|Duke of Rothesay, Earl of Atholl & Carrick|
|Born||24 October 1378|
|Died||26 March 1402 23) (aged|
|Father||Robert III of Scotland|
David Stewart (24 October 1378 – 26 March 1402) was heir apparent to the throne of Scotland from 1390 and the first Duke of Rothesay from 1398. He was named after his great-great-uncle, David II of Scotland, and also held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1398–1402) and Earl of Carrick (1390–1402). He shares with his uncle and arch-rival, Robert Stewart, first Duke of Albany, the distinction of being first dukes to be created in the Scottish peerage. David never became king. His marriage to Mary Douglas, daughter of Archibald the Grim, the third Earl of Douglas, was without issue.
David Stewart, was born to John Stewart, Lord High Steward of Scotland, and his wife, Anabella Drummond, daughter Sir John Drummond, 11th Thane of Lennox, on 24 October 1378. In 1390, when his father acceded as King of Scots (taking the title Robert III), David became first in order of succession to the throne of Scotland as eldest son. He is known to have taken an active part in the political life of the kingdom. In around 1396, for example, he was entrusted with the government or pacification of the northern parts of the kingdom.He is also known to have played an active role in peace negotiations with John of Gaunt in the Marches.
In 1395 David was betrothed to Elizabeth de Dunbar, daughter of George Dunbar, 10th Earl of March. This was a strong political alliance because the Earl of March was one of the most powerful and influential men of his time, rivaled only by Archibald Douglas, 3rd Earl of Douglas. A Papal mandate for the marriage was approved but the couple had not wanted to wait and were married before the mandate arrived in August 1395. As a result they were censured. After applying for absolution for not waiting, the Pope issued a dispensation to the couple dated 10 March 1397 granting that they could ‘remarry’ after a period of separation.
Archibald Douglas "The Grim" influenced King Robert, and instead of remarrying Elizabeth, his wife of almost 2 years, David was betrothed to and married Marjorie Douglas, daughter of the 3rd Earl of Douglas instead. Understandably, the Dunbar family were more than upset. They had lost an important political alliance to their greatest rival, Elizabeth's honor and marriage prospects were sullied and the entire family insulted. George Dunbar, Earl of March did not react favorably. As a result of the broken betrothal he left Scotland entirely and joined King Henry IV of England. This was potentially very dangerous for Scotland.
At a meeting of the Estates held in January 1399 it was resolved that David, as heir to the throne, should be appointed "lieutenant" of the kingdom with full sovereign powers for three years, partly due to the infirmity of his father and at a time of civil unrest and conflict with England.Although this gave him an opportunity to flex political muscle, his room for manoeuvre was significantly constrained, however, by a combination of youthful inexperience and the ultimately mortal rivalry of his uncle, Robert Stewart (brother of Robert III; the latter was named John before he became king), Duke of Albany, who had been protector of the kingdom prior to David's lieutenancy. Albany was a ruthlessly effective politician with a well-developed power base, and his designs on the throne were well understood.
David appears to have had an ally in his mother, the Queen, who had worked to strengthen her son's hand, arranging the great tournament of 1398 in Edinburgh when he was knightedand being present, along with the king, in that same year when David was created Duke of Rothesay, in the same ceremony, performed by Walter Trail, Archbishop of St Andrews, which also created the title Duke of Albany for his uncle. But both the Queen and Archbishop were dead by 1401. His father, the King, appears to have had little ability by that date to influence events effectively.
In late February 1402, while travelling officially to St Andrews, David was arrested just outside the city at Strathtyrum in a sting operation which had been arranged by Albany, at that time in complicit alliance with David's brother-in-law, Archibald, the fourth Earl of Douglas, who was offended with Rothesay for his unfaithfulness to his wife, the sister of Douglas. (David's father-in-law, the highly influential third Earl, had died two years before, in 1400.) The pretext for David's arrest was that the three-year period of his lieutenancy had expired. He was initially held captive in St Andrews Castle, and soon afterwards taken to Falkland Palace, Albany's residence in Fife. According to Bower, the prince spent the journey hooded and mounted backwards on a mule. At Falkland David remained a prisoner and shortly died there, reputedly of starvation.
He was buried at Lindores Abbey. The King founded a chaplaincy in the parish church of Dundee to pray for his soul, and daily masses were to be said at Deer Abbey and Culross.A few weeks after the funeral, in May 1402, a public enquiry into the circumstances of David's death exonerated Albany of all blame.
Four years later, in 1406, David's younger brother, James Stewart, succeeded Robert III as king (although at that time remaining uncrowned and in captivity in England) while Albany secured himself as de facto ruler of Scotland.
David is the subject of an anonymous full-length 18th century verse drama, The Duke of Rothsay, a tragedypublished and sold in Edinburgh in 1780. The story of his imprisonment is the principal subject of Walter Scott's The Fair Maid of Perth (1828) in which he is likewise portrayed as tragic victim. He also features as a principal character in relevant novels from Nigel Tranter's trilogy about the early Stewart kings, The Stewart Trilogy (1976-1977).
Tytler, Patrick Fraser (1887). The history of Scotland from the accession of Alexander III. to the union. Vol. II. Edinburgh: W. P. Nimmo.
James I was King of Scots from 1406 until his assassination in 1437. The youngest of three sons, he was born in Dunfermline Abbey to King Robert III and Annabella Drummond. His older brother David, Duke of Rothesay, died under suspicious circumstances during detention by their uncle, Robert, Duke of Albany. James' other brother, Robert, died young. Fears surrounding James's safety grew through the winter of 1405/6 and plans were made to send him to France. In February 1406, James was forced to take refuge in the castle of the Bass Rock in the Firth of Forth after his escort was attacked by supporters of Archibald, 4th Earl of Douglas. He remained at the castle until mid-March, when he boarded a vessel bound for France. On 22nd March, English pirates captured the ship and delivered the prince to Henry IV of England. The ailing Robert III died on 4 April and the 11-year-old James, now the uncrowned King of Scots, would not regain his freedom for another eighteen years.
Robert II was King of Scotland from 1371 to his death in 1390. The son of Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland and Marjorie, daughter of King Robert the Bruce, he was the first monarch of the House of Stewart. Upon the death of his uncle, King David II, Robert succeeded to the throne.
Robert III, born John Stewart, was King of Scots from 1390 to his death. He was also High Steward of Scotland from 1371 to 1390 and held the titles of Earl of Atholl (1367–1390) and Earl of Carrick (1368–1390) before ascending the throne at about the age of 53 years. He was the eldest son of Robert II and Elizabeth Mure and was legitimized by the second marriage of his parents and by papal dispensation in 1349.
James III was King of Scots from 1460 until his death at the Battle of Sauchieburn in 1488. He inherited the throne as a child following the death of his father, King James II, at the siege of Roxburgh Castle. James III's reign began with a minority that lasted almost a decade, during which Scotland was governed by a series of regents and factions who struggled for possession of the young king, before his personal rule began in 1469.
The House of Stuart, originally spelt Stewart, was a royal house of Scotland, England, Ireland and later Great Britain. The family name comes from the office of High Steward of Scotland, which had been held by the family progenitor Walter fitz Alan. The name Stewart and variations had become established as a family name by the time of his grandson Walter Stewart. The first monarch of the Stewart line was Robert II, whose male-line descendants were kings and queens in Scotland from 1371, and of England and Great Britain from 1603, until 1714. Mary, Queen of Scots, was brought up in France where she adopted the French spelling of the name Stuart.
Earl of Carrick is the title applied to the ruler of Carrick, subsequently part of the Peerage of Scotland. The position came to be strongly associated with the Scottish crown when Robert the Bruce, who had inherited it from his maternal kin, became King of the Scots in the early 14th century. Since the 15th century, the title of Earl of Carrick has automatically been held by the heir apparent to the throne, thus the current holder of the title is Prince William, Duke of Rothesay.
Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany was a member of the Scottish royal family who served as regent to three Scottish monarchs. A ruthless politician, Albany was widely regarded as having caused the murder of his nephew, the Duke of Rothesay, and brother to the future King James I of Scotland. James was held in captivity in England for eighteen years, during which time Albany served as regent in Scotland, king in all but name. He died in 1420 and was succeeded by his son, Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, who was executed for treason when James returned to Scotland in 1425, almost causing the complete ruin of the Albany Stewarts.
Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan, Alasdair Mór mac an Rígh, and called the Wolf of Badenoch, was the third surviving son of King Robert II of Scotland and youngest by his first wife, Elizabeth Mure of Rowallan. He was the first Earl of Buchan since John Comyn, from 1382 until his death. Alexander married the widowed Euphemia I, Countess of Ross, but they had no children. He did have a large family by his longtime mistress, Mairead inghean Eachainn. Alexander was Justiciar of Scotia for a time, but not an effective one. He held large territories in the north of Scotland before eventually losing a large part of them. Alexander is remembered for his destruction of the royal burgh of Elgin and its cathedral. His nickname was earned due to his notorious cruelty and rapacity, but there is no proof that it was used during his lifetime.
The Mormaer or Earl of Atholl was the title of the holder of a medieval comital lordship straddling the highland province of Atholl, now in northern Perthshire. Atholl is a special Mormaerdom, because a King of Atholl is reported from the Pictish period. The only other two Pictish kingdoms to be known from contemporary sources are Fortriu and Circinn. Indeed, the early 13th century document known to modern scholars as the de Situ Albanie repeats the claim that Atholl was an ancient Pictish kingdom. In the 11th century, the famous Crínán of Dunkeld may have performed the role of Mormaer.
Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany was a leading Scottish nobleman, the son of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany, and the grandson of King Robert II of Scotland, who founded the Stewart dynasty. In 1389, he became Justiciar North of the Forth. In 1402, he was captured at the Battle of Homildon Hill and would spend 12 years in captivity in England.
The title of High Steward or Great Steward is that of an officer who controls the domestic affairs of a royal household. In the 12th century King David I of Scotland gave the title to Walter fitz Alan, a nobleman from Brittany, whose descendants adopted the surname "Steward", later "Stewart" and later founded the royal House of Stewart. A junior branch of the Stewart family descended from the younger son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland (d.1283), namely "Stewart of Darnley", paternal ancestors of King James I & VI, lived for several generations in France, when the name became spelt in the French manner "Stuart" and "Dernelé". In 1371 Robert Stewart, 7th High Steward of Scotland inherited the throne of Scotland via his mother and became King Robert II of Scotland, when the title or office of High Steward of Scotland merged into the crown. However it was re-granted by the monarch to his elder son and heir apparent, together with the titles Duke of Rothesay, Baron of Renfrew, Earl of Carrick and Lord of the Isles. Thus, currently, the Prince of Wales is High Steward of Scotland, sometimes known as the Prince and Great Steward of Scotland.
Archibald Douglas, Earl of Douglas and Wigtown, Lord of Galloway, Douglas and Bothwell, called Archibald the Grim or Black Archibald, was a late medieval Scottish nobleman. Archibald was the bastard son of Sir James "the Black" Douglas, Robert I's trusted lieutenant, and an unknown mother. A first cousin of William 1st Earl of Douglas, he inherited the earldom of Douglas and its entailed estates as the third earl following the death without legitimate issue of James 2nd Earl of Douglas at the Battle of Otterburn.
Archibald Douglas, 4th Earl of Douglas, Duke of Touraine, was a Scottish nobleman and warlord. He is sometimes given the epithet "Tyneman", but this may be a reference to his great-uncle Sir Archibald Douglas.
Anabella Drummond was the Queen of Scotland by marriage to King Robert III of Scotland.
Donald, Lord of the Isles, was the son and successor of John of Islay, Lord of the Isles and chief of Clan Donald. The Lordship of the Isles was based in and around the Scottish west-coast island of Islay, but under Donald's father had come to include most of isles and the lands of Somerled, the King of the Isles in the 12th century, Donald's predecessor, including Morvern, Garmoran, Lochaber, Kintyre and Knapdale on the mainland.
George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus (1380–1403) was a Scottish nobleman and peer.
The Scottish author Nigel Tranter wrote many novels based on historical events and figures.
William Douglas, 2nd Earl of Angus was a Scottish nobleman and soldier. The son of George Douglas, 1st Earl of Angus and Princess Mary of Scotland, he was a grandson of King Robert III.
George de Dunbar, 10th Earl of Dunbar and March (1338–1422), 12th Lord of Annandale and Lord of the Isle of Man, was "one of the most powerful nobles in Scotland of his time, and the rival of the Douglases."
Thomas Dunbar, 5th Earl of Moray inherited the title before 15 February 1392. In 1388 he displaced Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan as the provider of protection to Alexander Bur, Bishop of Moray and his church lands—following Buchan's burning of Elgin Cathedral in 1390 this agreement was dissolved. He replaced Buchan as sheriff of Inverness in 1390. In 1394, Moray was pressured into paying protection money to Alexander, lord of Lochaber and into granting him lands. Moray was an adherent of Robert Stewart, Duke of Albany and was appointed to the special council that was set up to supervise Robert III's son, David Stewart, Duke of Rothesay, when he was appointed lieutenant of Scotland in 1399. On 14 September 1402, a Scots army has defeated at the battle of Homildon Hill where Moray was taken prisoner—he did not receive his freedom until July 1405. He died before August 1422 and was succeeded by his son Thomas before 9 August 1422.