David Holmes (politician)

Last updated

David Holmes
DavidHolmesMS.jpg
5th Governor of Mississippi
In office
January 7, 1826 July 25, 1826
Lieutenant Gerard Brandon
Preceded byGerard Brandon
Succeeded byGerard Brandon
United States Senator
from Mississippi
In office
August 30, 1820 September 25, 1825
Preceded by Walter Leake
Succeeded by Powhatan Ellis
1st Governor of Mississippi
In office
December 10, 1817 January 5, 1820
Lieutenant Duncan Stewart
Preceded byHimself (as Governor of the Mississippi Territory
Succeeded by George Poindexter
4th Governor of Mississippi Territory
In office
March 7, 1809 December 10, 1817
Appointed by Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by Robert Williams
Succeeded byHimself (as Governor of the State of Mississippi)
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Virginia's 4th district
In office
March 4, 1803 March 3, 1809
Preceded by Abram Trigg
Succeeded by Jacob Swoope
Member of the U.S.HouseofRepresentatives
from Virginia's 2nd district
In office
March 4, 1797 March 3, 1803
Preceded by Andrew Moore
Succeeded by James Stephenson
Personal details
Born(1769-03-10)March 10, 1769
Hanover, Province of Pennsylvania, British America
DiedAugust 20, 1832(1832-08-20) (aged 63)
Winchester, Virginia, U.S.
Political party Democratic
Other political
affiliations
Democratic-Republican
Alma mater College of William and Mary

David Holmes (March 10, 1769 August 20, 1832) was an American politician. He was a Virginia congressman, and later Mississippi statesman. He was appointed as the fourth and last governor of the Mississippi Territory and became elected as the first governor of the State of Mississippi. He served a term as Senator of Mississippi, and returned to serve part of a term as governor before ill health forced him to resign.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or simply America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe. Most of the country is located in central North America between Canada and Mexico. With an estimated population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the most populous city is New York City.

Mississippi Territory territory of the USA between 1798-1817

The Territory of Mississippi was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from April 7, 1798, until December 10, 1817, when the western half of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of Mississippi and the eastern half became the Alabama Territory until its admittance to the Union as the State of Alabama on December 14, 1819.

The history of the state of Mississippi extends to thousands of years of indigenous peoples. Evidence of their cultures has been found largely through archeological excavations, as well as existing remains of earthwork mounds built thousands of years ago. Native American traditions were kept through oral histories; the Europeans recorded accounts of historic peoples they encountered. Since the late 20th century, there have been increased studies of the Native American tribes and reliance on their oral histories to document their cultures. Their accounts have been correlated with evidence of natural events.

Contents

Career

Born in near Hanover in the Province of Pennsylvania, Holmes and his family moved to Virginia when he was a child. He served as U.S. Representative from Virginia from 1797 until 1809.

Hanover, Pennsylvania Borough in Pennsylvania, United States

Hanover is a borough in York County, Pennsylvania, 19 miles (31 km) southwest of York and 54 miles (87 km) north-northwest of Baltimore, Maryland and is 5 miles (8.0 km) north of the Mason-Dixon line. The town is situated in a productive agricultural region. The population was 15,289 at the 2010 census. The borough is served by the 717 area code and the ZIP Codes of 17331-34. Hanover is named after the German city of Hannover.

Province of Pennsylvania English, from 1707, British, possession in North America between 1681 and 1776

The Province of Pennsylvania, also known as the Pennsylvania Colony, was founded in English North America by William Penn on March 4, 1682 as dictated in a royal charter granted by King Charles II. The name Pennsylvania, which translates roughly as "Penn's Woods", was created by combining the Penn surname with the Latin word sylvania, meaning "forest land". The Province of Pennsylvania was one of the two major restoration colonies, the other being the Province of Carolina. The proprietary colony's charter remained in the hands of the Penn family until the American Revolution, when the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania was created and became one of the original thirteen states. "The lower counties on Delaware", a separate colony within the province, would breakaway during the American Revolution as "the Delaware State" and also be one of the original thirteen states.

Virginia State in the United States

Virginia, officially the Commonwealth of Virginia, is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2018 is over 8.5 million.

Electoral history

Mississippi Territory

President Thomas Jefferson appointed him fourth governor of Mississippi Territory. Holmes was very popular and his appointment marked the end of a long period of factionalism within the territory. He was the last governor of the Mississippi Territory, serving 1809–17. Holmes was generally successful in dealing with a variety of matters, including expansion, land policy, Indians, the War of 1812, and the constitutional convention of 1817 (of which he was elected president).

Thomas Jefferson Third President of the United States

Thomas Jefferson was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father who served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Previously, he had served as the second vice president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. The principal author of the Declaration of Independence, Jefferson was a proponent of democracy, republicanism, and individual rights, motivating American colonists to break from the Kingdom of Great Britain and form a new nation; he produced formative documents and decisions at both the state and national level.

War of 1812 32-month military conflict between the United States and the British Empire

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States and the United Kingdom, with their respective allies, from June 1812 to February 1815. Historians in Britain often see it as a minor theatre of the Napoleonic Wars; historians in the United States and Canada see it as a war in its own right.

Often concerned with problems regarding West Florida, he had a major role in 1810 in negotiations which led to the peaceful occupation of part of that territory. McCain (1967) concludes that Holmes' success was not based on brilliance, but upon kindness, unselfishness, persuasiveness, courage, honesty, diplomacy, and intelligence. [1]

Mississippi statehood

In 1817, Mississippi joined the Union as the 20th state and Holmes won the election to be the first governor of the State of Mississippi unanimously. [2] Holmes took the oath of office in October 1817, though Mississippi did not officially become a state until December of that year. During his term, he established the state judicial system and the state militia and organized the land east of the Pearl River that the Choctaw Indians ceded.

Choctaw Native American people originally from the Southeastern United States

The Choctaw are a Native American people originally occupying what is now the Southeastern United States. Their Choctaw language belongs to the Muskogean language family group.

In 1820, the state legislature elected Holmes to be one of Mississippi's Senators in the U.S. Congress, and he served from 1821 until late 1825, when his election to another term [3] as governor of Mississippi forced him to resign. Because Holmes's declining health forced him to resign, he served only six months as Mississippi's fifth governor. If both territory and statehood years are counted, he is Mississippi's longest served Governor at over 11 years of service (10 years, 9 months, 29 days the first tenure, and 6 months, 18 days the second tenure).

United States Senate Upper house of the United States Congress

The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which, along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol Building, in Washington, D.C.

Holmes returned to his native Virginia where his health continued to fail before his death in 1832 at Jordan's Sulphur Springs, near Winchester, Virginia, where he still lies in the Mt. Hebron Cemetery. He was predeceased by his brother, Major Andrew Hunter Holmes, a casualty of the War of 1812.

Legacy

Holmes County, Mississippi is named in honor of him. [4]

Related Research Articles

Johnny Isakson American politician

John Hardy Isakson is an American politician serving as the senior United States Senator from Georgia, in office since 2005. A member of the Republican Party, he previously represented Georgia's 6th Congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1999 to 2005.

George Poindexter American politician

George Poindexter was an American politician, lawyer and judge from Mississippi. Born in Virginia, he moved to the Mississippi Territory in 1802. He served as United States Representative from the newly admitted state, was elected as Governor (1820–1822), and served as a United States Senator.

Clement Comer Clay Democratic governor of Alabama

Clement Comer Clay was the eighth Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama from 1835 to 1837. An attorney, judge and politician, he also was elected to the state legislature, as well as to the House of Representatives and the US Senate.

William Cocke American politician

William Cocke was an American lawyer, pioneer, and statesman. He has the distinction of having served in the state legislature of four different states: Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Mississippi, and was one of the first two United States senators for Tennessee.

Edmond Noel American politician

Edmond Favor Noel was an American attorney and politician who served as governor of Mississippi from 1908 to 1912. The son of an early planter family in Mississippi, he became a member of the Democratic Party.

1986 United States Senate elections

The 1986 United States Senate elections was an election for the United States Senate in the middle of Ronald Reagan's second presidential term. The Republicans had to defend an unusually large number of freshman Senate incumbents who had been elected on President Ronald Reagan's coattails in 1980. Democrats won a net of eight seats, defeating seven freshman incumbents, picking up two Republican-held open seats and regaining control of the Senate for the first time since January 1981. The party not controlling the presidency gained seats, as usually occurs in mid-term elections.

1978 United States Senate elections midterm elections

The 1978 United States Senate elections in the middle of Democratic President Jimmy Carter's term. Thirteen seats changed hands between parties. The Democrats at first lost a net of two seats to the Republicans, and then one more in a special election. Democrats nevertheless retained a 58-41 majority.

1966 United States Senate elections

The 1966 United States Senate elections was an election on November 8, 1966 for the United States Senate which occurred midway through the second term of President Lyndon B. Johnson. With divisions in the Democratic base over the Vietnam War, and with the traditional mid-term advantage of the party not holding the presidency, the Republicans took three Democratic seats. Despite Republican gains, the balance remained overwhelmingly in favor of the Democrats, who retained a 64–36 majority. This was also the first election that occurred after the Voting Rights Act of 1965 became law.

1964 United States Senate elections

The 1964 United States Senate elections coincided with the election of President Lyndon B. Johnson by an overwhelming majority, to a full term. His Democratic Party picked up a net two seats from the Republicans. As of 2019, this is the last time either party has had a two-thirds majority in the Senate, which would have hypothetically allowed the Senate Democrats to override a veto, convict and expel certain officials, or invoke cloture without any votes from Republicans. The Senate election coincided with Democratic gains in the House in the same year.

Alexander Smyth United States Army general

Alexander Smyth was an American lawyer, soldier, and politician from Virginia. Smyth served in the Virginia Senate, Virginia House of Delegates, United States House of Representatives and as a general during the War of 1812. Smyth County, Virginia, is named in his honor.

Thomas Hill Williams American politician

Thomas Hill Williams was a senator from Mississippi. Born in North Carolina, he completed preparatory studies, studied law, was admitted to the bar and practiced. He was register of the land office for the Territory of Mississippi in 1805, secretary of the Territory in 1805, and Acting Governor in 1806. He was reappointed secretary in 1807, and was again Acting Governor in 1809. In 1810 he was collector of customs at New Orleans, and was a delegate to the state constitutional convention.

Abram Trigg was an American farmer and politician from Bedford County, Virginia. He fought with the Virginia militia in the Revolutionary War and represented Virginia in the U.S. Congress from 1797 until 1809.

James Breckinridge Virginia lawyer and politician

James Breckinridge was a Virginia lawyer and politician and a member of the Breckinridge family. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates, as well as the U.S. House of Representatives. He also fought in the American Revolutionary War and served as a brigadier-general during the War of 1812.

William McCoy was an 18th- and 19th-century politician from Virginia.

Daniel Sheffey was a U.S. Representative from Virginia.

Powhatan Ellis American judge

Powhatan Ellis was a United States Senator from Mississippi and a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Mississippi.

2018 United States Senate elections U.S. Senate elections as part of the 2018 U.S. midterms

The 2018 United States Senate elections were held on November 6, 2018. 33 of the 100 seats were contested in regular elections while two others were contested in special elections due to Senate vacancies in Minnesota and Mississippi. The winners were elected to six-year terms running from January 3, 2019, to January 3, 2025. Senate Democrats had 26 seats up for election while Senate Republicans had nine seats up for election.

1881 Virginia gubernatorial election

The 1881 Virginia gubernatorial election was held on November 8, 1881. The Readjuster Party candidate William Evelyn Cameron won in a historic upset election. The Readjusters were a unique state mixture of Republicans, populist Democrats, freedmen, poor voters, and those in favor of "re-adjusting" the state debt owed to Northern banks for the various internal improvements financed before the war. Some of those internal improvements went to West Virginia, as they were physically located in there, as it counter-seceded from Virginia, who had sided with the Confederacy during the Civil War.

References

  1. McCain 1967
  2. http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=233512
  3. http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=233517
  4. Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off. p. 159.

Further reading

Political offices
Preceded by
Robert Williams
Governor of Mississippi Territory
1809–1817
Succeeded by
Himself
as Governor of Mississippi
Preceded by
Himself
as Governor of Mississippi Territory
Governor of Mississippi
1817–1820
Succeeded by
George Poindexter
Preceded by
Gerard Brandon
Governor of Mississippi
1826
Succeeded by
Gerard Brandon
U.S. Senate
Preceded by
Walter Leake
U.S. Senator (Class 1) from Mississippi
1820–1825
Served alongside: Thomas H. Williams
Succeeded by
Powhatan Ellis
U.S. House of Representatives
Preceded by
Abram Trigg
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 4th congressional district

1803–1809
Succeeded by
Jacob Swoope
Preceded by
Andrew Moore
Member of the  U.S. House of Representatives
from Virginia's 2nd congressional district

1797–1803
Succeeded by
James Stephenson