David Edward Hughes

Last updated

David Edward Hughes
David E. Hughes.jpg
David Edward Hughes
Born(1831-05-16)16 May 1831
Died22 January 1900(1900-01-22) (aged 68)
London [1]
Nationality British-American
Known for Teleprinter, Microphone, Early radio wave detection

David Edward Hughes (16 May 1831 – 22 January 1900), was a British-American inventor, practical experimenter, and professor of music known for his work on the printing telegraph and the microphone. [3] He is generally considered to have been born in London but his family moved around that time so he may have been born in Corwen, Wales. [4] His family moved to the U.S. while he was a child and he became a professor of music in Kentucky. In 1855 he patented a printing telegraph. He moved back to London in 1857 and further pursued experimentation and invention, coming up with an improved carbon microphone in 1878. In 1879 he identified what seemed to be a new phenomenon during his experiments: sparking in one device could be heard in a separate portable microphone apparatus he had set up. It was most probably radio transmissions but this was nine years before electromagnetic radiation was a proven concept and Hughes was convinced by others that his discovery was simply electromagnetic induction.

Microphone a device that converts sound into an electrical signal

A microphone, colloquially nicknamed mic or mike, is a transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal.

London Capital of the United Kingdom

London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile (80 km) estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans. The City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles (2.9 km2) and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow closely its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is also an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of London and the London Assembly.

Corwen town, community and electoral ward in Denbighshire, Wales

Corwen is a town, community and electoral ward in the county of Denbighshire in Wales; it was previously part of the county of Merioneth. Corwen stands on the banks of the River Dee beneath the Berwyn mountains. The town is situated 10 miles (16 km) west of Llangollen and 13 miles (21 km) south of Ruthin. At the 2001 Census, Corwen had a population of 2,398, reducing to 2,325 at the 2011 census.



Hughes was born in 1831, the son of a musically talented family hailing originally from Y Bala (the place of birth was either London or Corwen, Denbighshire), and emigrated to the United States at the age of seven. [2] [3] At only six years old, he is known to have played the harp and english concertina [5] to a very high standard. At an early age, Hughes developed such musical ability that he is reported to have attracted attention of Herr Hast, an eminent German pianist in America, who procured for him a professorship of music at St. Joseph's College in Bardstown, Kentucky. Hughes also worked as a practical experimenter, coming up with the printing telegraph in 1855. He moved back to London in 1857 to sell his invention, and worked on the transmission of sound over wires. He worked on microphones and on the invention of the induction balance (later used in metal detectors). Despite Hughes' facility as an experimenter, he had little mathematical training. He was a friend of William Henry Preece.

Denbighshire County and Principal area in Wales

Denbighshire is a county in north-east Wales, named after the historic county of Denbighshire, but with substantially different borders. Denbighshire is the longest known inhabited part of Wales. Pontnewydd (Bontnewydd-Llanelwy) Palaeolithic site has Neanderthal remains from 225,000 years ago. Its several castles include Denbigh, Rhuddlan, Ruthin, Castell Dinas Bran and Bodelwyddan. St Asaph, one of the smallest cities in Britain, has one of the smallest Anglican cathedrals. Denbighshire has a length of coast to the north and hill ranges to the east, south and west. In the central part, the River Clwyd has created a broad fertile valley. It is primarily a rural county with little industry. Crops are grown in the Vale of Clwyd and cattle and sheep reared in the uplands. The coast attracts summer tourists, and hikers frequent the Clwydian Range, which forms an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty with the upper Dee Valley. Llangollen hosts the Llangollen International Musical Eisteddfod in each July.

United States federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

English concertina

The English concertina is a member of the concertina family of free-reed musical instruments. Invented in England in 1829, it was the first instrument of what would become the concertina family.

Printing telegraph

The Hughes telegraph, was the first telegraph printing text on a paper tape; this one was manufactured by Siemens and Halske, Germany (Warsaw Muzeum Techniki) Hughes telegraph.jpg
The Hughes telegraph, was the first telegraph printing text on a paper tape; this one was manufactured by Siemens and Halske, Germany (Warsaw Muzeum Techniki)

In 1855, Hughes designed a printing telegraph system. [6] In less than two years a number of small telegraph companies, including Western Union in early stages of development, united to form one large corporation  Western Union Telegraph Company  to carry on the business of telegraphy on the Hughes system. In Europe, the Hughes Telegraph System became an international standard.

Teleprinter device for transmitting messages in written form by electrical signals

A teleprinter is an electromechanical device that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations. Initially they were used in telegraphy, which developed in the late 1830s and 1840s as the first use of electrical engineering. The machines were adapted to provide a user interface to early mainframe computers and minicomputers, sending typed data to the computer and printing the response. Some models could also be used to create punched tape for data storage and to read back such tape for local printing or transmission.

The Western Union Company is an American financial services and communications company. Its headquarters is in Meridian, Colorado, although the postal designation of nearby Englewood is used in its mailing address. Up until it discontinued the service in 2006, Western Union was the best-known U.S. company in the business of exchanging telegrams.

Telegraphy long distance transmission of textual/symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object

Telegraphy is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message. Thus semaphore is a method of telegraphy, whereas pigeon post is not.


Hughes carbon rod microphone 1878.png
Hughes carbon microphone.png
Hughes carbon microphones. (top) Vertical carbon rod (A) suspended by its pointed ends (bottom) Carbon rod resting on carbon blocks. Sensitivity can be adjusted by the spring (S)

In 1878 Hughes published his work on the effects of sound on the powered electronic sound pickups, called "transmitters", being developed for telephones. [6] He showed that the change in resistance in carbon telephone transmitters was a result of the interaction between carbon parts instead of the commonly held theory that it was from the compression of the carbon itself. [7] Based on its ability to pick up extremely weak sounds, Hughes referred to it as a "microphone effect" (using a word coined by Charles Wheatstone in 1827 for a mechanical sound amplifier [8] ). He conducted a simple demonstration of this principle of loose contact by laying an iron nail across two other nails connected to a battery and galvanometer. His paper was read before the Royal Society of London by Thomas Henry Huxley on May 8, 1878 and his new "microphone" was covered in the July 1 edition of Telegraph Journal and Electrical Review. Hughes published his work during the time that Thomas Edison was working on a carbon telephone transmitter and Emile Berliner was working on a loose-contact transmitter. [9] Both Hughes and Edison may have based their work on Philipp Reis' telephone work. [9] Hughes would refine his microphone design using a series of "carbon pencils" stuck into blocks of carbon to better pick up sound but never patented his work, thinking it should be publicly available for development by others.

Charles Wheatstone British physicist

Sir Charles Wheatstone FRS, was an English scientist and inventor of many scientific breakthroughs of the Victorian era, including the English concertina, the stereoscope, and the Playfair cipher. However, Wheatstone is best known for his contributions in the development of the Wheatstone bridge, originally invented by Samuel Hunter Christie, which is used to measure an unknown electrical resistance, and as a major figure in the development of telegraphy.

Royal Society English learned society for science

The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society. Founded on 28 November 1660, it was granted a royal charter by King Charles II as "The Royal Society". It is the oldest national scientific institution in the world. The society is the United Kingdom's and Commonwealth of Nations' Academy of Sciences and fulfils a number of roles: promoting science and its benefits, recognising excellence in science, supporting outstanding science, providing scientific advice for policy, fostering international and global co-operation, education and public engagement.

Thomas Henry Huxley English biologist and comparative anatomist

Thomas Henry Huxley was an English biologist and anthropologist specialising in comparative anatomy. He is known as "Darwin's Bulldog" for his advocacy of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution.

Probable pre-Hertz radio wave detection

Hughes wireless apparatus, a clockwork driven spark transmitter and battery (right) and a modified version of his carbon block microphone (left) which he used in his 1879 experiments. Hughes wireless apparatus.jpg
Hughes wireless apparatus, a clockwork driven spark transmitter and battery (right) and a modified version of his carbon block microphone (left) which he used in his 1879 experiments.

Hughes seems to have come across the phenomenon of radio waves nine years before they were proven to exist by Heinrich Hertz in 1888. [3] [6] In 1879 while working in London Hughes discovered that a bad contact in a Bell telephone he was using in his experiments seemed to be sparking when he worked on a nearby induction balance. [6] [10] [11] He developed an improved detector to pick up this unknown "extra current" based on his new microphone design and developed a way to interrupt his induction balance via a clockwork mechanism to produce a series of sparks. By trial and error experiments he eventually found he could pick up these "aerial waves" as he carried his telephone device down the street out to a range of 500 yards (460 m). [6]

Trial and error is a fundamental method of problem solving. It is characterised by repeated, varied attempts which are continued until success, or until the agent stops trying.

Experiment scientific procedure

An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis. Experiments provide insight into cause-and-effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a particular factor is manipulated. Experiments vary greatly in goal and scale, but always rely on repeatable procedure and logical analysis of the results. There also exists natural experimental studies.

On February 20, 1880 he demonstrated his technology to representatives of the Royal Society including Thomas Henry Huxley, Sir George Gabriel Stokes, and William Spottiswoode, then president of the Society. Stokes was convinced the phenomenon Hughes was demonstrating was merely electromagnetic induction, not a type of transmission through the air. [12] [13] [14] Hughes was not a physicist and seems to have accepted Stokes observations and did not pursue the experiments any further. [6] [13] A connection with Hughes phenomenon and radio waves seems to show up 4 years after Heinrich Hertz's 1888 proof of their existence when Sir William Crookes mentioned in his 1892 Fortnightly Review article on Some Possibilities of Electricity that he had already participated in "wireless telegraphy" by an "identical means" to Hertz, a statement showing Crookes was probably another attendee at Hughes' demonstration. [15]

William Spottiswoode British mathematician

William H. Spottiswoode HFRSE LLD was an English mathematician, physicist and partner in the printing and publishing firm Eyre & Spottiswoode. He was President of the Royal Society from 1878 to 1883.

Electromagnetic induction production of voltage by a varying magnetic field

Electromagnetic or magnetic induction is the production of an electromotive force across an electrical conductor in a changing magnetic field.

William Crookes British chemist and physicist

Sir William Crookes was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy. He was a pioneer of vacuum tubes, inventing the Crookes tube which was made in 1875. In 1913, Crookes invented 100% ultraviolet blocking sunglass lens. Crookes was the inventor of the Crookes radiometer, which today is made and sold as a novelty item. Late in life, he became interested in spiritualism, and became the president of the Society for Psychical Research.

Hughes did not publish his findings but did finally mention them in an 1899 letter to The Electrician magazine [2] [11] [16] [17] [18] where he commented that Hertz's experiments were "far more conclusive than mine", and that Marconi's "efforts at demonstration merit the success he has received...[and] the world will be right in placing his name on the highest pinnacle, in relation to aerial electric telegraphy". [11] In the same publication Elihu Thomson put forward a claim that Hughes was really the first to transmit radio. [11]

Hughes' discovery that his devices, based on a loose contact between a carbon rod and two carbon blocks as well as the metallic granules in a microphone that exhibited unusual properties in the presence of sparks generated in a nearby apparatus, may have anticipated later devices known as coherers. [10] [19] [20] The carbon rod and two carbon blocks, which he would refer to as a "coherer" in 1899 [11] is also similar to devices known as crystal radio detectors. [10] [20]

The Royal Society

Hughes later in life David Edward Hughes.jpg
Hughes later in life

Hughes was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1880, [21] and won their Royal Medal in 1885. After Hughes' death the Hughes Medal was created by the Royal Society in his honour, to be awarded to other scientists "in recognition of an original discovery in the physical sciences, particularly electricity and magnetism or their applications". It included a gift of £1000 and was first awarded in 1902. A listing follows of Hughes Medal recipients:

1902 Joseph John Thomson "for his numerous contributions to electric science, especially in reference to the phenomena of electric discharge in gases" [22]
1903 Johann Wilhelm Hittorf "for his long continued experimental researches on the electric discharge in liquids and gases" [23]
1905 Augusto Righi "for his experimental researches in electrical science, including electric vibrations" [24]
1906 Hertha Ayrton "for her experimental investigations on the electric arc, and also on sand ripples" [25]
1908 Eugen Goldstein "for his discoveries on the nature of electric discharge in rarefied gasses" [26]
1910 John Ambrose Fleming "for his researches in electricity and electrical measurements" [27]
1913 Alexander Graham Bell "for his share in the invention of the telephone, and more especially the construction of the telephone receiver" [28]
1918 Irving Langmuir "for his researches in molecular physics" [29]
1920 Owen Richardson "for his work in experimental physics, and especially thermionics" [30]
1925 Frank Edward Smith "for his determination of fundamental electrical units and for researches in technical electricity" [31]
1926 Henry Jackson "for his pioneer work in the scientific investigations of radiotelegraphy and its application to navigation" [32]
1933 Edward Victor Appleton "for his researches into the effect of the Heaviside layer upon the transmission of wireless signals" [33]
1936 Walter H. Schottky "for his discovery of the Schrot effect in thermionic emission and his invention of the screen-grid tetrode and a superheterodyne method of receiving wireless signals" [34]
1943 Marcus Oliphant "for his distinguished work in nuclear physics and mastery of methods of generating and applying high potentials" [35]
1945 Basil Schonland "for his work on atmospheric electricity and of other physical researches" [36]
1946 John Randall "for his distinguished researches into fluorescent materials and into the production of high frequency electro-magnetic radiation"
1948 Robert Watson-Watt "for his distinguished contributions to atmospheric physics and to the development of radar"
1954 Martin Ryle "for his distinguished and original experimental researches in radio astronomy" [37]
1960 Joseph Pawsey "for his distinguished contributions to radio astronomy both in the study of solar and of cosmic ray emission"
1971 Robert Hanbury Brown "for his distinguished work in developing a new form of stellar interferometer, culminating in his observations of alpha virginis" [38]
1977 Antony Hewish "for his outstanding contributions to radioastronomy, including the discovery and identification of pulsars" [39]
1990 Thomas George Cowling "for his fundamental contributions to theoretical astrophysics including seminal theoretical studies of the role of electromagnetic induction in cosmic systems" [40]


The vault of David Edward Hughes, Highgate Cemetery, London The vault of David Edward Hughes, Highgate Cemetery, London.jpg
The vault of David Edward Hughes, Highgate Cemetery, London

Hughes died in London and was buried in the Egyptian vaults at Highgate Cemetery.

His wife Anna Chadbourne Hughes was buried with him.

In his will he left the greater part of his property (£473,034) to a trust fund, to be distributed between the four London hospitals, the Middlesex Hospital, the London Hospital, the King's College Hospital and the Charing Cross Hospital. He also left bequests to the Institute of Electrical Engineers, the Société Internationale des Electriciens, the Royal Society, the Académie des Sciences de l'Institut, and to the Royal Institution of Great Britain. [41]


The honours Hughes received as an inventor included:

  1. A Grand Gold Medal awarded at the Paris Exhibition, in 1867.
  2. Royal Society gold Medal in 1885.
  3. Society of Arts Albert Gold Medal in 1897.
  4. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour, presented by Napoleon III for his inventions and discoveries in 1860, [42] granting him the title "Commander of the Imperial Order of the Legion of Honour".

He was also awarded:

  1. The Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus (Italy)
  2. The Order of the Iron Crown (Austria) which carried with it the title of Baron (Freiherr)
  3. The Order of Saint Anne (Russia)
  4. The Noble Order of Saint Michael (Bavaria)
  5. Commander of the Imperial Order of the Grand Cross of the Medjidie (Turkey)
  6. Commander of the Royal and Distinguished Order of Carlos III (Spain)
  7. The Grand Officer's Star
  8. Collar of the Royal Order of Takovo (Serbia)
  9. Officer of the Order of Leopold (Belgium)


Related Research Articles

Electrical telegraph

An electrical telegraph is a telegraph that uses electrical signals, usually conveyed via dedicated telecommunication circuit or radio.

Guglielmo Marconi Italian inventor and radio pioneer

Guglielmo Marconi, 1st Marquis of Marconi was an Italian inventor and electrical engineer, known for his pioneering work on long-distance radio transmission, development of Marconi's law, and a radio telegraph system. He is credited as the inventor of radio, and he shared the 1909 Nobel Prize in Physics with Karl Ferdinand Braun "in recognition of their contributions to the development of wireless telegraphy".

John Ambrose Fleming Electrical engineer and physicist

Sir John Ambrose Fleming FRS, an English electrical engineer and physicist, invented the first thermionic valve or vacuum tube, designed the radio transmitter with which the first transatlantic radio transmission was made, and also established the right-hand rule used in physics. He was the eldest of seven children of James Fleming DD, a Congregational minister, and his wife Mary Ann, at Lancaster, Lancashire, and baptised on 11 February 1850. A devout Christian, he once preached at St Martin-in-the-Fields in London on evidence for the resurrection. In 1932, he and Douglas Dewar and Bernard Acworth helped establish the Evolution Protest Movement. Childless himself, he bequeathed much of his estate to Christian charities, especially those for the poor. He was a noted photographer, painted water colours, and enjoyed climbing the Alps.

The early history of radio is the history of technology that produces and uses radio instruments that use radio waves. Within the timeline of radio, many people contributed theory and inventions in what became radio. Radio development began as "wireless telegraphy". Later radio history increasingly involves matters of broadcasting.

Telephone telecommunications device

A telephone, or phone, is a telecommunications device that permits two or more users to conduct a conversation when they are too far apart to be heard directly. A telephone converts sound, typically and most efficiently the human voice, into electronic signals that are transmitted via cables and other communication channels to another telephone which reproduces the sound to the receiving user.

Wireless telegraphy

Wireless telegraphy means transmission of telegraph signals by radio waves; a more specific term for this is radiotelegraphy. Before about 1910 when radio became dominant, the term wireless telegraphy was also used for various other experimental technologies for transmitting telegraph signals without wires, such as electromagnetic induction, and ground conduction telegraph systems.

Emile Berliner German-born American inventor of the phonograph

Emile Berliner, originally Emil Berliner, was a German-born American inventor. He is best known for inventing the flat disc record and the Gramophone. He founded the United States Gramophone Company in 1894, The Gramophone Company in London, England, in 1897, Deutsche Grammophon in Hanover, Germany, in 1898, Berliner Gram-o-phone Company of Canada in Montreal in 1899, and Victor Talking Machine Company in 1901 with Eldridge Johnson.

Elisha Gray American electrical engineer

Elisha Gray was an American electrical engineer who co-founded the Western Electric Manufacturing Company. Gray is best known for his development of a telephone prototype in 1876 in Highland Park, Illinois. Some recent authors have argued that Gray should be considered the true inventor of the telephone because Alexander Graham Bell allegedly stole the idea of the liquid transmitter from him, although Gray had been using liquid transmitters in his telephone experiments for more than two years previously. Bell's telephone patent was upheld in numerous court decisions.

This timeline of the telephone covers landline, radio, and cellular telephony technologies and provides many important dates in the history of the telephone.

Spark-gap transmitter

A spark-gap transmitter is an obsolete type of radio transmitter which generates radio waves by means of an electric spark. Spark-gap transmitters were the first type of radio transmitter, and were the main type used during the wireless telegraphy or "spark" era, the first three decades of radio, from 1887 to the end of World War 1. German physicist Heinrich Hertz built the first experimental spark-gap transmitters in 1887, with which he discovered radio waves and studied their properties.

Invention of the telephone

The invention of the telephone was the culmination of work done by many individuals, and led to an array of lawsuits relating to the patent claims of several individuals and numerous companies. The first telephone was invented by Antonio Meucci, but Alexander Graham Bell is credited with the development of the first practical telephone.

John Stone Stone American electrical engineer

John Stone Stone was an American mathematician, physicist and inventor. He initially worked in telephone research, followed by influential work developing early radio technology, where he was especially known for improvements in tuning. Despite his often advanced designs, the Stone Telegraph and Telephone Company failed in 1908, and he spent the remainder of his career as an engineering consultant.

Invention of radio aspect of history relating to the invention of radio

The invention of radio communication, although generally attributed to Guglielmo Marconi in the 1890s, spanned many decades, from theoretical underpinnings, through proof of the phenomenon's existence, development of technical means, to its final use in signalling.

Carbon microphone

The carbon microphone, also known as carbon button microphone, button microphone, or carbon transmitter, is a type of microphone, a transducer that converts sound to an electrical audio signal. It consists of two metal plates separated by granules of carbon. One plate is very thin and faces toward the speaking person, acting as a diaphragm. Sound waves striking the diaphragm cause it to vibrate, exerting a varying pressure on the granules, which in turn changes the electrical resistance between the plates. Higher pressure lowers the resistance as the granules are pushed closer together. A steady direct current is passed between the plates through the granules. The varying resistance results in a modulation of the current, creating a varying electric current that reproduces the varying pressure of the sound wave. In telephony, this undulating current is directly passed through the telephone wires to the central office. In public address systems it is amplified by an audio amplifier. The frequency response of the carbon microphone, however, is limited to a narrow range, and the device produces significant electrical noise.

The timeline of radio lists within the history of radio, the technology and events that produced instruments that use radio waves and activities that people undertook. Later, the history is dominated by programming and contents, which is closer to general history.

The Elisha Gray and Alexander Graham Bell controversy concerns the question of whether Gray and Bell invented the telephone independently. This issue is narrower than the question of who deserves credit for inventing the telephone, for which there are several claimants.

History of the telephone aspect of history relating to telephones

This history of the telephone chronicles the development of the electrical telephone, and includes a brief review of its predecessors.

Archie Frederick Collins American radio pioneer and writer

Archie Frederick Collins, who generally went by A. Frederick Collins, was a prominent early American experimenter in wireless telephony and prolific author of books and articles covering a wide range of scientific and technical subjects. His reputation was tarnished in 1913 when he was convicted of mail fraud related to stock promotion. However, after serving a year in prison, he returned to writing, including, beginning in 1922, The Radio Amateur's Handbook, which continued to be updated and published until the mid-1980s.


  1. 1 2 "David Hughes". Encyclopædia Britannica Online .
  2. 1 2 3 Anon. "88. David Edward Hughes". 100 Welsh Heroes. Culturenet Cymru. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  3. 1 2 3 "David Hughes". Encyclopædia Britannica online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. 2014. Retrieved April 11, 2015.
  4. S. D. G. Stephens, David Edward Hughes and his audiometer, The Journal of Laryngology & Otology / Volume 93 / Issue 01 / January 1979, pp 1-6
  5. Worrall, Dan W. "David Edward Hughes: Concertinist and Inventor". ResearchGate.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sarkar, T. K.; Mailloux, Robert; Oliner, Arthur A. (2006). History of Wireless. USA: John Wiley and Sons. pp. 260–261. ISBN   0471783013.
  7. Anton A. Huurdeman, The Worldwide History of Telecommunications, John Wiley & Sons - 2003, page 168
  8. Lewis Coe, The Telephone and Its Several Inventors: A History, McFarland - 2006, page 36
  9. 1 2 Bob Estreich , Professor David Hughes, telephonecollecting.org
  10. 1 2 3 Rob Walters, Spread Spectrum: Hedy Lamarr and the Mobile Phone, Satin 2005, page 16
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 Prof. D. E. Hughes' Research in Wireless Telegraphy, The Electrician, Volume 43, 1899, pages 35, 40-41 Archived 15 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine ., 93, 143-144, 167, 217, 401, 403, 767
  12. R. M. Garratt, The Early History of Radio: From Faraday to Marconi, IET - 1994, page 28
  13. 1 2 Brian Winston, Media Technology and Society, Routledge - 2002, Chapter 4
  14. The Story of Wireless Telegraphy by A. T. Story
  15. "Some Possibilities of Electricity" in The Fortnightly Review by William Crookes, February 1, 1892, page 176.
  16. One Show BBC television. Segment — David Edward Hughes — broadcast June 24, 2009
  17. Anon (January 26, 1900). "Obituary: David Edward Hughes". The Electrician. London. 45: 457–458.
  18. Anon. "88. David Edward Hughes". 100 Welsh Heroes. Culturenet Cymru. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 30 June 2009.
  19. Eric Falcon and Bernard Castaing, Electrical conductivity in granular media and Branly’s coh erer: A simple experiment, page 1
  20. 1 2 G.W.A Drummer, Electronic Inventions and Discoveries: Electronics from its earliest beginnings to the present day, Fourth Edition, CRC Press - 1997, page 95
  21. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Volume 30, 1899, pages 373, 468–469.
  22. "2 in U.S. hono by Royal Society". The New York Times. 3 November 1939. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  23. Nature. Nature Publishing Group. p. 109.
  24. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. 69. JSTOR   20023099.Missing or empty |title= (help)
  25. "Selling Snow in Syria". Chicago Tribune. 2 December 1906. Retrieved 5 February 2009.
  26. Mehra, Jagdish (1989). The Historical Development of Quantum Theory. Springer-Verlag. p. 233. ISBN   0-387-96284-0.
  27. Nature. Nature Publishing Group. p. 156.
  28. Bell Telephone Magazine. American Telephone and Telegraph Company Public Relations Dept. 1936. p. 59.
  29. Wasson, Tyler (1987). Nobel Prize Winners. Visual Education Corporation. p. 598. ISBN   0-8242-0756-4.
  30. Who Was Who in Literature. Thomson Gale. 1979. p. 955.
  31. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Royal Society Publishing. 1926. p. 15.
  32. Science. HighWire Press. 1926. p. 552.
  33. Wasson, Tyler (1987). Nobel Prize Winners: An H.W. Wilson Biographical Dictionary. Wiley. p. 30. ISBN   0-8242-0756-4.
  34. Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1936. p. 480.
  35. "Oxford DNB article:Oliphant, Sir Marcus Laurence Elwin (subscription needed)". Oxford University Press. 2004. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  36. "Janus: The Papers of Sir Basil Schonland". Janus. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  37. "Martin Ryle – Autobiography". nobelprize.org. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  38. "Brown, Robert Hanbury – Bright Sparcs Biography Entry". University of Melbourne. Retrieved 6 February 2009.
  39. Parker, Sybil P. (1980). McGraw-Hill Modern Scientists and Engineers: A-G. McGraw-Hill Book Company. p. 56.
  40. Matthew, H. C. G. (2004). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. p. 798. ISBN   0-19-280089-2.
  41. "Large Bequest for London Hospitals". The Times (36085). London. 9 March 1900. p. 8.
  42. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2012.