Dayananda Saraswati

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Swami Dayananda Saraswati
Dayananda Saraswati.jpg
Personal
Born
Mul Shankar Kapadi or Mulshankar Karasandas Kapadi

(1824-02-12)12 February 1824
Died30 October 1883(1883-10-30) (aged 59) [1]
Religion Hinduism
Nationality Indian
Founder of Arya Samaj
Philosophy Vedanta
Religious career
Guru Virajanand Dandeesha
Literary works Satyarth Prakash (1875)
HonorsSindhi Marhu
Quotation
"Om vishwani dev savitar duritani parasuv yad bhadram tanna aasuva."

Dayanand Saraswati Loudspeaker.svg pronunciation   (12 February 1824 – 30 October 1883) was an Indian social leader and founder of the Arya Samaj, a reform movement of the Vedic dharma. He was the first to give the call for Swaraj as "India for Indians" in 1876, a call later taken up by Lokmanya Tilak. [2] [3] Denouncing the idolatry and ritualistic worship prevalent in India at the time, he worked towards reviving Vedic ideologies. Subsequently, the philosopher and President of India, S. Radhakrishnan called him one of the "makers of Modern India", as did Sri Aurobindo. [4] [5] [6]

Arya Samaj Hindu religious organization

Arya Samaj is an Indian Hindu reform movement that promotes values and practices based on the belief in the infallible authority of the Vedas. The samaj was founded by the sannyasi (ascetic) Dayanand Saraswati on 10 April 1875. Members of the Arya Samaj believe in one God and reject the worship of idols.

A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community's ideal. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements which reject those old ideals in the ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist or religious concepts. Some rely on personal transformation; others rely on small collectives, such as Mahatma Gandhi's spinning wheel and the self-sustaining village economy, as a mode of social change. Reactionary movements, which can arise against any of these, attempt to put things back the way they were before any successes the new reform movement(s) enjoyed, or to prevent any such successes.

Contents

Those who were influenced by and followed Dayananda included Madam Cama, Pandit Lekh Ram, Swami Shraddhanand, Pandit Guru Dutt Vidyarthi, [7] Shyamji Krishna Varma (who established India House in England for Freedom fighters,) Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, Lala Hardayal, Madan Lal Dhingra, Ram Prasad Bismil, Mahadev Govind Ranade, Ashfaq Ullah Khan [8] , Mahatma Hansraj, Lala Lajpat Rai, [9] [10] and others. One of his most influential works is the book Satyarth Prakash , which contributed to the Indian independence movement.

Pandit Lekh Ram Hindu leader

Pandit Lekh Ram was a hindu leader known for his encounters with the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. He also wrote a book in falsification of Ahmad's Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya and named it Takzeeb e Barahin Ahmadiyya. He was assassinated on March 6, 1897. Ahmadis claim this was in accordance with the prophecies of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.

Swami Shraddhanand Indian monk and philosopher

Swami Shraddhanand, also known as Mahatma Munshi Ram Vij, was an Indian educationist and an Arya Samaj missionary who propagated the teachings of Dayananda Saraswati. This included the establishment of educational institutions, like the Gurukul Kangri University, and played a key role on the Sangathan and the Shuddhi (re-conversion), a Hindu reform movement in the 1920s.

Shyamji Krishna Varma an Indian revolutionary, lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London

Shyamji Krishna Varma was an Indian revolutionary fighter, an Indian patriot, lawyer and journalist who founded the Indian Home Rule Society, India House and The Indian Sociologist in London. A graduate of Balliol College, Krishna Varma was a noted scholar in Sanskrit and other Indian languages. He pursued a brief legal career in India and served as the Divan of a number of Indian princely states in India. He had, however, differences with Crown authority, was dismissed following a supposed conspiracy of local British officials at Junagadh and chose to return to England. An admirer of Dayanand Saraswati's approach of cultural nationalism, and of Herbert Spencer, Krishna Varma believed in Spencer's dictum: "Resistance to aggression is not simply justified, but imperative".

He was a sanyasi (ascetic) from boyhood, and a scholar. He believed in the infallible authority of the Vedas. Maharshi Dayananda advocated the doctrine of Karma and Reincarnation. He emphasized the Vedic ideals of brahmacharya, including celibacy and devotion to God.

Moral absolutism is an ethical view that all actions are intrinsically right or wrong. Stealing, for instance, might be considered to be always immoral, even if done for the well-being of others, and even if it does in the end promote such a good. Moral absolutism stands in contrast to other categories of normative ethical theories such as consequentialism, which holds that the morality of an act depends on the consequences or the context of the act.

Vedas Ancient scriptures of Hinduism

The Vedas are a large body of religious texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Hindus consider the Vedas to be apauruṣeya, which means "not of a man, superhuman" and "impersonal, authorless".

Karma concept of "action" or "deed" in Indian religions

Karma means action, work or deed; it also refers to the spiritual principle of cause and effect where intent and actions of an individual (cause) influence the future of that individual (effect). Good intent and good deeds contribute to good karma and future happiness, while bad intent and bad deeds contribute to bad karma and future suffering.

Among Maharshi Dayananda's contributions are his promoting of the equal rights for women, such as the right to education and reading of Indian scriptures, and his commentary on the Vedas from Vedic Sanskrit in Sanskrit as well as in Hindi.

Vedic Sanskrit is an Indo-European language, more specifically one branch of the Indo-Iranian group. It is the ancient language of the Vedas of Hinduism, texts compiled over the period of the mid-2nd to mid-1st millennium BCE. It was orally preserved, predating the advent of Brahmi script by several centuries. Vedic Sanskrit is an archaic language, whose consensus translation has been challenging.

Sanskrit ancient Indian language

Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions.

Hindi language in India

Hindi, or Modern Standard Hindi is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language. Hindi, written in the Devanagari script, is one of the official languages of India, along with the English language. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of the Republic of India. However, it is not the national language of India because no language was given such a status in the Indian constitution.

Early life

Dayananda Saraswati was born on the 10th day of waning moon in the month of Purnimanta Falguna (<As the tithi Falguna Krishna Dashami falls on 24 February and not on 12 February 1824>24 February 1824) on the tithi to a Hindu family [11] in Jeevapar Tankara, Kathiawad region (now Morbi district of Gujarat.) [12] [13] His original name was Mul Shankar because he was born in Dhanu Rashi and Mul Nakshatra. His father was Karshanji Lalji Kapadi, and his mother was Amrutbai.

Tithi lunar day in Vedic timekeeping

In Vedic timekeeping, a tithi is a lunar day, or the time it takes for the longitudinal angle between the Moon and the Sun to increase by 12°. In other words, a tithi is a time-duration between the consecutive epochs that correspond to when the longitudinal-angle between sun and moon is an integer multiple of 12°. Tithis begin at varying times of day and vary in duration from approximately 19 to approximately 26 hours.

Tankara city in Gujarat, India

Tankara is a town in Morbi district in the Indian state of Gujarat. It is situated on the Demi River and on Rajkot-Morbi Highway, 20 kilometres from Morbi, 40 kilometres from Rajkot, and 80 kilometres from Jamnagar. Tankara is considered holy land because it is the birthplace of Swami Dayananda Saraswati, founder of the Arya Samaj born on 12 February 1824

Morbi district district in Gujarat, India

Morbi District is in the state of Gujarat, India. It was formed on August 15, 2013, along with several other districts, on the 67th Independence Day of India. Morbi city is the administrative headquarters of the district.The district has 5 talukas - Morbi, Maliya, Tankara, Wankaner and Halvad. Morbi city is the administrative headquarters of Morbi district. The town of Morbi is situated on the Machchhu River, 35 km from the sea and 60 km from Rajkot. As per 2011 census data, the city had a population of 2,10,451 and average literacy rate of 83.64%.

When he was eight years old, his Yajnopavita Sanskara ceremony was performed, marking his entry into formal education. His father was a follower of Shiva and taught him the ways to impress Shiva. He was also taught the importance of keeping fasts. On the occasion of Shivratri, Dayananda sat awake the whole night in obedience to Shiva. On one of these fasts, he saw a mouse eating the offerings and running over the idol's body. After seeing this, he questioned that if Shiva could not defend himself against a mouse, then how could he be the savior of the massive world [14] .

Upanayana Hindu rite of passage when a student enters a school, particularly Vedic school

Upanayana is one of the traditional saṃskāras that marked the acceptance of a student by a guru (teacher) and an individual's entrance to a school in Hinduism. The tradition is widely discussed in ancient Sanskrit texts of India and varies regionally. The sacred thread is received by the boy during this ceremony, that he continues wearing across his chest thereafter.

Shiva Hindu god, supreme being of the universe

Shiva also known as Mahadeva is one of the principal deities of Hinduism. He is the Supreme Being within Shaivism, one of the major traditions within contemporary Hinduism.

The deaths of his younger sister and his uncle from cholera caused Dayananda to ponder the meaning of life and death. He began asking questions which worried his parents. He was engaged in his early teens, but he decided marriage was not for him and ran away from home in 1846. [15] [16]

Dayananda Saraswati spent nearly twenty-five years, from 1845 to 1869, as a wandering ascetic, searching for religious truth. He gave up material goods and lived a life of self-denial, devoting himself to spiritual pursuits in forests, retreats in the Himalayan Mountains, and pilgrimage sites in northern India. During these years he practiced various forms of yoga and became a disciple of a religious teacher named Virajanand Dandeesha. Virajanand believed that Hinduism had strayed from its historical roots and that many of its practices had become impure. Dayananda Sarasvati promised Virajanand that he would devote his life to restoring the rightful place of the Vedas in the Hindu faith. [17]

Dayanand's mission

Aum or Om is considered by the Arya Samaj to be the highest and most proper name of God O3m AryaSamaj.PNG
Aum or Om is considered by the Arya Samaj to be the highest and most proper name of God

Dayanand's mission was to ask humankind for universal brotherhood through nobility as stated in the Vedas. He believed that Hinduism had been corrupted by divergence from the founding principles of the Vedas and that Hindus had been misled by the priesthood for the priests' self-aggrandizement. For this mission, he founded the Arya Samaj, enunciating the Ten Universal Principles as a code for Universalism, called Krinvanto Vishwaryam. With these principles, he intended the whole world to be an abode for Nobles (Aryas).

His next step was to reform Hinduism with a new dedication to God. He traveled the country challenging religious scholars and priests to discussions, winning repeatedly through the strength of his arguments and knowledge of Sanskrit and Vedas. [18] Hindu priests discouraged the laity from reading Vedic scriptures, and encouraged rituals, such as bathing in the Ganges River and feeding of priests on anniversaries, which Dayananda pronounced as superstitions or self-serving practices. By exhorting the nation to reject such superstitious notions, his aim was to educate the nation to return to the teachings of the Vedas, and to follow the Vedic way of life. He also exhorted the Hindu nation to accept social reforms, including the importance of Cows for national prosperity as well as the adoption of Hindi as the national language for national integration. Through his daily life and practice of yoga and asanas, teachings, preaching, sermons and writings, he inspired the Hindu nation to aspire to Swarajya (self governance), nationalism, and spiritualism. He advocated the equal rights and respects to women and advocated for the education of all children, regardless of gender.

Swami Dayanand also made logical, scientific and critical analyses of faiths including Christianity & Islam, as well as of other Indian faiths like Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. In addition to discouraging idolatry in Hinduism, [19] he was also against what he considered to be the corruption of the true and pure faith in his own country. Unlike many other reform movements of his times within Hinduism, the Arya Samaj's appeal was addressed not only to the educated few in India, but to the world as a whole as evidenced in the sixth principle of the Arya Samaj. As a result, his teachings professed universalism for all the living beings and not for any particular sect, faith, community or nation.

Arya Samaj allows and encourages converts to Hinduism. Dayananda's concept of dharma is stated in the "Beliefs and Disbeliefs" section of Satyartha Prakash, he says:

"I accept as Dharma whatever is in full conformity with impartial justice, truthfulness and the like; that which is not opposed to the teachings of God as embodied in the Vedas. Whatever is not free from partiality and is unjust, partaking of untruth and the like, and opposed to the teachings of God as embodied in the Vedas—that I hold as adharma."
"He, who after careful thinking, is ever ready to accept truth and reject falsehood; who counts the happiness of others as he does that of his own self, him I call just."

Dayananda's Vedic message emphasized respect and reverence for other human beings, supported by the Vedic notion of the divine nature of the individual. In the ten principles of the Arya Samaj, he enshrined the idea that "All actions should be performed with the prime objective of benefiting mankind", as opposed to following dogmatic rituals or revering idols and symbols. The first five principles speak of Truth, while the last five speak of a society with nobility, civics, co-living, and disciplined life. In his own life, he interpreted moksha to be a lower calling, as it argued for benefits to the individual, rather than calling to emancipate others.

Dayananda's "back to the Vedas" message influenced many thinkers and philosophers the world over. [20]

Activities

Dayanand is recorded to have been active since he was 14, which time he was able to recite religious verses and teach about them. He was respected at the time for taking parts in religious debates. His debates were attended by relatively large crowd of the public.

One of the most important debates took place on 22 October 1869 in Varanasi, where he won a debate against 27 scholars and approximately 12 expert pandits. The debate recorded to have been attended by over 50,000 people. The main topic was "Do the Vedas uphold deity worship?" [21] [22]

Arya Samaj

Swami Dayananda Saraswati's creations, the Arya Samaj, condemns practices of several different religions and communities, including such practices as idol worship, animal sacrifice, pilgrimages, priest craft, offerings made in temples, the castes, child marriages, meat eating and discrimination against women. He argues that all of these practices run contrary to good sense and the wisdom of the Vedas. The Arya Samaj discourages dogma and symbolism and encourages skepticism in beliefs that run contrary to common sense and logic.

Views on superstitions

He severely criticized the practice what he considered superstitions, including sorcery, and astrology, which were prevalent in India at the time. Below are several quotes from his book, Sathyarth Prakash:

"They should also counsel then against all things that lead to superstition, and are opposed to true religion and science, so that they may never give credence to such imaginary things as ghosts(Bhuts) and spirits (Preta)."

"All alchemists, magicians, sorcerers, wizards, spiritists, etc. are cheats and all their practices should be looked upon as nothing but downright fraud. Young people should be well counseled against all these frauds, in their very childhood, so that they may not suffer through being duped by any unprincipled person."

On Astrology, he wrote,

when these ignorant people go to an astrologer and say " O Sir! What is wrong with this person'? He replies "The sun and other stars are maleficent to him. If you were to perform a propitiatory ceremony, or have magic formulas chanted, or prayers said, or specific acts of charity done, he will recover. Otherwise I should not be surprised, even if he were to lose his life after a long period of suffering."

Inquirer – Well, Mr. Astrologer, you know, the sun and other stars are but inanimate things like this earth of ours. They can do nothing but give light, heat, etc. Do you take them for conscious being possessed of human passions, of pleasure and anger, that when offended, bring on pain and misery, and when propitiated, bestow happiness on human beings?

Astrologer – Is it not through the influence of stars, then, that some people are rich and others poor, some are rulers, whilst other are their subjects?

Inq. – No, it is all the result of their deeds….good or bad.

Ast. – Is the Science of stars untrue then?

Inq. – No, that part of it which comprises Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, etc., and which goes by the name of Astronomy is true; but the other part that treats of the influence of stars on human beings and their actions and goes by the name of Astrology is all false.

Chapter 2.2 Satyarth Prakash

He makes a clear distinction between jyotisha shaastra and astrology, calling astrology a fraud.

"Thereafter, they should thoroughly study the Jyotisha Shaastra – which includes Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry, Geography, Geology and astronomy in two years. They should also have practical training in these Sciences, learn the proper handling of instruments, master their mechanism, and know how to use them. But they should regard Astrology – which treats of the influence of stars and constellation on the destinies of man, of auspiciousness and nonauspiciousness of time, of horoscopes, etc. – as a fraud, and never learn or teach any books on this subject.

Under "The scheme of studies" Page 73 of English Version Satyarth Prakash

Views on other religions

Dayanand Saraswati is noted to have thoroughly studied religions other than Hinduism, including Islam, Buddhism, Jainism, Christianity, Sikhism, and others. He described these religions in the chapters of his book Satyarth Prakash, though his analysis seemed critical. [20]

Islam

He viewed Islam to be waging wars and immorality. He doubted that Islam had anything to do with the God, and questioned why a God would hate every non-believer, allowing slaughter of animals, and command Muhammad to slaughter innocent people. [23]

He further described Muhammad as "imposter", and one who held out "a bait to men and women, in the name of God, to compass his own selfish needs". He regarded Quran as "Not the Word of God. It is a human work. Hence it cannot be believed in". [24]

Christianity

His analysis of the Bible was based on the comparison with scientific evidences, morality, and other properties, though he states that the Bible contains many stories and precepts that are immoral, praising cruelty, deceit and that encourage sin. [25] One notes many discrepancies and fallacies of logic after reading Chapter XIII of Satyarth Prakash, showing e.g. that God fearing Adam eating the fruit of life and becoming his equal displays jealousy. His critique claims to show logical fallacies in the Bible, and throughout he asserts that the events depicted in the Bible portray God as a man rather than an Omniscient, Omnipotent or Complete being.

He opposed the perpetual virginity of Mary, he added that such doctrines are simply against the nature of law, and that God will never break his own law because God is Omniscient and infallible.

The Arya Samaj journal, The Regenerator of the Aryavata, called Christian missionaries "pernicious" and "foul". [26]

Sikhism

He regarded Guru Nanak as having noble aims but "not much literate", [27] who had no knowledge of the Vedas or Sanskrit. Otherwise, according to Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Guru Nanak wouldn't be mistaken with words such as wrongly using "nirbho" in place of "nirbhaya". However, he compliments Guru Nanak for saving people in Punjab as it was then downtrodden by the Muslims. A Sikh scholar wrote a response, to which Dayanand Saraswati replied that his opinion had undergone a change after having visited the Punjab, and the remarks about Sikhism would be removed in the subsequent edition of his work. However, these remarks were never removed after the assassination of Dayanand Saraswati, and later editions of Satyarth Prakash were even more critical of Sikhism. [28]

He further pointed that followers of Sikhism are to be blamed for making up stories that Guru Nanak possessed miraculous powers and had met the Gods. He slammed the successors of Nanaka as having "invented fictitious stories", although he also recognized Guru Gobind Singh to "indeed a very brave man". [29]

Jainism

He regarded Jainism as "a most dreadful religion", writing that Jains were intolerant and hostile towards the non-Jains. [20]

Buddhism

Dayanand described Buddhism as "anti-vedic" and "atheistic". [30] He describes the type of "salvation" Buddhism as being attainable even to dogs and donkeys. He further criticized the Cosmogony of Buddhism, stating that the earth was not created.

Assassination attempts

Dayananda was subjected to many unsuccessful attempts on his life. [21]

According to his supporters, he was poisoned on few occasions, but due to his regular practice of Hatha Yoga he survived all such attempts. One story tells that attackers once attacked attempted to drown him in a river, but Dayanand dragged the assailants into the river instead, though he released them before they drowned. [31] Another account tells that he was attacked by Muslims who were offended by his criticism of Islam while meditating on the Ganges river. They threw him into the water but he saved himself because his pranayama practice allowed him to stay under water until the attackers left. [32]

Assassination

In 1883, the Maharaja of Jodhpur Swami, Jaswant Singh II, invited Dayananda to stay at his palace. The Maharaja was eager to become Dayananda's disciple, and to learn his teachings. During his stay, Dayananda went to the Maharaja's rest room and saw him with a dancing girl named Nanhi Jaan. Dayananda asked the Maharaja to forsake the girl and all unethical acts, and to follow the dharma like a true Aryan. Dayananda's suggestion offended Nanhi, who decided to take revenge. [1]

On 29 September 1883, she bribed Dayananda's cook, Jagannath, to mix small pieces of glass in his nightly milk. [33] Dayananda was served glass-laden milk before bed, which he promptly drank, becoming bedridden for several days, and suffering excruciating pain. The Maharaja quickly arranged doctor's services for him. However, by the time doctors arrived, his condition had worsened, and he had developed large, bleeding sores. Upon seeing Dayananda's suffering, Jagannath was overwhelmed with guilt and confessed his crime to Dayananda. On his deathbed, Dayananda forgave him, and gave him a bag of money, telling him to flee the kingdom before he was found and executed by the Maharaja's men. [1]

Later, Maharaja arranged for Swamiji to be sent to Mount Abu as per the advice of Residency, however, after staying for some time in Abu, Swamji was sent to Ajmer for better medical care. On 26 October 1883. [33] There was no improvement in his health and he died on the morning of 30 October 1883 at 6:00 am, chanting mantras. The day coincided with Hindu festival of Diwali. [33] [ relevant? ]

Legacy

Dayananda Saraswati on a 1962 stamp of India Dayananda Saraswati 1962 stamp of India.jpg
Dayananda Saraswati on a 1962 stamp of India

Maharshi Dayanand University in Rohtak, Maharshi Dayanand Saraswati University in Ajmer, DAV University in Jalandhar are named after him. So are over 800+ schools and colleges under D.A.V. College Managing Committee, including Dayanand College at Ajmer. Industrialist Nanji Kalidas Mehta built the Maharshi Dayanand Science College and donated it to the Education Society of Porbandar, after naming it after Swami Dayanand Saraswati.

Dayananda Saraswati is most notable for influencing the freedom movement of India. His views and writings have been used by different writers, including Shyamji Krishna Varma, who founded India House in London and guided other revolutionaries was influenced by him; Subhas Chandra Bose; Lala Lajpat Rai; Madam Cama; Vinayak Damodar Savarkar; Lala Hardayal; Madan Lal Dhingra; Ram Prasad Bismil; Mahadev Govind Ranade; [8] Swami Shraddhanand; S. Satyamurti; Pandit Lekh Ram; Mahatma Hansraj; Rajiv Dixit; and others.

He also had a notable influence on Bhagat Singh. [34] Singh, after finishing primary school, had joined the Dayanand Anglo Vedic Middle School, of Mohan Lal road, in Lahore. [35] Sarvapalli Radhakrishnan, on Shivratri day, 24 February 1964, wrote about Dayananda:

Swami Dayananda ranked highest among the makers of modern India. He had worked tirelessly for the political, religious and cultural emancipation of the country. He was guided by reason, taking Hinduism back to the Vedic foundations. He had tried to reform society with a clean sweep, which was again need today. Some of the reforms introduced in the Indian Constitution had been inspired by his teachings. [36]

The places Dayanand visited during his life were often changed culturally as a result.[ citation needed ] Jodhpur adopted Hindi as main language, and later the present day Rajasthan did the same. [37] Other admirers included Swami Vivekananda, [38] Ramakrishna, [39] Bipin Chandra Pal, [40] Vallabhbhai Patel, [41] Syama Prasad Mookerjee, and Romain Rolland, who regarded Dayananda as a remarkable and unique figure. [42]

American Spiritualist Andrew Jackson Davis described Dayanand's influence on him, calling Dayanand a "Son of God", and applauding him for restoring the status of the Nation. [43] Sten Konow, a Swedish scholar noted that Dayanand revived the history of India. [44]

Others who were notably influenced by him include Ninian Smart, and Benjamin Walker. [45]

Works

Dayananda Saraswati wrote more than 60 works in all, including a 16 volume explanation of the six Vedangas, an incomplete commentary on the Ashtadhyayi (Panini's grammar), several small tracts on ethics and morality, Vedic rituals and sacraments, and a piece on the analysis of rival doctrines (such as Advaita Vedanta, Islam and Christianity). Some of his major works include the Satyarth Prakash, Satyarth Bhumika, Sanskarvidhi, RigvedadiBhashyaBhumika, Rigved Bhashyam (up to 7/61/2)and Yajurved Bhashyam. The Paropakarini Sabha located in the Indian city of Ajmer was founded by the Swami himself to publish and preach his works and Vedic texts.

Complete list of works

See also

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The availability of Satyarth Prakash, inspired some people of Indian origin in Bangkok to follow the teachings of Swami Dayanand Saraswati and form the Vedic Dharam Pracharni Sabha on 5 May 1920. Weekly gatherings were held for the propagation of Vedic religion. Land was purchased and a Vedic mandir (temple) constructed. A library was also established. In 1922 the name of the Sabha (organisation) was changed to Arya Samaj and in 1923 it was affiliated with the Arya Pratinidhi Sabha of Uttar Pradesh in India. Although a small organisation, the Sabha has raised funds for relief fund for natural disasters in India. It also organises the celebration of Hindu festivals.

<i>Satyarth Prakash</i> book

Satyarth Prakash is a 1875 book written originally in Hindi by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati, a renowned religious and social reformer and the founder of Arya Samaj. It is considered one of his major scholarly works. The book was subsequently revised by Swami Dayanand Saraswati in 1882 and has now been translated into more than 20 languages including Sanskrit and several foreign languages like English, French, German, Swahili, Arabic and Chinese. The major portion of the book is dedicated to laying down the reformist advocacy of {Swami Dayanand} with the last three chapters making a case for comparative study of different religious faiths. Satlok Ashram leader Rampal criticized sections of the book in 2006 which led to clashes between followers of Arya Samaj and Satlok Ashram and one person died in that violence.

(Acharya) Narendra Bhooshan (Acharyaji) was an Indian linguist, Vedic Scholar, orator, writer, translator, journalist and publisher. He was a scholar in Sanskrit, Malayalam, Hindi and English.

Pundit Ganga Prasad Upadhyaya (1871-1968) was an Arya Samaji writer. He served as professor of Meerut College at Allahabad University and as chief judge at Tehri, Garhwal District, from which post he retired to serve the Arya Samaj full-time. . He was the father of Swami Satya Prakash Saraswati, another notable Arya Samaji author.

Indians often use the term Sanātanī with reference either:

  1. to denominations that adhere to Sanatana Dharma
  2. to what is sometimes referred to as Traditional Hinduism

Jainism and Hinduism are two ancient Indian religions. There are some similarities and differences between the two religions. Temples, gods, rituals, fasts and other religious components of Jainism are different from those of Hinduism.

Traitavad (त्रैतवाद) or Traita (त्रेत्) also known as Vedic Trinity, is a Hindu philosophy, in which Brahman (God), Jiva (soul) and Prakruti (matter/universe) are separate entities that exist eternally, unlike Dvaita or Advaita.

Rigvedadi Bhashya Bhumika is a book written originally in Hindi by Maharishi Dayanand Saraswati, a nineteenth-century social reformer and religious leader in India. His other notable book was Satyarth Prakash.

Ataptatanu

Ataptatanū (Sanskrit:अतप्ततनू) – tapa (तप) means – 'to burn', 'heat up'; atapta (अतप्त) – means - 'not heated', 'cool', and tanū (तनू) – means - 'body', 'the physical self'; ataptatanū means – 'he whose body or mass is not prepared in fire', 'raw'

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Cited sources

Further reading