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|Died||March 7, 2008 86) (aged|
|Alma mater||Princeton University|
University of Michigan
|Known for|| Gale transform |
|Awards|| John von Neumann Theory Prize (1980)|
Golden Goose Award (2013)
Pirelli Internetional Award
|Institutions|| University of California, Berkeley, 1966–2008 |
Brown University, 1950–65
Rand Corporation, 1957–58
Princeton University 1949–50
|Doctoral advisor||Albert W. Tucker|
|Doctoral students|| William A. Brock |
David Gale (December 13, 1921 – March 7, 2008) was an American mathematician and economist. He was a professor emeritus at the University of California, Berkeley, affiliated with the departments of mathematics, economics, and industrial engineering and operations research. He has contributed to the fields of mathematical economics, game theory, and convex analysis.
Gale earned his B.A. from Swarthmore College, obtained an M.A. from the University of Michigan in 1947, and earned his Ph.D. in Mathematics at Princeton University in 1949. He taught at Brown University from 1950 to 1965 and then joined the faculty at the University of California, Berkeley.
Gale lived in Berkeley, California, and Paris, France with his partner Sandra Gilbert, feminist literary scholar and poet. He has three daughters and two grandsons.
Gale's contributions to mathematical economics include an early proof of the existence of competitive equilibrium, his solution of the n-dimensional Ramsey problem, in the theory of optimal economic growth.
Gale and F. M. Stewart initiated the study of infinite games with perfect information. This work led to fundamental contributions to mathematical logic.
Gale is the inventor of the game of Bridg-It (also known as "Game of Gale") and Chomp.
Gale played a fundamental role in the development of the theory of linear programming and linear inequalities. His classic 1960 book The Theory of Linear Economic Models continues to be a standard reference for this area.
The Gale transform is an involution on sets of points in projective space. The concept is important in optimization, coding theory, and algebraic geometry.
Gale's 1962 paper with Lloyd Shapley on the stable marriage problem provides the first formal statement and proof of a problem that has far-reaching implications in many matching markets. The resulting Gale–Shapley algorithm is currently being applied in New York and Boston public school systems in assigning students to schools. In 2012 The Nobel Prize in Economics was awarded to Shapley for this work.
Gale wrote a Mathematical Entertainments column for The Mathematical Intelligencer from 1991 through 1997. The book Tracking the Automatic Ant collects these columns.
In 2004 Gale developed MathSite, a pedagogic website that uses interactive exhibits to illustrate important mathematical ideas. MathSite won the 2007 Pirelli Internetional Award for Science Communication in Mathematics.
Game theory is the study of mathematical models of strategic interaction among rational decision-makers. It has applications in all fields of social science, as well as in logic, systems science and computer science. Originally, it addressed zero-sum games, in which each participant's gains or losses are exactly balanced by those of the other participants. In the 21st century, game theory applies to a wide range of behavioral relations, and is now an umbrella term for the science of logical decision making in humans, animals, and computers.
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Oskar Morgenstern was an economist. In collaboration with mathematician John von Neumann, he founded the mathematical field of game theory and its application to economics.
Albert William Tucker was a Canadian mathematician who made important contributions in topology, game theory, and non-linear programming.
Lloyd Stowell Shapley was an American mathematician and Nobel Prize-winning economist. He contributed to the fields of mathematical economics and especially game theory. Shapley is generally considered one of the most important contributors to the development of game theory since the work of von Neumann and Morgenstern. With Alvin E. Roth, Shapley won the 2012 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design."
Harold William Kuhn was an American mathematician who studied game theory. He won the 1980 John von Neumann Theory Prize along with David Gale and Albert W. Tucker. A former Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Princeton University, he is known for the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions, for Kuhn's theorem, for developing Kuhn poker as well as the description of the Hungarian method for the assignment problem. Recently, though, a paper by Carl Gustav Jacobi, published posthumously in 1890 in Latin, has been discovered that anticipates by many decades the Hungarian algorithm.
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Martin Shubik was an American economist, who was Professor Emeritus of Mathematical Institutional Economics at Yale University.
Pradeep Dubey is an Indian game theorist. He is Professor of Economics at State University of New York, Stony Brook and a member of the Stony Brook Center for Game Theory. He also holds a visiting position at Cowles Foundation, Yale University. He did his schooling from the St. Columba's School, Delhi. He received his Ph.D. in Applied Mathematics from Cornell University and B.Sc. from the University of Delhi. His areas of research interests are game theory and mathematical economics. He has published, among others, in Econometrica, Games and Economic Behavior, Journal of Economic Theory and Quarterly Journal of Economics. He is a Fellow of The Econometric Society and a member of the council of Game Theory Society.
Alvin Elliot Roth is an American academic. He is the Craig and Susan McCaw professor of economics at Stanford University and the Gund professor of economics and business administration emeritus at Harvard University. He was President of the American Economics Association in 2017.
Mathematical economics is the application of mathematical methods to represent theories and analyze problems in economics. By convention, these applied methods are beyond simple geometry, such as differential and integral calculus, difference and differential equations, matrix algebra, mathematical programming, and other computational methods. Proponents of this approach claim that it allows the formulation of theoretical relationships with rigor, generality, and simplicity.
Jennifer Tour Chayes is the University of California, Berkeley Associate Provost for the Division of Computing, Data Science, and Society and Dean of the School of Information. She was formerly a Technical Fellow and Managing Director of Microsoft Research New England in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which she founded in 2008, and Microsoft Research New York City, which she founded in 2012.
Ehud Kalai is a prominent Israeli American game theorist and mathematical economist known for his contributions to the field of game theory and its interface with economics, social choice, computer science and operations research. He was the James J. O’Connor Distinguished Professor of Decision and Game Sciences at Northwestern University, 1975-2017, and currently is a Professor Emeritus of Managerial Economics and Decision Sciences.
Yinyu Ye is a Chinese American theoretical computer scientist working on mathematical optimization. He is a specialist in interior point methods, especially in convex minimization and linear programming. He is a professor of Management Science and Engineering and Kwoh-Ting Li Chair Professor of Engineering at Stanford University. He also holds a courtesy appointment in the Department of Electrical Engineering. Ye also is a co-founder of minMax Optimization Inc.
Philip Starr "Phil" Wolfe was an American mathematician and one of the founders of convex optimization theory and mathematical programming.
Michel Louis Balinski was an applied mathematician, economist, operations research analyst and political scientist. As a Polish-American, educated in the United States, he lived and worked primarily in the United States and France. He was known for his work in optimisation, convex polyhedra, stable matching, and the theory and practice of electoral systems, jury decision, and social choice. He was Directeur de Recherche de classe exceptionnelle (emeritus) of the C.N.R.S. at the École Polytechnique (Paris). He was awarded the John von Neumann Theory Prize by INFORMS in 2013.
Abraham Neyman is an Israeli mathematician and game theorist, Professor of Mathematics at the Federmann Center for the Study of Rationality and the Einstein Institute of Mathematics at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in Israel. He served as president of the Israeli Chapter of the Game Theory Society (2014–2018).
The Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE) is an interdisciplinary research institute of the University of Louvain (UCLouvain) located in Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium. Since 2010, it is part of the Institute for Multidisciplinary Research in Quantitative Modelling and Analysis (IMMAQ), along with the Institute for Economic and Social Research (IRES) and the Institute of Statistics, Biostatistics and Actuarial Sciences (ISBA).