David Alfaro Siqueiros

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David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros (El Coronelazo).jpg
Siqueiros by Héctor García Cobo at Lecumberri prison, Mexico City, 1960.
Born(1896-12-29)December 29, 1896
DiedJanuary 6, 1974(1974-01-06) (aged 77)
NationalityMexican
EducationSan Carlos Academy
Known for Painting, Muralist
Notable work
Portrait of the Bourgeoisie (1939–1940), The March of Humanity (1957–1971)
Movement Mexican Mural Movement, Social Realism
Awards Lenin Peace Prize 1966

David Alfaro Siqueiros (born José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros, December 29, 1896, in Chihuahua – January 6, 1974, in Cuernavaca, Morelos) was a Mexican social realist painter, better known for his large murals in fresco. Along with Diego Rivera and José Clemente Orozco, he established "Mexican Muralism." He was a Stalinist in support of the Soviet Union and a member of the Mexican Communist Party who led an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Leon Trotsky in May 1940.

Cuernavaca City and Municipality in Morelos, Mexico

Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. The city is located around a 90 min drive south of Mexico City using the Federal Highway 95D.

Morelos State of Mexico

Morelos, officially the Free and Sovereign State of Morelos, is one of the 32 states, which comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 36 municipalities and its capital city is Cuernavaca.

Fresco Mural painting upon freshly laid lime plaster

Fresco is a technique of mural painting executed upon freshly laid, or wet lime plaster. Water is used as the vehicle for the dry-powder pigment to merge with the plaster, and with the setting of the plaster, the painting becomes an integral part of the wall. The word fresco is derived from the Italian adjective fresco meaning "fresh", and may thus be contrasted with fresco-secco or secco mural painting techniques, which are applied to dried plaster, to supplement painting in fresco. The fresco technique has been employed since antiquity and is closely associated with Italian Renaissance painting.

Contents

His surname would normally be Alfaro by Spanish naming customs; like Picasso (Pablo Ruiz y Picasso) and Lorca (Federico García Lorca), Siqueiros used his mother's surname. It was long believed that he was born in Camargo in Chihuahua state, but in 2003 it was proven that he had actually been born in the city of Chihuahua, but grew up in Irapuato, Guanajuato, at least from the age of six. The discovery of his birth certificate in 2003 by a Mexican art curator was announced the following year by art critic Raquel Tibol, who was renowned as the leading authority on Mexican Muralism [1] and who had been a close acquaintance of Siqueiros. [2] Siqueiros changed his given name to "David" after his first wife called him by it in allusion to Michelangelo's David . [2] [3]

Spanish naming customs are historical traditions for naming children practised in Spain. According to these customs, a person's name consists of a given name followed by two family names (surnames). The first surname is usually the father's first surname, and the second the mother's first surname. In recent years, the order of the surnames can be decided at birth. Often, the practice is to use one given name and the first surname only, with the full name being used in legal, formal, and documentary matters, or for disambiguation when the first surname is very common. In these cases, it is common to use only the second surname, as in “Lorca”, "Picasso" or “Zapatero”. This does not affect alphabetization: discussions of "Lorca", the Spanish poet, must be alphabetized in an index under “García Lorca", never "Lorca".

Pablo Picasso 20th-century Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer

Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France. Regarded as one of the most influential artists of the 20th century, he is known for co-founding the Cubist movement, the invention of constructed sculpture, the co-invention of collage, and for the wide variety of styles that he helped develop and explore. Among his most famous works are the proto-Cubist Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907), and Guernica (1937), a dramatic portrayal of the bombing of Guernica by the German and Italian airforces during the Spanish Civil War.

Federico García Lorca Spanish poet, dramatist and theatre director

Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca, was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.

Youth

Many details of his childhood, including birth date, birthplace, first name, and where he grew up, were misstated during his life and long after his death, in some cases by himself. Often, he is reported to have been born and raised in 1898 in a town in the state of Chihuahua, and his personal names are reported to be "José David".

Siqueiros was born in Chihuahua in 1896, the second of three children. He was baptized José de Jesús Alfaro Siqueiros. [2] [3] His father, Cipriano Alfaro, originally from Irapuato, was well-off. His mother was Teresa Siqueiros. Siqueiros had two siblings: a sister, Luz, three years older, and a brother "Chucho" (Jesús), a year younger. David's mother died when he was four; their father sent the children to live with their paternal grandparents. [4] David's grandfather, nicknamed "Siete Filos" ('seven knife-edges'), had an especially strong role in his upbringing. In 1902 Siqueiros started school in Irapuato, Guanajuato.

Irapuato City and municipality in Guanajuato, Mexico

Irapuato is a Mexican town located at the foot of the Arandas Hill, in the south central region of the state of Guanajuato. It lies between the Silao River and the Guanajuato River, a tributary of the Lerma River, at 1,724 m (5,656 ft) above sea level. It is located at 20°40′N101°21′W. The city is the second-largest in the state, with a population of 342,561 according to the 2005 census, while its municipality has a population of 529,440. The municipality has an area of 845.16 km² and includes numerous smaller outlying communities. The city's main industry is agriculture and it is famous for its strawberries and the raising of pigs and cattle. The fruits and flowers of Irapuato's luxurious gardens are well known throughout Mexico.

He credits his first rebellious influence to his sister, who had resisted their father's religious orthodoxy. Around this time, Siqueiros was also exposed to new political ideas, mainly along the lines of anarcho-syndicalism. One such political theorist was Dr. Atl, who published a manifesto in 1906 calling for Mexican artists to develop a national art and look to ancient indigenous cultures for inspiration. [5] In 1911, at age fifteen, Siqueiros was involved in a student strike at the Academy of San Carlos of the National Academy of Fine Arts that protested the school's teaching methodology and urged the impeachment of the school's director. Their protests eventually led to the establishment of an "open-air academy" in Santa Anita  [ es ]. [5]

Anarcho-syndicalism branch of anarchism

Anarcho-syndicalism is a theory of anarchism that views revolutionary industrial unionism or syndicalism as a method for workers in capitalist society to gain control of an economy and with that control influence in broader society. Syndicalists consider their economic theories a strategy for facilitating worker self-activity and as an alternative co-operative economic system with democratic values and production centered on meeting human needs.

Dr. Atl Mexican artist

Gerardo Murillo Cornado was a Mexican painter and writer who signed his works "Dr. Atl".

Academy of San Carlos

The Academy of San Carlos is located at 22 Academia Street in just northeast of the main plaza of Mexico City. It was the first major art academy and the first art museum in the Americas. It was founded in 1781 as the School of Engraving and moved to the Academia Street location about 10 years later. It emphasized classical European training until the early 20th century, when it shifted to a more modern perspective. At this time, it also integrated with the National Autonomous University of Mexico, eventually becoming the Faculty of Arts and Design, which is based in Xochimilco. Currently, only graduate courses of the modern school are given in the original academy building.

At the age of eighteen, Siqueiros and several of his colleagues from the School of Fine Arts joined Venustiano Carranza's Constitutional Army fighting Huerta's government. When Huerta fell in 1914, Siqueiros became enmeshed in the "post-revolutionary" infighting, as the Constitutional Army had to battle the diverse political factions of Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata for control. [5] His military travels around the country exposed him to Mexican culture and the raw everyday struggles of the working and rural poor classes. After Carranza's forces had gained control, Siqueiros briefly returned to Mexico City to paint before traveling to Europe in 1919. First in Paris, he absorbed the influence of cubism, intrigued particularly with Paul Cézanne and the use of large blocks of intense color. While there, he also met Diego Rivera, another Mexican painter of "the big three" just on the brink of a legendary career in muralism, and traveled with him throughout Italy to study the great fresco painters of the Renaissance. [5]

Venustiano Carranza Mexican politician and president of Mexico

Venustiano Carranza Garza was one of the main leaders of the Mexican Revolution, whose victorious northern revolutionary Constitutionalist Army defeated the counter-revolutionary regime of Victoriano Huerta and then defeated fellow revolutionaries after Huerta's ouster. He secured power in Mexico, serving as head of state from 1915–1917. With the promulgation of a new revolutionary Mexican Constitution of 1917, he was elected president, serving from 1917 to 1920.

The Constitutional Army was the army that fought against the Federal Army, and later, against the Villistas and Zapatistas during the Mexican Revolution. It was formed in March 1913 by Venustiano Carranza, so-called "First-Chief" of the army, as a response to the murder of President Francisco I. Madero and Vice President José María Pino Suárez by Victoriano Huerta during La Decena Trágica of 1913, and the resulting usurpation of presidential power by Huerta.

Victoriano Huerta Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico

José Victoriano Huerta Márquez was a Mexican military officer and 35th President of Mexico.

Early oppression and racism

Although many have said that Siqueiros' artistic ventures were frequently "interrupted" by his political ones, Siqueiros himself believed the two were intricately intertwined. [6] By 1921, when he wrote his manifesto in Vida Americana, Siqueiros had already been exposed to Marxism and saw the life of the working and rural poor while traveling with the Constitutional Army. In "A New Direction for the New Generation of American Painters and Sculptors", he called for a "spiritual renewal" to simultaneously bring back the virtues of classical painting while infusing this style with "new values" that acknowledge the "modern machine" and the "contemporary aspects of daily life". [7] The manifesto also claimed that a "constructive spirit" is essential to meaningful art, which rises above mere decoration or false, fantastical themes. Through this style, Siqueiros hoped to create a style that would bridge national and universal art. In his work as well as his writing, Siqueiros sought a social realism that at once hailed the proletariat peoples of Mexico and the world while avoiding the clichés of trendy "Primitivism" and "Indianism". [8]

Marxism economic and sociopolitical worldview based on the works of Karl Marx

Marxism is a theory and method of working class self-emancipation. As a theory, it relies on a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation. It originates from the works of 19th-century German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Mural of David Alfaro Siqueiros in Tecpan, c. 1944 Mural David Alfaro Siqueiros en el Tecpan Tlatelolco.jpg
Mural of David Alfaro Siqueiros in Tecpan, c. 1944

In 1922, Siqueiros returned to Mexico City to work as a muralist for Álvaro Obregón's revolutionary government. Then Secretary of Public Education José Vasconcelos made a mission of educating the masses through public art and hired scores of artists and writers to build a modern Mexican culture. Siqueiros, Rivera and José Orozco worked together under Vasconcelos, who supported the muralist movement by commissioning murals for prominent buildings in Mexico City. Still, the artists working at the Preparatoria realized that many of their early works lacked the "public" nature envisioned in their ideology. In 1923 Siqueiros helped found the Syndicate of Revolutionary Mexican Painters, Sculptors and Engravers, which addressed the problem of widespread public access through its union paper, El Machete. That year the paper published – "for the proletariat of the world" – a manifesto, which Siqueiros helped author, on the necessity of a "collective" art, which would serve as "ideological propaganda" to educate the masses and overcome bourgeois, individualist art.

Soon after, Siqueiros painted his famous mural Burial of a Worker (1923) in the stairwell of the Colegio Chico. The fresco features a group of pre-Conquest style workers in a funeral procession who are carrying a giant coffin, decorated with a hammer and sickle. [9] The mural was never finished and was vandalized by students at the school who did not agree with the overtly political subject matter in the painting. Eventually, the entire painting was whitewashed by the new Minister of Education who succeeded Vasconcelos. [10] But as the union became ever more critical of the revolutionary government, which had not instituted the promised reforms, its members faced new threats to cut funding for their art and the paper. A feud within the union over whether to cease publishing El Machete or lose financial support for the mural projects left Siqueiros at the forefront, as Rivera left in protest of the decision to uphold politics over artistic opportunity. Despite being let go from his post under the Department of Education in 1925, Siqueiros remained deeply entrenched in labor activities, in the union as well as the Mexican Communist Party, until he was jailed and eventually exiled in the early 1930s. [5]

After spending many years in Mexico and heavily involved in radical political activities, Siqueiros went to Los Angeles in 1932 to continue his career as a muralist. Working in a collective unit that experimented with new painting techniques using modern devices such as airbrushes, sprayguns and projectors, [11] Siqueiros and his team of collaborators painted two major murals. The first mural, Street Meeting, was commissioned for the Chouinard School of Art. It depicts a group of workers of mixed ethnicities listening to an angry labor agitator's speech during a break in the workday. [12] The mural was washed over within a year of its unveiling due both to weather-related technical issues, and perhaps, to the pro-Communist content of the work. Siqueiros' other significant public Los Angeles mural, Tropical America (full name: América Tropical: Oprimida y Destrozada por los Imperialismos , or Tropical America: Oppressed and Destroyed by Imperialism [13] ), was commissioned shortly after the unveiling of Street Meeting, and was to bepainted on the exterior wall of the Plaza Art Center that faced the busy Olvera Street. Siqueiros' Tropical America depicts the United States' imperialism in Latin America, a much more radical theme than was intended for the mural. Although Tropical America received generally favorable criticism, some viewed the mural as "Communist propaganda", which led to a partial covering in 1934 and a total whitewash in 1938. [14] Eighty years later, the Getty Conservation Institute performed restoration work on the mural. [15] As no color photographs of Tropical America are known to exist, conservators used scientific analysis and best practices to get at the artist's vision of his piece. It became accessible to the public on its 80th birthday, October 9, 2012. [16] The América Tropical Interpretive Center that opened nearby is dedicated to the life and legacy of David Alfaro Siqueiros. [17] [18]

Artistic Career

La Marcha de la Humanidad Foto al mural del polyforum0002.jpg
La Marcha de la Humanidad

In the early 1930s, including his time spent in Lecumberri Prison, Siqueiros produced a series of politically themed lithographs, many of which were exhibited in the United States. His lithograph Head was shown at the 1930 exhibition "Mexican Artists and Artists of the Mexican School" at The Delphic Studios in New York City. [19] In 1932, he led an exhibition and conference entitled "Rectifications on Mexican Muralism" at the gallery of the Spanish Casino in Taxco, Guerrero. [5] Shortly after, he traveled to New York, where he participated in the Weyhe Gallery's "Mexican Graphic Art" exhibition. Also in 1932, Nelbert Chouinard invited Siqueiros to Los Angeles to conduct mural workshops. [20] It was at this time that, with a team of students, he also completed Tropical America in 1932, at the Italian Hall at Olvera Street in Los Angeles. [21] Painting fresco on an outside wall – visible to passersby as well as intentional viewers – forced Siqueiros to reconsider his methodology as a muralist. He wanted the image – an Indian peon being crucified by American oppression – to be accessible from multiple angles. Instead of just constructing "an enlarged easel painting," he realized that the mural "must conform to the normal transit of a spectator." [8] Eventually, Siqueiros would develop a mural technique that involved tracing figures onto a wall with an electric projector, photographing early wall sketches to improve perspective, and new paints, spray guns, and other tools to accommodate the surface of modern buildings and the outdoor conditions. He was unceremoniously deported from the United States for political activity the same year. [22]

Back in New York in 1936, he was the guest of honor at the "Contemporary Arts" exhibition at the St. Regis gallery. There he also ran a political art workshop in preparation for the 1936 General Strike for Peace and May Day parade. The young Jackson Pollock attended the workshop and helped build floats for the parade. In fact, Siquieros has been credited with teaching drip and pour techniques to Pollock that later resulted in his "allover" paintings, made from 1947 to 1950, and which constitute Pollock's greatest achievement. In addition to floats, the Siqueiros Experimental Workshop produced a variety of posters and other ephemeral works for the CPUSA and other anti-fascist organizations in New York. These ephemeral works possessed the ability to reach the masses in a way different from mural painting because they were accessible to a wide audience outside of an institution or gallery. The Siqueiros Experimental Workshop only lasted for a little over a year until Siqueiros went to fight in the Spanish Civil War in April 1937, but their floats were featured in both the 1936 and 1937 May Day Parades in Manhattan's garment district. [23]

Continuing to produce several works throughout the late 1930s - such as Echo of a Scream (1937) and The Sob (1939), both now at the Museum of Modern Art in New York – Siqueiros also led a number of experimental art workshops for American students. He spent the better part of 1938 with the Spanish Republican Army fighting Francisco Franco's fascist coup before returning to Mexico City. After his return, in a stairwell of the Sindicato Mexicano de Electricistas, Siqueiros collaborated with Spanish refugee Josep Renau and the International Team of Plastic Artists to develop one of his most famous works, Portrait of the Bourgeoisie, warning against the dual foes of capitalism and fascism. [24] The original mural shows a giant generator using the opposition of fascist and capitalist democracies to generate imperialism and war. An armed, brave-faced revolutionary, of unnamable class or ethnicity, confronts the machine, and a blue sky on the ceiling flanked by electrical towers displays hope for the proletariat in technological and industrial advances.

Attempted assassination of Leon Trotsky

Before the mural's completion in 1940, however, Siqueiros was forced into hiding and later exiled for his direct involvement in an attempt to assassinate Leon Trotsky, then in exile in Mexico City from the Soviet Union: [5]

In the early morning of May 24, 1940, he led an attack on Trotsky's house in Mexico City's Coyoacán suburb. (Trotsky, granted asylum by President Cárdenas, was then living in Mexico.) The attacking party was composed of men who had served under Siqueiros in the Spanish Civil War and of miners from his union. After thoroughly raking the house with machine gun fire and explosives, the attackers withdrew in the belief that nobody could have survived the assault. They were mistaken. Trotsky was unhurt and lived till August, when he was killed with an ice pick wielded by an assassin [25]

Trotsky's 13-year-old grandson was shot, yet survived. [26] Following the attack, police found a shallow grave [27] on the road to the Desierto de los Leones with the body of New York Communist Robert Sheldon Harte, executed [28] by one shot to the head. He had been one of Trotsky's bodyguards. The theory that Sheldon was a Soviet agent who had infiltrated Trotsky's entourage, aiding in Siqueiros' attack by allowing the hit squad to enter Trotsky's compound, was discounted by Trotsky and later historians. [29] Siqueiros's colleague Josep Renau completed the SME mural, transforming the generator into a machine that converts the blood of workers into coins.

American-born poet and eventual fellow Spanish Civil War participant Edwin Rolfe was a great admirer of Siqueiros's "ability to function" as "artist and revolutionary". [30] His 1934 poem "Room with Revolutionists" is based on a conversation between ″New Masses″ editor, poet, and Left journalist Joseph Freeman (1897-1965) and Siqueiros; [30] in it, Siqueiros is described as "a revolutionist / a painter of great areas, editor / of fiery and terrifying words, leader / of the poor who plant, the poor who burrow / under the earth in field and mine. / His life's an always upward-delving battle in / an old torn sweater, the pockets always empty." [31]

Later life and oppression

Unfinished 1940s mural painted by David Alfaro Siqueiros, in Escuela de Bellas Artes, a cultural center in San Miguel de Allende, Gto. SiqueirosMuralSanMiguel.JPG
Unfinished 1940s mural painted by David Alfaro Siqueiros, in Escuela de Bellas Artes, a cultural center in San Miguel de Allende, Gto.

Siqueiros participated in the first ever Mexican contingent at the XXV Venice Biennale exhibition with Orozco, Rivera and Tamayo in 1950, and he received the second prize for all exhibitors, which recognized the international status of Mexican art. [32] [33] Yet by the 1950s, Siqueiros returned to accepting commissions from what he considered a "progressive" Mexican state, rather than painting for galleries or private patrons. [33] He painted an outdoor mural entitled The People to the University, the University to the People at the National Autonomous University of Mexico in Mexico City in 1952. In 1957 he began work on 4,500-square-foot (420 m2) government commission for Chapultepec Castle in Mexico City; Del porfirismo a la Revolución was his biggest mural yet. [33] (The painting is known in English as From the Dictatorship of Porfirio Diaz to the Revolution or The Revolution Against the Porfirian Dictatorship.)

In the lobby of the Hospital de la Raza in Mexico City, he created a revolutionary multi-angular mural using new materials and techniques, For the Social Welfare of all Mexicans. After painting Man the Master and Not the Slave of Technology on a concave aluminum panel in the lobby of the Polytechnic Institute, he painted The Apology for the Future Victory of Science over Cancer on panels which wrap around the lobby of cancer center. [32]

Yet near the end of the decade, his outspoken communist views alienated him from the government. Under pressure from the government, the National Actors' Association, which had commissioned a mural on the theater in Mexico suspended his work on The History of Theater in Mexico at the Jorge Negrete Theater and sued him for breach of contract in 1958. [34]

David Siqueiros mural: El pueblo a la universidad, la universidad al pueblo, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 1952-1956. CU-Mexico-rectoria-1.jpg
David Siqueiros mural: El pueblo a la universidad, la universidad al pueblo, National Autonomous University of Mexico, 1952–1956.

Siqueiros was eventually arrested in 1960 for openly criticizing the President of Mexico, Adolfo López Mateos, and leading protests against the arrests of striking workers and teachers, though the charges were commonly known to be false. [32] Numerous protests ensued, even including an appeal by well-known artists and writers in The New York Times ad in 1961. [35] Unjustly imprisoned, Siqueiros continued to paint, and his works continued to sell. [33] During that stay, he would make numerous sketches for the project of decorating the Hotel Casino de la Selva, owned by Manuel Suarez y Suarez. After international pressure was put on the Mexican authorities, Siqueiros was finally pardoned and released in the spring of 1964. He immediately resumed working on his suspended murals in the Actors' Union and Chapultepec Castle.

When the mural planned for the Hotel de la Selva in Cuernavaca was moved to Mexico City and expanded, he assembled a team of national and international artists to work on the panels in his workshop in Cuernavaca. [32] This project, his last major mural, is the largest mural ever painted, an integrated structure combining architecture, in which the building was designed as a mural, with mural painting and polychromed sculpture. Known as the Polyforum Siqueiros, the exterior consists of 12 panels of sculpture and painting while the walls and ceiling of the interior are covered with The March of Humanity on Earth and Toward the Cosmos. [32] Completed in 1971 after years of extension and delay, the mural broke from some previous stylistic mandates, if only by its complex message. Known for making art that was easily read by the public, especially the lower classes, Siqueiros' message in The March is more difficult to decipher, though it seems to fuse two visions of human progress, one international and one based in Mexican heritage. [33] The mural's placement at a ritzy hotel and commission by its millionaire owner also seems to challenge Siqueiros' anti-capitalist ideology. [33]

Style

View of the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros in Mexico City PolyforumSiqueiros05.jpg
View of the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros in Mexico City

As a muralist and an artist, Siqueiros believed art should be public, educational, and ideological. He painted mostly murals and other portraits of the revolution – its goals, its past, and the current oppression of the working classes. Because he was painting a story of human struggle to overcome authoritarian, capitalist rule, he painted the everyday people ideally involved in this struggle. Though his pieces sometimes include landscapes or figures of Mexican history and mythology, these elements often appear as mere accessories to the story of a revolutionary hero or heroes (several works depict the revolutionary "masses", such as the mural at Chapultepec). [36]

His interest in the human form developed at the Academy in Mexico City. His accentuation of the angles of the body, its muscles and joints, can be seen throughout his career in his portrayal of the strong revolutionary body. In addition, many works, especially in the 1930s, prominently feature hands, which could be interpreted as another heroic symbol of proletarian strength through work: his self-portrait in prison (El Coronelazo, 1945, Museum of Modern Art, Mexico City), Our Present Image (1947, Museum of Modern Art, Mexico), New Democracy (1944, Palace of Fine Arts, Mexico City), and even his series on working class women, such as The Sob.

See also

Selected other works

Further reading

Notes

  1. Conaculta 2011.
  2. 1 2 3 Proceso 2004.
  3. 1 2 Gente Sur 2005.
  4. Stein, 1994 & 14-16.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Stein 1994.
  6. "MoMA". MoMA.org. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  7. Calles 1975, p. 21.
  8. 1 2 Calles 1975.
  9. Laurance P. Hurlburt, The Mexican Muralists in the United States (Albuquerque, N.M.: University of New Mexico Press, 1989), 203.
  10. Brenner, Anita (1929). Idols Behind Altars. New York: Payson & Clark Ltd. pp. 244–259.
  11. D. Anthony White (20 March 2009). Siqueiros: Biography of a Revolutionary Artist. Booksurge. p. 145. ISBN   978-1-4392-1172-4.
  12. Hurlburt, Laurance (1989). The Mexican Muralists in the United States. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. pp. 210–213. ISBN   0826311342.
  13. Del Barco, Mandalit. Revolutionary Mural To Return To L.A. After 80 Years. npr. October 26, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2015.
  14. Hurlburt, Laurance (1989). The Mexican Muralists in the United States. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. p. 213. ISBN   0826311342.
  15. "Conservation of América Tropical" The Getty Conservation Institute website Accessed 14 November 2014
  16. Whalen, Timothy P. (October 9, 2012) "América Tropical Is Reborn on 80th Birthday" The Getty Iris The J. Paul Getty Trust
  17. América Tropical Interpretive Center Official website
  18. 1 2 "'America Tropical': A forgotten Siqueiros mural resurfaces in Los Angeles". The Los Angeles Times. September 22, 2010.
  19. Ruth Green Harris, "Art That Is Now Being Shown In the Galleries," The New York Times, 7 Dec. 1930.
  20. Karlstrom, Paul J. (1996). On the edge of America California Modernist Art 1900-1950. Berkeley Los Angeles Oxford: University of California Press. p. 130.
  21. Lucie-Smith, 2004 & 63.
  22. Langa, Helena. Radical Art: Printmaking and the Left in 1930s New York. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2004. ISBN   0-520-23155-4, ISBN   978-0-520-23155-9. P. 234.
  23. Hurlburt, Laurance (1976). "The Siqueiros Experimental Workshop: New York, 1936". Art Journal. 35 (3): 237–246. doi:10.1080/00043249.1976.10793284. JSTOR   775942.
  24. Jolly, Jennifer (2009). "The Art of the Collective". Oxford Art Journal. 31 (1): 129–151.
  25. "The artist as activist: David Alfaro Siqueiros (1896-1974)". Mexconnect.com. Retrieved 11 November 2014.
  26. Mike Lanchin (28 August 2012). "Trotsky's grandson recalls ice pick killing". BBC . Retrieved 15 January 2019. Volkov was hit in the foot
  27. Ted Crawford; David Walters, eds. (May 1942). "The Murder of Robert Sheldon Harte". Fourth International. 3 (5): 139–142. Retrieved 15 January 2019. a month later, on June 25th, Bob’s lime-covered body was found in a shallow grave
  28. "Index and Concordance to Alexander Vassiliev's Notebooks and Soviet Cables Deciphered by the National Security Agency's Venona Project" (PDF). Wilson Center. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars. 1 November 2014. pp. 175–176. Retrieved 15 January 2019. Harte left alive with the raiders but was found dead a few days later.
  29. Robert Service. Trotsky: A Biography. Belknap Press. 2009. p. 485-488
  30. 1 2 Rolfe, Edwin, Cary Nelson, and Jefferson Hendricks. Trees Became Torches: Selected Poems. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995. p. 146
  31. Rolfe, Edwin, Cary Nelson, and Jefferson Hendricks. Trees Became Torches: Selected Poems. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1995. p. 85
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 Siqueiros, Biography of a Revolutionary Artist, (Book Surge, 2009)
  33. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Leonard Folgarait, So Far From Heaven: David Alfaro Siqueiros' The March of Humanity and Mexican Revolutionary Politics (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987), 36.
  34. Bruce Campbell, Mexican Murals in Times of Crisis (Tucson, Ariz.: The University of Arizona Press, 2003), 54.
  35. "Siqueiros" (advertisement), The New York Times, 9 Aug. 1961.
  36. Carolyn Hill, ed., Mexican Masters: Rivera, Orozco, and Siqueiros (Oklahoma City: Oklahoma City Museum of Art, 2005), 80.

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Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera was a prominent Mexican painter. His large frescoes helped establish the Mexican mural movement in Mexican art. Between 1922 and 1953, Rivera painted murals in, among other places, Mexico City, Chapingo, Cuernavaca, San Francisco, Detroit, and New York City. In 1931, a retrospective exhibition of his works was held at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Rivera had a volatile marriage with fellow Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.

José Clemente Orozco Mexican artist

José Clemente Orozco was a Mexican caricaturist and painter, who specialized in political murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others. Orozco was the most complex of the Mexican muralists, fond of the theme of human suffering, but less realistic and more fascinated by machines than Rivera. Mostly influenced by Symbolism, he was also a genre painter and lithographer. Between 1922 and 1948, Orozco painted murals in Mexico City, Orizaba, Claremont, California, New York City, Hanover, New Hampshire, Guadalajara, Jalisco, and Jiquilpan, Michoacán. His drawings and paintings are exhibited by the Carrillo Gil Museum in Mexico City, and the Orozco Workshop-Museum in Guadalajara. Orozco was known for being a politically committed artist and promoted the political causes of peasants and workers.

Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros building in Yucatán, Mexico

The Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros is a cultural, political and social facility located in Mexico City as part of the World Trade Center Mexico City. It was designed and decorated by David Alfaro Siqueiros in the 1960s and hosts the largest mural work in the world called La Marcha de la Humanidad. The building has a theatre, galleries and more, but the main focus is the Forum Universal, which contains the interior portion of Siqueiros' mural work. Visitors can experience the mural while standing on a rotating stage, listening to Siqueiros narrate.

Jean Charlot painter and illustrator

Louis Henri Jean Charlot was a French and naturalized American painter and illustrator, active mainly in Mexico and the United States.

José Raúl Anguiano Valadez was a notable Mexican painter of the 20th century, part of the “second generation” of Mexican muralists which continued the tradition of Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros but experimented with it as well. Anguiano was born during the height of the Mexican Revolution, which would inspire a majority of his mural painting. He studied painting in his hometown of Guadalajara before moving to Mexico City to begin his career. His first major exhibition was held at the Palacio de Bellas Artes, at age 20. His works include over 100 individual and collective exhibitions with 50 murals, mostly in Mexico and the United States. As he continued his artistry with aspects of the Mexican muralism movement, he also experimented with other styles such as Cubism, Surrealism and Expressionism, with themes such as clowns and prostitutes. However, his most famous painting is “La espina” which depicts a Mayan woman digging a thorn out of her foot with a knife. His later works concentrated on depicting Mexico in vivid colors and traditional imagery.

José Chávez Morado was a Mexican artist who was associated with the Mexican muralism movement of the 20th century. His generation followed that of Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. Although Chávez Morado took classes in California and Mexico, he is considered to be mostly self-taught. He experimented with various materials, and was an early user of Italian mosaic in monumental works. His major works include murals at the Ciudad Universitaria, Secretaría de Comunicaciones y Transportes and Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City as well as frescos at the Alhóndiga de Granaditas, which took twelve years to paint. From the 1940s on, he also worked as a cultural promoter, establishing a number of cultural institutions especially in his home state of Guanajuato including the Museo de Arte Olga Costa - José Chávez Morado, named after himself and his wife, artist Olga Costa.

Mexican muralism

Mexican muralism was the promotion of mural painting starting in the 1920s, generally with social and political messages as part of efforts to reunify the country under the post Mexican Revolution government. It was headed by “the big three” painters, Diego Rivera, José Clemente Orozco and David Alfaro Siqueiros. From the 1920s to about 1970s a large number of murals with nationalistic, social and political messages were created on public buildings, starting a tradition which continues to this day in Mexico and has had impact in other parts of the Americas, including the United States where it served as inspiration for the Chicano art movement.

Fanny Rabel, born Fanny Rabinovich, was a Polish-born Mexican artist who is considered to be the first modern female muralist and one of the youngest associated with the Mexican muralism of the early to mid 20th century. She and her family arrived to Mexico in 1938 from Europe and she studied art at the Escuela Nacional de Pintura, Escultura y Grabado "La Esmeralda", where she met and became friends with Frida Kahlo. She became the only female member of “Los Fridos” a group of students under Kahlo’s tutelage. She also worked as an assistant and apprentice to Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros, painting a number of murals of her own during her career. The most significant of these is "Ronda en el tiempo" at the Museo Nacional de Antropología in Mexico City. She also created canvases and other works, with children often featured in her work, and was one of the first of her generation to work with ecological themes in a series of works begun in 1979.

Luis Arenal Bastar Mexican artist

Luis Arenal Bastar was a Mexican painter, engraver and sculptor. He was a founding member of the Liga de Escritores y Artistas Revolucionarios, the Taller de Gráfica Popular and the Salón de la Plástica Mexicana. In addition, he created murals and other monumental works in Mexico City and Guerrero.

Philip Stein, better known as "Estaño", was an American painter and muralist.

Ramón Alva de la Canal Mexican artist

Ramón Alva de la Canal was a Mexican painter, illustrator, and educator, one of the pioneers of the Mexican muralism movement.

Melchor Peredo Mexican artist

Melchor Peredo is a Mexican muralist and a representative of the social realist school of mural painting in Mexico. His murals depict historical scenes from Mexican history with an emphasis on revolutionary subjects. His work is featured in public and government buildings across Mexico. He has also painted murals in the USA and Europe. He lives in Xalapa, Veracruz.

Xavier Guerrero was one of the pioneers of the Mexican muralism movement in the early 20th century. He learned painting working with his father, who worked in masonry and decorating, with evidence that his ability was mostly self-taught. In 1912, he moved to Guadalajara and began painting murals, moving to Mexico City in 1919 just as the muralism movement was about to begin. Most of his work was in collaboration with or subordinate to other painters such as Diego Rivera and David Alfaro Siqueiros, working at the San Ildefonso College, the Secretaría de Educación Pública building and the Universidad Autónoma de Chapingo; however, much of his other work has been lost. While best known for his mural work, his later canvas work is considered to be better.

Mario Orozco Rivera Mexican artist

Mario Orozco Rivera was a Mexican muralist and painter, a later proponent of Mexican muralism, and whose work was particularly influenced by David Alfaro Siqueiros. He created a number of murals, mostly in the state of Veracruz before becoming an assistant to Siqueiros, directing the Taller Siqueiros in Cuernavaca and working with the artists on projects such as the Polyforum Cultural Siqueiros. While preferring mural work, which he considered less commercial, Orozco Rivera also created oils and sculptures. Many of these works were exhibited in Mexico and abroad and can be found in many major collections. His work received recognition in various countries.

<i>Zapata</i> (lithograph)

Zapata (1932) is a lithograph by the Mexican artist Diego Rivera (1886–1957) that depicts the Mexican revolutionary Emiliano Zapata (1879–1919) as he holds the reins of a horse among a group of campesinos (peasants). The lithographic edition was created and printed twelve years after Zapata's assassination. Zapata is based on Agrarian Leader Zapata (1931), one of eight "portable" frescoes produced explicitly for Rivera's solo exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) in 1931, which was adapted from his previous Revolt panel from a fresco titled The History of Cuernavaca and Morelos (1929–30) painted in the Palace of Cortés, Cuernavaca. There were 100 original prints of the lithograph, many of which are in the collections of various art museums.

Ernest Frank de Soto was a lithographer, who specialized in American and Mexican prints during his career. De Soto was the first Hispanic Master Printer in the United States. He established and directed his own printing workshop, the de Soto Workshop, for over 27 years. De Soto was the first American print maker to establish an international relationship with Mexican artists and had a lasting impact on printing in the United States.

<i>América Tropical: Oprimida y Destrozada por los Imperialismos</i>

América Tropical is a 1932 mural created by David Alfaro Siqueiros in Los Angeles, California

La Tallera used to be David Alfaro Siqueiros' workshop, and in recent years it has become one of the most important art spaces in Mexico. It is located in the city of Cuernavaca, Morelos. In the artist's own words: "the space was born of an idea that Diego Rivera and I had since 1920, that is, the creation of a real workshop for Mural Painting; here the different techniques, materials, paintings, perspectives and geometric aspects will be rehearsed".

Arturo Moyers Villena was a Mexican muralist and painter, whose work was influenced by David Alfaro Siqueiros. Many of his mural works are exhibited in government buildings or cultural institutions.

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