Finkelstein Israeli archaeologist

Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist, professor emeritus at Tel Aviv University. Finkelstein is active in the archaeology of the Levant and is an applicant of archaeological data in reconstructing biblical history. He is also known for applying the exact and life sciences in archaeological and historical reconstruction. Finkelstein is the current excavator of Megiddo, a key site for the study of the Bronze and Iron Ages in the Levant.

<i>King David</i> (film) 1985 film by Bruce Bersford

King David is a 1985 American Biblical epic film about the life of David, the second King of the Kingdom of Israel, as recounted in the Hebrew Bible. The film is directed by Bruce Beresford, written by Andrew Birkin and James Costigan, and stars Richard Gere in the title role. The ensemble cast includes Edward Woodward, Alice Krige, Denis Quilley, Cherie Lunghi, Hurd Hatfield, John Castle, Jean-Marc Barr, Christopher Malcolm, and Gina Bellman.

Kingdom of Israel (united monarchy) Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, c. 1050–930 BCE

The United Monarchy is the name given to the Israelite kingdom of Israel and Judah, during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, as depicted in the Hebrew Bible. This is traditionally dated between 1047 BCE and 930 BCE. On the succession of Solomon's son, Rehoboam, around 930 BCE, the Biblical account reports that the country split into two kingdoms: the Kingdom of Israel in the north and the Kingdom of Judah in the south.

Gath (city)

Gath or Gat, often referred to as Gath of the Philistines, was one of the five Philistine city-states, established in northeastern Philistia. Gath is often mentioned in the Hebrew Bible and its existence is confirmed by Egyptian inscriptions.


The Davidiad is the name of an heroic epic poem in Renaissance Latin by the Croatian national poet and Renaissance humanist Marko Marulić. Likely finished in AD 1517, the poem, as its Latin title suggests, details the ascension and deeds of David, the second king of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah, who is said to have reigned c. 1010–970 BC.

1 Kings 1

1 Kings 1 is the first chapter of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section focusing on the reign of Solomon over the unified kingdom of Judah and Israel. The focus of this chapter is the reign of David and Solomon, the kings of Israel.

1 Kings 15

1 Kings 15 is the fifteenth chapter of the Books of Kings in the Hebrew Bible or the First Book of Kings in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. The book is a compilation of various annals recording the acts of the kings of Israel and Judah by a Deuteronomic compiler in the seventh century BCE, with a supplement added in the sixth century BCE. This chapter belongs to the section comprising 1 Kings 12:1 to 16:14 which documents the consolidation of the kingdoms of northern Israel and Judah. The focus of this chapter is the reigns Abijam and Asa in the southern kingdom, as well as Nadab and Baasha in the northern kingdom.


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  2. H.M. Niemann, "Comments and Questions about the Interpretation of Khirbet Qeiyafa: Talking with Yosef Garfinkel", Journal of Ancient Near Eastern and Biblical Law (2017), p. 255.
  3. Garfinkel, Yosef; Ganor, Saar; Hasel, Michael G. (2018). In the Footsteps of King David: Revelations from an Ancient Biblical City. Thames & Hudson. p. 182. ISBN   978-0-50077428-1. Archived from the original on 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2020-10-05.
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  19. Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Bava Batra 91a
  20. Lemaire, Andre (1999). In Hershel Shanks, ed., Ancient Israel: From Abraham to the Roman Destruction of the Temple. Biblical Archaeology Society; Revised edition, ISBN   978-1880317549
  21. Brueggemann, Walter. David and His Theologian, Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2011, p. 110 Archived 2020-07-24 at the Wayback Machine ISBN   9781610975346
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  23. "1 Samuel 18:18-27". Archived from the original on 2014-05-08. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  24. Flavious Josephus (1998). "6.10.2". In Whiston, William (ed.). Antiquities of the Jews. Thomas Nelson.
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  26. "2 Samuel 3:14". Archived from the original on 2018-08-17. Retrieved 2018-08-17.
  27. 1 Chronicles 3:1–3
  28. 2 Samuel 5:14–16
  29. According to the Dead Sea Scrolls and Greek version of 2 Samuel 13:21, "... he did not punish his son Amnon, because he loved him, for he was his firstborn." "2 Samuel 13 NLT". Bible Gateway. Archived from the original on 2019-09-23. Retrieved 2019-09-23.
  30. 1 Sam 13:8–14
  31. 1 Sam 15:1–28
  32. 1 Sam 16:1–13
  33. Alter, Robert (2009). The David Story: A Translation with Commentary of 1 and 2 Samuel. W. W. Norton. p. xx. ISBN   978-0393320770. Archived from the original on 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2020-07-17.
  34. 1 Sam 17:1–11
  35. 1 Sam 17:17–37
  36. 1 Sam 17:38–39
  37. 1 Sam 17:49–50
  38. 1 Sam 17:55–56
  39. 1 Sam 18:5–9
  40. 1 Samuel 21:10–11
  41. 1 Samuel 22:1
  42. 1 Samuel 22:5
  43. 1 Samuel 23:1–13
  44. 1 Samuel 23:14
  45. 1 Samuel 23:27–29
  46. 1 Samuel 24:1–22
  47. 1 Samuel 26:11
  48. 1 Samuel 26:25, NIV text
  49. cf. 1 Samuel 21:10–15
  50. 1 Sam 29:1–11
  51. 1 Samuel 30:1
  52. 1 Sam 31:1–13
  53. 2 Sam 2:1–4
  54. 2 Sam 2:8–11
  55. 2 Sam 5:1–3
  56. 2 Sam 5:6–7
  57. 2 Sam 6:1–12
  58. 2 Sam 7:1–13
  59. 2 Sam 7:16
  60. 2 Sam 8:1–14
  61. Lawrence O. Richards (2002). Bible Reader's Companion. David C Cook. pp. 210–. ISBN   978-0-7814-3879-7. Archived from the original on 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2017-07-28.
  62. Carlos Wilton (June 2004). Lectionary Preaching Workbook: For All Users of the Revised Common, the Roman Catholic, and the Episcopal Lectionaries. Series VIII. CSS Publishing. pp. 189–. ISBN   978-0-7880-2371-2.
  63. David J. Zucker (10 December 2013). The Bible's Prophets: An Introduction for Christians and Jews. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 51–. ISBN   978-1-63087-102-4.
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  66. Sara M. Koenig (8 November 2011). Isn't This Bathsheba?: A Study in Characterization. Wipf and Stock Publishers. pp. 69–. ISBN   978-1-60899-427-4.
  67. Antony F. Campbell (2004). Joshua to Chronicles: An Introduction. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 161–. ISBN   978-0-664-25751-4. Archived from the original on 2019-12-16. Retrieved 2017-08-19.
  68. 2 Sam 11:14–17
  69. Some commentators believe this meant during David's lifetime Archived 2017-08-01 at the Wayback Machine . Others say it included his posterity Archived 2017-07-29 at the Wayback Machine . 2 Sam 12:8–12:10
  70. 2 Samuel 12:13
  71. Adultery was a capital crime under Mosaic law: Leviticus 20:10
  72. 2 Samuel 12:14: NIV translation
  73. 2 Sam 15:1–12
  74. 2 Sam 18:1–15
  75. 2 Sam 18:33
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  77. 2 Samuel 19:1–8
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  79. 1 Kings 1:1–5
  80. 1 Kings 1:11–31
  81. 2 Sam 5:4
  82. 1 Kings 2:1–9
  83. Helen C. Evans; William W. Wixom, eds. (5 March 1997). The Glory of Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantine Era, A.D. 843-1261. Metropolitan Museum of Art. p.  86. ISBN   9780870997778 . Retrieved 5 March 2018 via Internet Archive.
  84. 1 Samuel 16:15–18
  85. Other translations say, "the hero of Israel's songs," "the favorite singer of Israel," "the contented psalm writer of Israel," and "Israel's beloved singer of songs." 2 Samuel 23:1 Archived 2017-07-27 at the Wayback Machine .
  86. Commentary on II Samuel 22, The Anchor Bible, Vol. 9. II Samuel. P. Kyle McCarter, Jr., 1984. New York: Doubleday. ISBN   0-385-06808-5
  87. 1 2 Steven McKenzie, Associate Professor Rhodes College, Memphis, Tennessee Archived 2012-06-21 at the Wayback Machine .
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  89. 1 Samuel 21:15
  90. 1 2 Pioske 2015, p. 180.
  91. Pioske 2015, p. 180, Chapter 4: David's Jerusalem: The Early 10th Century BCE Part I: An Agrarian Community: ‘…the reading of bytdwd as "House of David" has been challenged by those unconvinced of the inscription's allusion to an eponymous David or the kingdom of Judah.’
  92. Pioske 2015, p. 210, fn. 18.
  93. Finkelstein, Na’aman & Römer 2019.
  94. 1 2 "New reading of the Mesha Stele inscription has major consequences for biblical history" (news release). American Friends of Tel Aviv University. 2 May 2019. Retrieved 22 October 2020 via American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).
  95. Langlois 2019.
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  98. 1 2 McKenzie, Steven L. (2000). "One". King David: A Biography. The New York Times . ISBN   0-19-513273-4. Archived from the original on 2018-01-19. Retrieved 2018-06-19.
  99. Hill, Andrew E.; Walton, John H. (2009) [1991]. A Survey of the Old Testament (3rd ed.). Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 258. ISBN   978-0-310-28095-8. Archived from the original on 2020-10-11. Retrieved 2019-12-27. The events of the book took place in the last half of the eleventh century and the early part of the tenth century BC, but it is difficult to determine when the events were recorded. There are no particularly persuasive reasons to date the sources used by the compiler later than the events themselves, and good reason to believe that contemporary records were kept (cf. 2 Sam. 20:24–25).
  100. Auld 2003, p. 219.
  101. ( 1 Samuel 16:14–2, 5:10
  102. 2 Samuel 9–20 and 1 Kings 1–2
  103. Knight 1991, p. 853.
  104. McKenzie 2004, p. 32.
  105. Moore & Kelle 2011, pp. 220–221.
  106. Thompson : The history of Palestine and of its peoples is very different from the Bible's narratives, whatever political claims to the contrary may be. An independent history of Judea during the Iron I and Iron II periods has little room for historicizing readings of the stories of I-II Samuel and I Kings.; Redford 1992 , pp. 301–2: One (perversely perhaps) longs to see the result of the application of such a criterion to Geoffrey of Monmouth’s treatment of Arthur, to the anonymous Joseph and Asenath, to the Alexander Romances, or a host of other Pseudepigrapha. Mesmerized by the literary quality of much of the writing in 1 and 2 Samuel—it is in truth a damned good story!—many scholars take a further step: "The Succession story must be regarded as the oldest specimen of ancient Israelite history writing.”; Pfoh 2016 , p. 54 n. 126: Isser links the David story with other heroic tales, like Homer's epics and King Arthur's legend
  107. Kalimi, Isaac. Writing and Rewriting the Story of Solomon in Ancient Israel, Cambridge University Press, 2019, p. 53
  108. Baden 2013, p. 12: the biblical narrative may be considered the ancient equivalent of political spin: it is a retelling, even a reinterpretation, of events, the goal of which is to absolve David of any potential guilt and to show him in a positive light. sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFBaden2013 (help)
  109. Baruch Halpern, "David's Secret Demons", 2001. Review of Baruch Halpern's "David's Secret Demons" Archived 2007-08-10 at the Wayback Machine .
  110. Baden, Joel (2013-10-08). The Historical David: The Real Life of an Invented Hero. Harper Collins. ISBN   978-0-06-218833-5.
  111. Dever, William G. (2020-08-18). Has Archaeology Buried the Bible?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4674-5949-5.
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  113. Ancient Israel: What Do We Know and How Do We Know It? By Lester L. Grabbe; page 77Bloomsbury Publishing, 2017
  114. A History of Ancient Israel and Judah; ByJames Maxwell Miller & John Haralson Hayes; pages 204; SCM Press, 2006; ISBN   9780334041177
  115. Finkelstein & Silberman 2007 , pp. 26–27; Finkelstein & Silberman 2002 , pp.  189–190 , Chapter 8: Archaeologically and historically, the redating of these cities from Solomon's era to the time of Omrides has enormous implication. It removes the only archeological evidence that there was ever a united monarchy based in Jerusalem and suggests that David and Solomon were, in political terms, little more than hill country chieftains, whose administrative reach remained on a fairly local level, restricted to the hill country.
  116. Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p.  23; 241–247.
  117. Finkelstein & Silberman 2002 , pp.  158. "We still have no hard archaeological evidence—despite the unparalleled biblical description of its grandeur—that Jerusalem was anything more than a modest highland village in the time of David, Solomon, and Rehoboam."
  118. Finkelstein & Silberman 2002, p. 131, Table Two.
  119. Finkelstein & Silberman 2002 , p. 181. Speaking of Samaria: "The scale of this project was enormous."
  120. 1 2 Mazar, Amihai. Archaeology and the biblical Narrative: The Case of the United Monarchy (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-06-11.
  121. "First Person: Did the Kingdoms of Saul, David and Solomon Actually Exist?". Biblical Archaeology Society. 2020-12-12. Retrieved 2021-07-20.
  122. "NOVA | The Bible's Buried Secrets | Archeology of the Hebrew Bible | PBS". www.pbs.org. Retrieved 2021-07-20. The stories of Solomon are larger than life. According to the stories, Solomon imported 100,000 workers from what is now Lebanon. Well, the whole population of Israel probably wasn't 100,000 in the 10th century. Everything Solomon touched turned to gold. In the minds of the biblical writers, of course, David and Solomon are ideal kings chosen by Yahweh. So they glorify them. Now, archeology can't either prove or disprove the stories. But I think most archeologists today would argue that the United Monarchy was not much more than a kind of hill-country chiefdom. It was very small-scale.
  123. Dever, William G. (2017-11-03). Beyond the Texts: An Archaeological Portrait of Ancient Israel and Judah. SBL Press. ISBN   978-0-88414-217-1.
  124. Dever, William G. (2020-08-18). Has Archaeology Buried the Bible?. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN   978-1-4674-5949-5.
  125. Kuhrt, Amélie (1995). The Ancient Near East, c. 3000–330 BC, Band 1. New York: Routledge. p. 438. ISBN   978-0-41516-762-8.
  126. Kitchen, K. A. (2006-06-09). On the Reliability of the Old Testament. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN   978-0-8028-0396-2.
  127. Zachary Thomas, "Debating the United Monarchy: let's see how far we've come." Biblical Theology Bulletin (2016).
  128. Avraham Faust 2010. "The large stone structure in the City of David: a reexamination." Zeitschrift des Deutschen Palästina-Vereins.
  129. “The Stepped Stone Structure” in Mazar ed., The Summit of the City of David Excavations 2005–2008: Final Reports Volume I: Area G (2015), pp. 169–88
  130. Na'aman, Nadav. "The Case of David's Palace and the Millo", BAR (2014), pp. 57–62
  131. William Dever, Beyond the Texts, SBL Press, 2017, pp. 277–283
  132. "Jerusalem city wall dates back to King Solomon," Jerusalem Post, February 23, 2009,
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Further reading