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David Hartman (September 11, 1931 – February 10, 2013) was an American-Israeli leader and philosopher of contemporary Judaism, founder of the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem, Israel, and a Jewish author.
Americans are nationals and citizens of the United States of America. Although nationals and citizens make up the majority of Americans, some dual citizens, expatriates, and permanent residents, may also claim American nationality. The United States is home to people of many different ethnic origins. As a result, American culture and law does not equate nationality with race or ethnicity, but with citizenship and permanent allegiance.
Israelis are the citizens or permanent residents of the State of Israel, a multiethnic state populated by people of different ethnic backgrounds. The largest ethnic groups in Israel are Jews (75%), followed by Arabs (20%) and other minorities (5%). Among the Israeli Jewish population, hundreds of thousands of Jews born in Israel are descended from Ashkenazi Jew, Mizrahi Jews, Sephardi Jews and an array of groups from all the Jewish ethnic divisions, though over 50% of Israel’s Jewish population is of at least partial Mizrahi descent.
A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy, which involves rational inquiry into areas that are outside either theology or science. The term "philosopher" comes from the Ancient Greek, φιλόσοφος (philosophos), meaning "lover of wisdom". The coining of the term has been attributed to the Greek thinker Pythagoras.
David Hartman was born in the Brownsville section of Brooklyn, New York. He attended Yeshiva Chaim Berlin and the Lubavitch Yeshiva, after which he spent time learning in Lakewood Yeshiva. In 1953, having studied under Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, he received his rabbinical ordination from Yeshiva University in New York. He continued his studies with Rabbi Soloveitchik until 1960, while pursuing a graduate degree in philosophy with Robert C. Pollock at Fordham University. In 1971, Hartman immigrated to Israel with his wife Barbara and their five children.
Brownsville is a residential neighborhood located in eastern Brooklyn in New York City. The 1.163-square-mile (3.01 km2) area that comprises Brownsville has 58,300 residents as of the 2010 United States Census. The neighborhood's boundaries are unclear, but it is generally bordered by Crown Heights to the northwest; Bushwick and Cypress Hills to the north; New Lots to the east; Canarsie to the south; and East Flatbush to the west.
Joseph Ber Soloveitchik was a major American Orthodox rabbi, Talmudist, and modern Jewish philosopher. He was a scion of the Lithuanian Jewish Soloveitchik rabbinic dynasty.
Yeshiva University is a private, non-profit research university located in New York City, United States, with four campuses in New York City.
Rabbi Hartman died on February 10, 2013 in Jerusalem at the age of 81.
After serving as a congregational rabbi in the Bronx, New York, from 1955–1960, Hartman became the Rabbi of Congregation Tiferet Beit David Jerusalem in Montreal. [ citation needed ] In addition to the institute, he founded the Charles E. Smith High School, which operates separate programs for boys and girls, the latter of which is named Midrashiya, in central Jerusalem. Rabbi Hartman was a Professor of Jewish Thought at Hebrew University of Jerusalem, for over two decades, during which time he was also a visiting Professor of Jewish Thought at the University of California, Berkeley in 1986/1987 and at the University of California, Los Angeles in 1997/1998.[ citation needed ]Some of his students moved with him to Israel when he immigrated in 1971. While in Montreal, he also taught and studied at McGill University and received his Ph.D. in philosophy. Rabbi Hartman founded the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem in 1976. He was named founding president in 2009, when his son, Donniel Hartman, was named president.
The Bronx is the northernmost of the five boroughs of New York City, in the U.S. state of New York. It is south of Westchester County; northeast and east of Manhattan, across the Harlem River; and north of Queens, across the East River. Since 1914, the borough has had the same boundaries as Bronx County, the third-most densely populated county in the United States.
Montreal is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada. Originally called Ville-Marie, or "City of Mary", it is named after Mount Royal, the triple-peaked hill in the heart of the city. The city is centred on the Island of Montreal, which took its name from the same source as the city, and a few much smaller peripheral islands, the largest of which is Île Bizard. It has a distinct four-season continental climate with warm to hot summers and cold, snowy winters.
McGill University is a public research university in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It was established in 1821 by royal charter, granted by King George IV. The university bears the name of James McGill, a Montreal merchant originally from Scotland whose bequest in 1813 formed the university's precursor, McGill College.
Rabbi Hartman viewed his immigration to Israel as an essential part of his mission to encourage greater understanding between Jews of diverse affiliations—both in Israel and the Jewish diaspora—and to build a more pluralistic and tolerant Israeli society. His work emphasized the centrality of the rebirth of the State of Israel and religious pluralism, both among Jews and in interfaith relations. As his views often aligned with Conservative Judaism, some have asked whether he should have been or his writings continue to be considered Orthodox.Elliot Dorff, a leader of Conservative Judaism, described Hartman as "Orthodox, but close to the right border of Conservative Judaism".
Aliyah is the immigration of Jews from the diaspora to the Land of Israel. Also defined as "the act of going up"—that is, towards Jerusalem—"making Aliyah" by moving to the Land of Israel is one of the most basic tenets of Zionism. The opposite action, emigration from the Land of Israel, is referred to in Hebrew as yerida ("descent"). The State of Israel's Law of Return gives Jews and their descendants automatic rights regarding residency and Israeli citizenship.
The Jewish diaspora or exile refers to the dispersion of Israelites or Jews out of their ancestral homeland and their subsequent settlement in other parts of the globe.
Conservative Judaism is a major Jewish denomination which views Jewish law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development. It regards the authority of Jewish law and tradition as emanating primarily from the assent of the people and the community through the generations, more than from divine revelation. The Conservative rabbinate therefore employs modern historical-critical research, rather than only traditional methods and sources, and lends great weight to its constituency when determining its stance on matters of practice. The movement considers its approach as the authentic and most appropriate continuation of halakhic discourse, maintaining both fealty to received forms and flexibility in their interpretation. It also eschews strict theological definitions, lacking a consensus in matters of faith and allowing great pluralism.
From 1977–1984, Rabbi Hartman served as an advisor to Zevulun Hammer, former Israeli Minister of Education, and he was an advisor to a number of Israeli prime ministers on the subject of religious pluralism in Israel and the relationship between Israel and the Diaspora.[ citation needed ]
Zevulun Hammer was an Israeli politician, minister and Deputy Prime Minister.
The Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government and chief executive of Israel.
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Hartman's publications in Jewish philosophy have received wide recognition, and become standard references in academic scholarship. He was awarded the National Jewish Book Award in 1977 for Maimonides: Torah and Philosophic Quest (Jewish Publication Society, Philadelphia, 1976) and in 1986 for the recently reissued A Living Covenant: The Innovative Spirit in Traditional Judaism (Jewish Lights Publishing, Woodstock, Vermont, 1997 www.jewishlights.com). In 1993, the Hebrew translation of A Living Covenant From Sinai to Zion (Am Oved Publishers) was awarded the Leah Goldberg Prize. A Heart of Many Rooms: Celebrating the Many Voices Within Judaism was published by Jewish Lights Publishing in 1999. Israelis and the Jewish Tradition: an Ancient People Debating Its Future was published by Yale University Press, 2000, Love and Terror in the God Encounter: the Theological Legacy of Joseph B. Soloveitchik was published by Jewish Lights 2001. The Hebrew translation of Israelis and the Jewish Tradition (Moreshet b'machloket) was published by Schocken Publishing House, 2002.
Hartman was awarded the Avi Chai Prize in the year 2000 and on the twenty-fifth anniversary of the Shalom Hartman Institute he was awarded the Guardian of Jerusalem Prize. He was the recipient of an honorary doctorate from Yale University in May 2003. In 2004 David Hartman received an honorary doctorate from Hebrew Union College and was awarded the Samuel Rothberg Prize for Jewish Education by the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. In 2008, David Hartman received an honorary degree from Weizmann Institute of Rehovot, Israel.He received the doctorate "in recognition of his life's work to revitalize Judaism and strengthen Jewish identity among Jews the world over; above all, of his gift of vision and action, faith and scholarship, toward building a more pluralistic, tolerant, and enlightened Israeli society".
Joel Roth is a prominent American rabbi in the Rabbinical Assembly, which is the rabbinical body of Conservative Judaism. He is a former member and chair of the assembly's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards (CJLS) which deals with questions of Jewish law and tradition, and serves as the Louis Finkelstein Professor of Talmud and Jewish Law at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America in New York City, where he formerly served as dean of the Rabbinical School. He is also Rosh Yeshiva of the Conservative Yeshiva in Jerusalem, Israel, an institution founded and maintained by the United Synagogue for Conservative Judaism and under the academic auspices of JTS. In 2006, Rabbi Roth took over as chair of the Hebrew Language department at JTS. Rabbi Roth is a well-known teacher of Hebrew grammar. He is a vociferous proponent of the existence of the "sheva merakhef", which may be defined as the second of what would have been two consecutive sheva'im na'im in the first two letters of a word.
Modern Orthodox Judaism is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize Jewish values and the observance of Jewish law with the secular, modern world.
Yeshiva Rabbi Chaim Berlin or Yeshivas Rabbeinu Chaim Berlin, is an American Haredi Lithuanian-type boys' and men's yeshiva located in Brooklyn, New York. Established in 1904 as Yeshiva Tiferes Bachurim, it is the oldest yeshiva in Kings County. At the suggestion of Meir Berlin (Bar-Ilan), it was renamed for his brother, Chaim Berlin, the chief rabbi of Moscow who had moved to Jerusalem and was one of its leading rabbis at the time of his death.
The Soloveitchik dynasty of rabbinic scholars and their students originated the Brisker method of Talmudic study, which is embraced by their followers in the Brisk yeshivas. It is so called because of the Soloveitchiks' origin in the town of Brisk, or Brest-Litovsk, located in what is now Belarus. Many of the first Soloveitchik rabbis were the official rabbis of Brisk, and each in turn was known as "the Brisker Rov". Today, Brisk refers to several yeshivas in Israel and the United States founded by members of the Soloveitchik family.
Jonathan Henry Sacks, Baron Sacks is a British Orthodox rabbi, philosopher, theologian, author and politician.
David Ellenson is an American rabbi and academic who is known as a leader of the Reform movement in Judaism. Ellenson is currently Director of the Schusterman Center for Israel Studies and Visiting Professor of Near Eastern and Judaic Studies at Brandeis University and interim President of the Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR). He previously served as president of HUC-JIR from 2001 to December 31, 2013, and is now Chancellor Emeritus of that college. Ellenson is currently serving as interim President following the death of his successor, Aaron D. Panken.
Haym Soloveitchik is the only son of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik. He graduated from the Maimonides School which his father founded in Brookline, Massachusetts and then received his B.A. degree from Harvard College in 1958 with a major in History. After two years of post-graduate study at Harvard, he moved to Israel and began his studies toward an M.A. and PhD at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, under the historian Professor Jacob Katz. He wrote his Master's thesis on the Halakha of gentile wine in medieval Germany. His doctorate, which he received in 1972, concentrated on laws of pawnbroking and usury.
Moshe Meiselman is an American-born Orthodox rabbi and rosh yeshiva (dean) of Yeshiva Toras Moshe in Jerusalem, which he established in 1982. He also founded and served as principal of Yeshiva University of Los Angeles (YULA) from 1977 to 1982. He is a descendant of the Lithuanian Jewish Soloveitchik rabbinic dynasty.
Moshe Zemer was a Reform Rabbi in Israel between 1963-2011. He was the co-founder of Jewish Reform institutions in Israel and served in key positions in them, including as chair of MARAM, Board member of the Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism, Board member of the Union for Progressive Rabbis in the United States, and a senior lecturer of Jewish Studies at the Hebrew Union College in Jerusalem.
Shalom Hartman Institute is a Jewish research and education institute based in Jerusalem, Israel, that offers pluralistic Jewish thought and education to scholars, rabbis, educators, and Jewish community leaders in Israel and North America. The Institute's goal is to is to strengthen Jewish peoplehood, identity and pluralism and ensure that Judaism is a compelling force for good in the 21st century.
Rabbi Doctor Eugene B. Korn is a lecturer, scholar and educator. He lives in Jerusalem and serves as Academic Director of the Center for Jewish-Christian Understanding and Cooperation (CJCUC) in Jerusalem. He is also co-director of its Institute for Theological Inquiry. Korn was the founding editor of Meorot: A Forum for Modern Orthodox Discourse, based at Yeshivat Chovevei Torah in New York City.
Jacob J. Schacter is an American Orthodox rabbi. Schacter, an historian of intellectual trends in Orthodox Judaism, is University Professor of Jewish History and Jewish Thought and Senior Scholar at the Center for the Jewish Future at Yeshiva University.
Posek is the term in Jewish law for a "decisor" — a legal scholar who determines the position of Halakha in cases of law where previous authorities are inconclusive, or in those situations where no clear halakhic precedent exists.
Pinchas Hacohen Peli was an Israeli modern Orthodox rabbi, essayist, poet, and scholar of Judaism and Jewish philosophy.
Donniel Hartman is a Jewish Israeli Modern Orthodox rabbi and educator. He is President of the Shalom Hartman Institute in Jerusalem, Israel. He has written books and essays on Judaism and modernity and is a frequent speaker at academic conferences and synagogues in the United States and Canada. In 2009, he spoke at the Grand Valley State University Conference, "Religion and the Challenges of Modernity." In the 1990s, he was scholar in residence at the Jewish Community Center of the Palisades in New Jersey. He was described by a Reform Judaism organization as a thinker "whose thoughts, observations, and analysis of Israeli society are radical and refreshing."
Nathan Lopes Cardozo is a Dutch-Israeli rabbi, philosopher, and scholar of Judaism. A sought-after lecturer on the international stage for both Jewish and non-Jewish audiences, Cardozo is known for his original and often fearlessly controversial insights into Judaism. His ideas are widely debated on an international level on social media, blogs, books and other forums.
Rabbi Daniel L. Lehmann is the President of the Graduate Theological Union (GTU) in Berkeley, CA as of August 1, 2018. Previously Lehman served as the eighth president of Hebrew College in Newton, MA and served as the board chair for the Boston Theological Institute. In July 2017 he announced that he would step down during the 2017-18 academic year, the tenth year of his presidency. He plans to take a sabbatical during the latter part of the 2017-18 academic year to write on pluralism and Jewish education.
Rabbi Nathaniel Helfgot is the President of the International Rabbinic Fellowship and the Rabbi of Congregation Netivot Shalom of Teaneck, New Jersey. Rabbi Helfgot studied at Yeshivat Har Etzion for two years, and developed a close relationship with Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein. He also attended Yeshiva University and the Azrieli Graduate School, and was ordained by the Rabbi Isaac Elchanan Theological Seminary. Rabbi Helfgot has taught at the Drisha Institute for Jewish Education, the Frisch School, the Ma'ayanot Yeshiva High School, and the Torah Academy of Bergen County in the past, and currently teaches at Yeshivat Chovevei Torah and SAR High School, where he is also a department chair. In addition, Rabbi Helfgot has served or continues to serve on the steering committee of the Orthodox Forum, as the plenum of the Orthodox Caucus, and on the board of the Association of Modern Orthodox Day Schools.