|Дэвид (Давид) Лишин|
October 25, 1910
|Died||June 26, 1972 61) (aged|
|Occupation||dancer, choreographer, teacher|
|Spouse(s)||Lubov Rostova (m. 1933–divorced)|
Tatiana Riabouchinska (m. 1943–1972)
David Lichine (Russian : Дэвид (Давид) Лишин; 25 October 1910 – 26 June 1972) was a Russian-American ballet dancer and choreographer. He had an international career as a performer, ballet master, and choreographer, staging works for many ballet companies and for several Hollywood film studios.
Born in Rostov-on-Don in southern Russia as Давид Лихтенштейн, which is usually romanized as David or Deivid Lichtenstein or Liechtenstein. Right after the October Revolution in 1917 his family left Soviet Russia and eventually settled in Paris, where their surname became fixed as Lichine, in the French style. As a teenager, David began his ballet training with the leading Russian expatriate teachers in the city, including Lubov Egorova, Pierre Vladimiroff, and Bronislava Nijinska. Progressing quickly, he made his professional debut at age eighteen with Ida Rubenstein's company in 1928 and then went on to dance with companies headed by Anna Pavlova, Nijinska, and others. His technical finesse and exotic beauty of face and form soon made him an audience favorite.
In the re-formation of Russian ballet companies after the death of Serge Diaghilev, Lichine became a charter member of Ballets Russes de Monte-Carlo, founded in January 1932 by Col. Wassily de Basil, René Blum, and Serge Grigoriev. As a principal dancer, Lichine stayed with de Basil's company from its inception until 1941, headlining the company through all its subsequent renamings, which finally ended as Original Ballet Russe in 1939. [ ru ] (1932), Choreartium (1933), Les Présages (1933), and Union Pacific [ ru ] (1934). A versatile and engaging demi-caractère dancer, he is also remembered for a brilliant rendition of Petipa's fluttering Bluebird in Aurora's Wedding and for a sensual portrayal of the title role in Nijinsky's L'Après-midi d'un Faune.During his years with the company, Lichine danced in many ballets, creating roles in George Balanchine's Cotillion, Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme, and Suites de Danse (all, 1932) and Léonide Massine's Jeux d'enfants
In 1933, Lichine married Lubov Rostova, a dancer in the de Basil company, but their union was soon dissolved. That same year he made his choreographic debut with Nocturne, set to music of Jean-Philippe Rameau. This would prove to be the first of a long list of choreographic works staged over the years.Of them all, he is chiefly known for Graduation Ball (1940), a lighthearted work that is still widely performed today, more than sixty years after its creation.
During the years of World War II in Europe, Lichine and his second wife, ballerina Tatiana Riabouchinska, remained mostly in the United States, performing with Ballet Theatre (later renamed American Ballet Theatre) and finding occasional work in New York City and Hollywood. On Broadway, Lichine choreographed dances for the short-lived Beat the Band (1942), after which he directed and choreographed the operetta Rhapsody (1944), with music by Fritz Kriesler. His ballet numbers for this show earned high praise from the critics, but the show was a flop, closing after only thirteen performances.He had not much better luck with the operetta Polonaise (1945), set to the music of Chopin, which lasted longer but was panned by the critics.
After the war, Lichine returned to the Original Ballet Russe for various seasons (1946–1948). In the spring of 1946, his biblical ballet Cain and Abel had its premiere in Mexico City, and in the summer of 1947 he and Riabouchinska enjoyed an enthusiastic reception by both audiences and critics in a new production of Graduation Ball in London.In 1947 he was also working at the Teatro Colón in Buenos Aires as choreographer and principal dancer. Thereafter, he staged works for a number of companies in western Europe, including Les Ballets des Champs-Élysées, Le Grand Ballet du Marquis de Cuevas, London Festival Ballet, and the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
Throughout the 1940s, Lichine frequently worked in Hollywood on movie musicals and had considerable success, both as performer and choreographer. He can be seen as a specialty dancer in The Heat's On and Something to Shout About (both, 1943) and as Eleanor Powell's boogie partner in Sensations of 1945, released in 1944.He and Riabouchinska, who had served as dance models for Ben Ali Gator and Hyacinth Hippo in the "Dance of the Hours" ballet sequence of Fantasia (1940), were hired by Walt Disney once again for Make Mine Music (1946), in which they give a charming performance in the "Two Silhouettes" sequence. As a choreographer, Lichine's first movie was Spring Night (1935), a remarkable short film in which he dances with Nana Gollner, but the ballet sequences for Cyd Charisse in The Unfinished Dance (1947) are generally considered his best work for the movie camera.
In 1955, Lichine was invited by Edouard Borovansky to return to Australia to stage a full length Nutcracker for the Borovansky Ballet for its 1955–1956 season. Lichine had first visited Australia with the Covent Garden Russian Ballet (Original Ballet Russe) on their Australian tour of 1938–1939. Lichine's Nutcracker, a ballet that was a staple Christmas treat for Australian audiences for many years, premiered on 16 December 1955 with Peggy Sager as the Sugar Plum Fairy and Royes Fernandez as the Prince. During his visit to Australia, Lichine was also commissioned to create an original ballet, the result was Corrida, which had first been workshopped in Lichine's Los Angeles studio in 1952. Its world premiere as a fully realized production was on 17 February 1956, with the lead roles performed by Kathleen Gorham and Paul Grinwis.
In 1953, Lichine and Riabouchinska settled in Los Angeles, where they opened a ballet school and for some time also directed a performing group, the Los Angeles Ballet Theatre. She continued to teach at the school after his death in 1972, at the age of sixty-one.
René Blum was a French theatrical impresario. He was the founder of the Ballet de l'Opéra at Monte Carlo and was the younger brother of the Socialist Prime Minister of France, Léon Blum. A Jew, he was interned in various camps from 1941 until he was murdered by the Nazis at the Auschwitz concentration camp in late September 1942. While at the camps, he was known for keeping up the spirits of his fellow prisoners with tales of his life in the arts.
Vassily Grigorievich Voskresensky, usually referred to as Colonel Wassily de Basil, was a Russian ballet impresario.
Bronislava Nijinska was a Polish ballet dancer, and an innovative choreographer. She came of age in a family of traveling, professional dancers.
George Zoritch, was a Russian-born American ballet dancer who starred in performances by Ballet Russe companies on stages all over the United States from the 1930s to the 1960s. Internationally known, he was one of the most glamorous figures and striking personalities in mid-twentieth-century ballet.
Tamara Toumanova was a Georgian-American prima ballerina and actress. A child of exiles in Paris after the Russian Revolution of 1917, she made her debut at the age of 10 at the children's ballet of the Paris Opera.
Rosella Hightower was an American ballerina and member of the Choctaw Nation who achieved fame in both the United States and Europe.
André Eglevsky was a Russian-born ballet dancer and teacher who studied in France and, from 1932, danced with Colonel W. de Basil's Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo for several years, as well as other companies in Europe and New York City. He became a United States citizen in the late 1930s and danced with the American Ballet Theatre and New York City Ballet. After retiring from performance in 1958, he set up his own ballet school and the Eglevsky Ballet Company in New York.
Tatiana Mikhailovna Riabouchinska was a Russian American prima ballerina and teacher. Famous at age 14 as one of the three "Baby Ballerinas" of the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo in the 1930s, she matured into an artist whom critics called "the most unusual dancer of her generation."
The Ballets Russes was an itinerant ballet company begun in Paris that performed between 1909 and 1929 throughout Europe and on tours to North and South America. The company never performed in Russia, where the Revolution disrupted society. After its initial Paris season, the company had no formal ties there.
Baby ballerinas is a term invented by the English writer and dance critic Arnold Haskell to describe three young dancers of the Ballets Russes de Monte-Carlo in the early 1930s: Irina Baronova (1919–2008), Tamara Toumanova (1919–1996), and Tatiana Riabouchinska (1917–2000).
Graduation Ball is a ballet in one act choreographed by David Lichine to music composed by Johann Strauss II and arranged by Antal Doráti. With a scenario devised by Lichine and with scenery and costumes designed by Alexandre Benois, it was first presented by the Original Ballet Russe at the Theatre Royal, Sydney, Australia, on 1 March 1940.
The company Ballets Russes de Monte-Carlo was formed in 1932 after the death of Sergei Diaghilev and the demise of Ballets Russes. Its director was Wassily de Basil, and its artistic director was René Blum. They fell out in 1936 and the company split. The part which de Basil retained went through two name changes before becoming the Original Ballet Russe. Blum founded Les Ballets de Monte Carlo, which changed its name to Ballet Russe de Monte-Carlo when Léonide Massine became artistic director in 1938. It operated under this name until it disbanded some 20 years later.
John Taras was an American ballet master, repetiteur, and choreographer.
The Original Ballet Russe was a ballet company established in 1931 by René Blum and Colonel Wassily de Basil as a successor to the Ballets Russes, founded in 1909 by Sergei Diaghilev. The company assumed the new name Original Ballet Russe after a split between de Basil and Blum. De Basil led the renamed company, while Blum and others founded a new company under the name Ballet Russe de Monte-Carlo. It was a large scale professional ballet company which toured extensively in Europe, Australia and New Zealand, the United States, and Central and South America. It closed down operations in 1947.
Edouard Borovansky was a Czech-born Australian ballet dancer, choreographer and director. After touring with Anna Pavlova's company, he and his wife, Xenia, settled in Australia where they established the Borovansky Ballet company. This company provided the foundation for modern ballet in Australia and was subsequently used as the basis for the first national Australian ballet company, The Australian Ballet which was established in 1962.
Marina Svetlova was a French and American ballerina and ballet instructor.
Hélène Kirsova was a Danish prima ballerina, choreographer and ballet teacher and is noted as the founder of the first professional ballet company in Australia. She trained in Paris with former Sergei Diaghilev ballet dancers and choreographers. She then performed in companies run by Léo Staats and Ida Rubinstein before in 1931 becoming a soloist with Les Ballets Russes de Monte Carlo, dancing for several years in Europe and North America. In 1936, as a principal dancer, she joined René Blum's Les Ballets de Monte-Carlo in which she scored a singular success in London. Later that year she joined Colonel Wassily de Basil's Monte Carlo Russian Ballet as prima ballerina on an extensive tour of Australia and New Zealand where she was fêted by critics and audiences. She remained in Australia, started a ballet school in Sydney, and in 1941 formed the Kirsova Ballet. Despite wartime restrictions she directed the company for several years before retiring in 1948. She has been described as the "Godmother" of Australian ballet.
Tamara Tchinarova, also known as Tamara Finch, was a Romanian-born émigré Russian and French ballerina who contributed significantly to the development of Australian dance companies and was a Russian/English interpreter for touring ballet companies. She was a dance writer and author, as Tamara Finch, of a number of non-fiction books. She was the first wife of actor Peter Finch.
Leon Woizikovsky originally Léon Wójcikowski was a Polish dancer and ballet master, and later choreographer and teacher. He first came to prominence as a member of the Ballets Russes. Later he worked with various ballet companies, e.g., Pavlova, de Basil, de Valois, Ballet Polonaise, Massine, the London Festival, the Royal Flemish.
Rachel Cameron was an Australian ballet dancer and teacher. She was one of the leading dancers in early Australian ballet in the 1940s, performing with the Borovansky and Kirsova ballet companies, and was one of the first ballet dancers in Australia to reach the rank of principal. After emigrating to Great Britain she was an inspirational educator of ballet teachers at the Royal Academy of Dance in London for over forty years. In 2010, she received the Royal Academy of Dance's prestigious Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Award in recognition of her outstanding services to ballet.