David II of Scotland

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David II
Scotland penny 802002 (obverse).jpg
A coin depicting David
King of Scotland
Reign7 June 1329 22 February 1371
Coronation 24 November 1331
Predecessor Robert I
Successor Robert II
Born5 March 1324
Dunfermline Abbey, Fife
Died22 February 1371(1371-02-22) (aged 46)
Edinburgh Castle
Burial
Spouse Joan of England
Margaret Drummond
House Bruce
Father Robert I of Scotland
Mother Elizabeth de Burgh

David II (5 March 1324 22 February 1371) was King of Scotland for nearly 42 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371. He was the last male of the House of Bruce. Although David spent long periods in exile or captivity, he managed to resist English attempts to annex his kingdom, and left the monarchy in a strong position.

Contents

Early life

David II was the elder and only surviving son of Robert I of Scotland and his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh. He was born on 5 March 1324 at Dunfermline Abbey, Fife. His mother died in 1327, when he was 3 years old. [1] In accordance with the Treaty of Northampton's terms, [2] on 17 July 1328, when he was 4, David was married to 7 year old Joan of the Tower, at Berwick-upon-Tweed. She was the daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France. They had no issue. [1]

Elizabeth de Burgh Scottish royal consort

Elizabeth de Burgh was the second wife and the only queen consort of King Robert the Bruce. Elizabeth was born sometime around 1284, probably in Down or Antrim in Ireland. She was the daughter of one of the most powerful Irish nobles of the period, Richard Óg de Burgh, 2nd Earl of Ulster, who was a close friend and ally of Edward I of England.

Dunfermline Abbey Church in Fife, Scotland

Dunfermline Abbey is a Church of Scotland Parish Church in Dunfermline, Fife, Scotland. The minister is the Reverend MaryAnn R. Rennie. The church occupies the site of the ancient chancel and transepts of a large medieval Benedictine abbey, which was sacked in 1560 during the Scottish Reformation and permitted to fall into disrepair. Part of the old abbey church continued in use at that time and some parts of the abbey infrastructure still remain. Dunfermline Abbey is one of Scotland's most important cultural sites.

Fife Council area of Scotland

Fife is a council area and historic county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. By custom it is widely held to have been one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, and is still commonly known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland. Fife is one of the six local authorities part of the Edinburgh and South East Scotland city region.

Reign

David became King of Scots upon the death of his father on 7 June 1329, aged 5 years, 3 months, and 3 days. David and his wife were crowned at Scone on 24 November 1331. [3]

During David's minority, Sir Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray was appointed Guardian of Scotland by the Act of Settlement of 1318. After Moray's death, on 20 July 1332, he was replaced by Donald, Earl of Mar, elected by an assembly of the magnates of Scotland at Perth, 2 August 1332. Only ten days later Mar fell at the Battle of Dupplin Moor. Sir Andrew Murray of Bothwell, who was married to Christian (or Christina), the sister of King Robert I, was chosen as the new Guardian. He was taken prisoner by the English at Roxburgh in April 1333 and was thence replaced as Guardian by Archibald Douglas (the Tyneman), who fell at Halidon Hill that July. [4]

Thomas Randolph, 1st Earl of Moray Earl of Moray, 1332

Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray was a soldier and diplomat in the Wars of Scottish Independence, who later served as regent of Scotland.

Guardian of Scotland

The Guardians of Scotland were regents who governed the Kingdom of Scotland from 1286 until 1292 and from 1296 until 1306. During the many years of minority in Scotland's subsequent history, there were many guardians of Scotland and the post was a significant constitutional feature in the course of development for politics in the country.

Perth, Scotland City in Scotland

Perth is a city in central Scotland, on the banks of the River Tay. It is the administrative centre of Perth and Kinross council area and the historic county town of Perthshire. It has a population of about 47,180. Perth has been known as The Fair City since the publication of the story Fair Maid of Perth by Scottish writer Sir Walter Scott in 1828. During the later medieval period the city was also called St John's Toun or Saint Johnstoun by its inhabitants in reference to the main church dedicated to St John the Baptist. This name is preserved by the city's football teams, St Johnstone F.C.

Meanwhile, on 24 September 1332, following the Scots' defeat at Dupplin, Edward Balliol, a protégé of Edward III of England, and a pretender to the throne of Scotland, was crowned by the English and his Scots adherents. By December, however, Balliol was forced to flee to England, although he returned the following year as part of an invasion force led by the English king. [5]

Edward Balliol Claimant to the Scottish Kingdom

Edward Balliol was a pretender to the Scottish throne during the Second War of Scottish Independence. With English help, he ruled parts of the country from 1332 to 1356.

Edward III of England 14th-century King of England and Duke of Aquitaine

Edward III was King of England and Lord of Ireland from January 1327 until his death; he is noted for his military success and for restoring royal authority after the disastrous and unorthodox reign of his father, Edward II. Edward III transformed the Kingdom of England into one of the most formidable military powers in Europe. His long reign of 50 years was the second longest in medieval England and saw vital developments in legislation and government, in particular the evolution of the English parliament, as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

Exile in France

Joan & David II with Philip VI of France Filip6 David2 Joan of the Tower.jpg
Joan & David II with Philip VI of France

Following the English victory at the Battle of Halidon Hill in July 1333, David and his wife were sent for safety into France, reaching Boulogne on 14 May 1334. [6] They were received very graciously by King Philip VI. Little is known about the life of the Scottish king in France, except that Château Gaillard was given to him for a residence, and that he was present at the bloodless meeting of the English and French armies in October 1339 at Vironfosse, [2] now known as Buironfosse, in the Arrondissement of Vervins.

Battle of Halidon Hill 1333 battle of the Wars of Scottish Independence

The Battle of Halidon Hill was fought during the Second War of Scottish Independence. Scottish forces under Sir Archibald Douglas were heavily defeated by the English forces of King Edward III of England on unfavourable terrain while trying to relieve Berwick-upon-Tweed.

Boulogne-sur-Mer Subprefecture and commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Boulogne-sur-Mer, often called Boulogne, is a coastal city in Northern France. It is a sub-prefecture of the department of Pas-de-Calais. Boulogne lies on the Côte d'Opale, a touristic stretch of French coast on the English Channel between Calais and Normandy, and the most visited location in the region after Lille conurbation. Boulogne is its department's second-largest city after Calais, and the 163rd-largest in France. It is also the country's largest fishing port, specialising in herring.

Philip VI of France King of France

Philip VI, called the Fortunate and of Valois, was the first King of France from the House of Valois. He reigned from 1328 until his death.

By 1341, David's representatives had once again obtained the upper hand in Scotland. David was able to return to his kingdom, landing at Inverbervie in Kincardineshire on 2 June 1341. He took the reins of government into his own hands, at the age of 17. [2]

Captivity in England

David II, king of Scotland, acknowledges Edward III, king of England, as his feudal lord. David Bruce, king of Scotland, acknowledges Edward III as his feudal lord.jpg
David II, king of Scotland, acknowledges Edward III, king of England, as his feudal lord.

In 1346, under the terms of the Auld Alliance, David invaded England in the interests of the French, who were at war with the English in Normandy. After initial success at Hexham, David was wounded, and his army soundly defeated at the Battle of Neville's Cross on 17 October 1346. [7] David was captured and taken prisoner by Sir John de Coupland, who imprisoned him in the Tower of London. David was transferred to Windsor Castle in Berkshire upon the return of Edward III from France. The depiction of David being presented to King Edward III in the play The Reign of King Edward the Third is fictitious. [8] David and his household were later moved to Odiham Castle in Hampshire. His imprisonment was not reputed to be a rigorous one, although he remained captive in England for eleven years. [2]

On 3 October 1357, after several protracted negotiations with the Scots' regency council, a treaty was signed at Berwick-upon-Tweed under which Scotland's nobility agreed to pay 100,000 marks, at the rate of 10,000 marks per year, as a ransom for their king. This was ratified by the Scottish Parliament at Scone on 6 November 1357.

Return to Scotland

David II (left) and Edward III (right) David II, King of Scotland and Edward III, King of England (British Library MS Cotton Nero D VI, folio 66v).jpg
David II (left) and Edward III (right)

David returned at once to Scotland. After six years, owing to the poverty of the kingdom, it was found impossible to raise the ransom installment of 1363. David then made for London and sought to get rid of the liability by offering to bequeath Scotland to Edward III, or one of his sons, in return for a cancellation of the ransom. David did this with the full awareness that the Scots would never accept such an arrangement. In 1364, the Scottish parliament indignantly rejected a proposal to make Lionel, Duke of Clarence, the next king. Over the next few years, David strung out secret negotiations with Edward III, [2] which apparently appeased the matter.

His wife, Queen Joan, died 7 September 1362 (aged 41) at Hertford Castle, Hertfordshire, most likely a victim of the Black Death. He remarried, about 20 February 1364, Margaret Drummond, widow of Sir John Logie, and daughter of Sir Malcolm Drummond. He divorced her about 20 March 1370. They had no children. [1] [9] Margaret, however, travelled to Avignon, and made a successful appeal to the Pope Urban V to reverse the sentence of divorce which had been pronounced against her in Scotland. She was still alive in January 1375, four years after David died. [10]

From 1364, David governed with vigour, dealing firmly with recalcitrant nobles, and a wider baronial revolt. David continued to pursue the goal of a final peace with England. At the time of his death, the Scottish monarchy was stronger, and the kingdom and the royal finances more prosperous than might have seemed possible.

Death

David II died unexpectedly, and at the height of his power, in Edinburgh Castle on 22 February 1371. He was buried in Holyrood Abbey. [1] [9] The funeral was overseen by Abbot Thomas. [11]

At the time of his death, he was planning to marry his mistress, Agnes Dunbar, the niece of Agnes Randolph, who was known as "Black Agnes of Dunbar". He left no children and was succeeded by his nephew, Robert II, the son of David's half-sister Marjorie Bruce. [2] He was the last male of the House of Bruce.

Fictional portrayals

David II has been depicted in historical novels. They include [12]

David II also appears as a character in the Elizabethan play Edward III .

Ancestry

Notes

  1. 1 2 3 4 Richardson, Douglas, Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p. 23, ISBN   0-8063-1750-7
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "David II. (king of Scotland)". Encyclopædia Britannica . 7 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 860. Endnotes:
    • Andrew of Wyntoun, The orygynale cronykil of Scotland, edited by D. Laing (Edinburgh, 1872–1879)
    • John of Fordun, Chronica gentis Scotorum, edited by W. F. Skene (Edinburgh, 1871–1872)
    • J. H. Burton, History of Scotland, vol. ii. (Edinburgh, 1905)
    • A. Lang, History of Scotland, vol. i. (Edinburgh, 1900).
  3. Dunbar, Sir Archibald H., Scottish Kings A Revised Chronology of Scottish History 1005–1625, Edinburgh, 1899, pp. 1467
  4. Dunbar (1899) pp. 1479
  5. Dunbar (1899) pp. 1489
  6. Dunbar (1899) p. 150
  7. Dunbar (1899) p. 152
  8. http://www.britroyals.com/scots.asp?id=david2)
  9. 1 2 Dunbar (1899) p. 154
  10. Dunbar (1899) p. 156.
  11. Grants Old and New Edinburgh
  12. 1 2 3 Nield (1968), p. 42
  13. Shattock (2000), p. 1785-1786
  14. "Nigel Tranter Historical Novels",timeline of events depicted

Related Research Articles

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John Balliol King of Scots

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Robert II of Scotland King of Scots from 1371 to 1390

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The Battle of Neville's Cross took place during the Second War of Scottish Independence on 17 October 1346, half a mile to the west of Durham, England, within sight of Durham Cathedral. An invading Scottish army of 12,000 led by King David II was defeated with heavy loss by an English army of approximately 6,000–7,000 men led by Lord Ralph Neville. The battle was named after an Anglo-Saxon stone cross on the hill where the Scots made their stand; after the victory, Neville paid to have a new cross erected to commemorate the day.

Patrick V, Earl of March Scottish noble

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Agnes, Countess of Dunbar Scottish countess

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Margaret Drummond, known also by her first married name as Margaret Logie, was the second queen of David II of Scotland and a daughter of Sir Malcolm de Drummond, 10th Thane of Lennox by his wife Margaret Graham, Countess of Menteith.

Holders of the office of Lord Chamberlain of Scotland are known from about 1124. It was ranked by King Malcolm as the third great Officer of State, called Camerarius Domini Regis, and had a salary of £200 per annum allotted to him. He anciently collected the revenues of the Crown, at least before Scotland had a Treasurer, of which office there is no vestige of until the restoration of King James I when he disbursed the money necessary for the maintenance of the King's Household.

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Henry de Percy, 9th Baron Percy and 2nd Baron Percy of Alnwick (1298–1352) was the son of Henry de Percy, 1st Baron Percy of Alnwick, and Eleanor Fitzalan, daughter of Sir Richard FitzAlan, 8th Earl of Arundel, and sister of Edmund FitzAlan, 9th Earl of Arundel.

The Second War of Scottish Independence, also known as the Anglo-Scottish War of Succession (1332–1357) was the second cluster of a series of military campaigns fought between the independent Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.

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References

Further reading

David II of Scotland
Born: 1324 Died: 1371
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Robert I
King of Scots
7 June 1329 22 February 1371
Succeeded by
Robert II