De Candolle system

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The De Candolle system is a system of plant taxonomy by French (Swiss) botanist Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778−1841).

Contents

History

The first taxonomic system by de Candolle, who introduced the term taxonomy, appeared in his description of the plants of France, his Flore française (1805–1815), in 5 volumes dealing with plant species found in France.

The De Candolle system is a subsequent taxonomic system.

The abbreviation Syst. in de Candolle's work and subsequent literature refers to his Regni vegetabilis systema naturale.

Systems

The De Candolle system recognises the following groups of vascular plants (references to Prodromus). Within the Prodromus he cross references his earlier Regni vegetabilis systema naturale.

A general schema is laid out in the Regnii vegetabilis pp. 117–122, as follows: [3]

Plantae Vasculares seu Cotyledoneae DC. [4]

Flore française

11 families

Vol IV - 2 parts Vol V [8]

Théorie élémentaire de la botanique

List of De Candolle system families recognized in the Théorie élémentaire de la botanique (1813), on page 213: [1]

Prodromus

The De Candolle system families were further developed in the Prodromus (1824–1873). [2]

Note that this system was published well before there were internationally accepted rules for botanical nomenclature. Here, a family is indicated as "ordo". Terminations for families were not what they are now. Neither of these phenomena is a problem from a nomenclatural perspective, the present day ICBN provides for this.

Within the dicotyledons ("classis prima DICOTYLEDONEÆ") the De Candolle system recognises (Pagination from Prodromus, 17 Parts) the list: [2]

Subclassis I. THALAMIFLORÆ [Part I]

  • ordo I. RANUNCULACEÆ (Page 1)
    ordo II. DILLENIACEÆ (Page 67)
    ordo III. MAGNOLIACEÆ (Page 77)
    ordo IV. ANONACEÆ [sic] (Page 83)
    ordo V. MENISPERMACEÆ (Page 95)
    ordo VI. BERBERIDEÆ (Page 105)
    ordo VII. PODOPHYLLACEÆ (Page 111)
    ordo VIII. NYMPHÆACEÆ
    ordo VIIIbis. SARRACENIACEÆ
    ordo IX. PAPAVERACEÆ
    ordo X. FUMARIACEÆ
    ordo XIbis. RESEDACEÆ
    ordo XI. CRUCIFERÆ
    ordo XII. CAPPARIDEÆ
    ordo XIII. FLACOURTIANEÆ
    ordo XIV. BIXINEÆ
    ordo XIVbis. LACISTEMACEÆ
    ordo XV. CISTINEÆ
    ordo XVI. VIOLARIEÆ (Page 287)
    ordo XVII. DROSERACEÆ
    ordo XVIII. POLYGALACEÆ
    ordo XIX. TREMANDREÆ
    ordo XX. PITTOSPOREÆ
    ordo XXI. FRANKENIACEÆ
    ordo XXII. CARYOPHYLLEÆ
    ordo XXIII. LINEÆ
    ordo XXIV. MALVACEÆ
    ordo XXV. BOMBACEÆ [sic]
    ordo XXVI. BYTTNERIACEÆ
    ordo XXVII. TILIACEÆ
    ordo XXVIII. ELÆOCARPEÆ
    ordo XXIX. CHLENACEÆ
    ordo XXIXbis. ANCISTROCLADEÆ
    ordo XXIXter. DIPTEROCARPEÆ
    ordo XXIXter.[sic] LOPHIRACEÆ
    ordo XXX. TERNSTROEMIACEÆ
    ordo XXXI. CAMELLIEÆ
    ordo XXXII. OLACINEÆ
    ordo XXXIII. AURANTIACEÆ
    ordo XXXIV. HYPERICINEÆ
    ordo XXXV. GUTTIFERÆ
    ordo XXXVI. MARCGRAVIACEÆ
    ordo XXXVII. HIPPOCRATEACEÆ
    ordo XXXVIII. ERYTHROXYLEÆ
    ordo XXXIX. MALPIGHIACEÆ
    ordo XL. ACERINEÆ
    ordo XLI. HIPPOCASTANEÆ
    ordo XLII. RHIZOBOLEÆ
    ordo XLIII. SAPINDACEÆ
    ordo XLIV. MELIACEÆ
    ordo XLV. AMPELIDEÆ
    ordo XLVI. GERANIACEÆ
    ordo XLVII. TROPÆOLEÆ
    ordo XLVIII. BALSAMINEÆ
    ordo XLIX. OXALIDEÆ
    ordo L. ZYGOPHYLLEÆ
    ordo LI. RUTACEÆ
    ordo LII. SIMARUBEÆ [sic]
    ordo LIII. OCHNACEÆ
    ordo LIV. CORIARIEÆ (Page 739)

(Index to Part I p. 741)

Subclassis II. CALYCIFLORÆ [Parts II - VII]

  • ordo LV. CELASTRINEÆ [Part II],(Page 2)
    ordo LVI. RHAMNEÆ
    ordo LVII. BRUNIACEÆ
    ordo LVIII. SAMYDEÆ
    ordo LIX. HOMALINEÆ
    ordo LX. CHAILLETIACEÆ
    ordo LXI. AQUILARINEÆ
    ordo LXII. TEREBINTHACEÆ
    ordo LXIII. LEGUMINOSÆ
    ordo LXIV. ROSACEÆ (Page 525)
    ordo LXV. CALYCANTHEÆ [Part III], (Page 1)
    ordo LXVbis. MONIMIACEÆ
    ordo LXVI. GRANATEÆ
    ordo LXVII. MEMECYLEÆ
    ordo LXVIII. COMBRETACEÆ
    ordo LXIX. VOCHYSIEÆ
    ordo LXX RHIZOPHOREÆ
    ordo LXXI. ONAGRARIEÆ
    ordo LXXII. HALORAGEÆ
    ordo LXXIII. CERATOPHYLLEÆ
    ordo LXXIV. LYTHRARIEÆ
    ordo LXXIVbis. CRYPTERONIACEÆ
    ordo LXXV. TAMARISCINEÆ
    ordo LXXVI. MELASTOMACEÆ
    ordo LXXVII. ALANGIEÆ
    ordo LXXVIII. PHILADELPEÆ
    ordo LXXIX. MYRTACEÆ
    ordo LXXX. CUCURBITACEÆ
    ordo LXXXI. PASSIFLOREÆ
    ordo LXXXII. LOASEÆ
    ordo LXXXIII. TURNERACEÆ
    ordo LXXXIV. FOUQUIERACEÆ
    ordo LXXXV. PORTULACEÆ
    ordo LXXXVI. PARONYCHIEÆ
    ordo LXXXVII. CRASSULACEÆ
    ordo LXXXVIII. FICOIDEÆ (Page 415)
    ordo LXXXIX. CACTEÆ
    ordo XC. GROSSULARIEÆ
    ordo XCI. SAXIFRAGACEÆ [Part IV], (Page 1)
    ordo XCII. UMBELLIFERÆ
    ordo XCIII. ARALIACEÆ
    ordo XCIV. HAMAMELIDEÆ
    ordo XCV. CORNEÆ
    ordo XCVbis. HELWINGIACEÆ
    ordo XCVI. LORANTHACEÆ
    ordo XCVII. CAPRIFOLIACEÆ
    ordo XCVIII. RUBIACEÆ
    ordo XCIX. VALERIANEÆ
    ordo C. DIPSACEÆ (Page 643)
    ordo CI. CALYCEREÆ [Part V], (Page 1)
    ordo CII. COMPOSITÆ (Page 4); [Part VI], (Page 1); [Part VII], (Page 1)
    ordo CIII. STYLIDIEÆ [Part VII]
    ordo CIV. LOBELIACEÆ
    ordo CV. CAMPANULACEÆ
    ordo CVI. CYPHIACEÆ
    ordo CVII. GOODENOVIEÆ
    ordo CVIII. ROUSSÆACEÆ
    ordo CIX. GESNERIACEÆ
    ordo CX. SPHENOCLEACEÆ
    ordo CXI. COLUMELLIACEÆ
    ordo CXII. NAPOLEONEÆ
    ordo CXIII. VACCINIEÆ
    ordo CXIV. ERICACEÆ (Page 580) (Four tribes)
    • Arbuteae (Page 580)
      Andromedae (Page 588)
      Ericeae (Page 612)
      Rhodoreae (Page 712) (Two subtribes)
      • Rhododendreae (712) (Nine genera)
        • Rhododendron (719) (Six sections)
          • Buramia (720)
            Hymenanthes (721)
            Eurhododendron (721)
            Pogonanthum (725)
            Chamaecistus (725)
            Tsutsusi (726)
          Kalmia (728)
        Ledeae (729)
    ordo CXV. EPACRIDEÆ (Page 734)
    ordo CXVI. PYROLACEÆ
    ordo CXVII. FRANCOACEÆ
    ordo CXVIII. MONOTROPEÆ (Page 779)

Subclassis III. COROLLIFLORÆ [Parts VIII - XIII(1)]

  • ordo CXIX. LENTIBULARIEÆ (Page 1)
    ordo CXX. PRIMULACEÆ
    ordo CXXI. MYRSINEACEÆ
    ordo CXXII. ÆGICERACEÆ
    ordo CXXIII. THEOPHRASTACEÆ
    ordo CXXIV. SAPOTACEÆ
    ordo CXXV. EBENACEÆ
    ordo CXXVI. STYRACACEÆ
    ordo CXXVII. OLEACEÆ
    ordo CXXVIIbis. SALVADORACEÆ
    ordo CXXVIII. JASMINEÆ
    ordo CXXIX. APOCYNACEÆ
    ordo CXXX. ASCLEPIADEÆ (Page 460)
    ordo CXXX[a?] LEONIACEÆ
    ordo CXXXI. LOGANIACEÆ [Part IX], (Page 1)
    ordo CXXXII. GENTIANACEÆ
    ordo CXXXIII. BIGNONIACEÆ
    ordo CXXXIV. SESAMEÆ
    ordo CXXXV. CYRTANDRACEÆ
    ordo CXXXVI. HYDROPHYLLACEÆ
    ordo CXXXVII. POLEMONIACEÆ
    ordo CXXXVII. [sic] CONVOLVULACEÆ
    ordo CXXXVIII. ERICYBEÆ
    ordo CXXXIX. BORRAGINEÆ [sic] (Page 466); [Part X], (Page 1)
    ordo CXL. HYDROLEACEÆ
    ordo CXLII. SCROPHULARIACEÆ (Page 186)
    ordo CXLII(I).[sic] SOLANACEÆ [Part XIII (1)], (Pages 1 – 692) out of sequence
    ordo CXLIV. OROBRANCHACEÆ [Part XI], (Page 1)
    ordo CXLV. ACANTHACEÆ
    ordo CXLVI. PHRYMACEÆ
    ordo CXLVII VERBENACEÆ
    ordo CXLVIII MYOPORACEÆ (Page 701)
    ordo CXLIX SELAGINACEÆ [Part XII], (Page 1)
    ordo CL. LABIATÆ
    ordo CLI. STILBACEÆ
    ordo CLII. GLOBULARIACEÆ
    ordo CLIII. BRUNONIACEÆ
    ordo CLIV. PLUMBAGINEÆ (Page 617)
    ordo CLV.[?] PLANTAGINACEÆ [Part XIII], (Page 693)

Subclassis IV. MONOCHLAMYDEÆ [Parts XIII(2) - XVI]

  • ordo CLVI. PHYTOLACCACEÆ (Page 2)
    ordo CLVII. SALSOLACEÆ
    ordo CLVIII. BASELLACEÆ
    ordo CLIX. AMARANTACEÆ [sic]
    ordo CLX. NYCTAGINACEÆ (Page 425)
    ordo CLXI. POLYGONACEÆ [Part XIV], (Pages 1 – 186)
    ordo CLXII. LAURACEÆ [Part XIV], (Page 186); [Part XV(1)], (Pages 1 – 260) out of sequence
    ordo CLXIII. MYRISTICACEÆ (Page 187)
    ordo CLXIV. PROTEACEÆ (Page 209)
    ordo CLXV. PENÆACEÆ
    ordo CLXVI. GEISSOLOMACEÆ (Page 491)
    ordo CLXVII. THYMELÆACEÆ
    ordo CLXVIII. ELÆAGNACEÆ
    ordo CLXIX. GRUBBIACEÆ
    ordo CLXX. SANTALACEÆ (Page 619)
    ordo CLXXI. HERNANDIACEÆ [Part XV(1)], (Page 1)
    ordo CLXXII. BEGONIACEÆ
    ordo CLXXIII. DATISCACEÆ
    ordo CLXXIV. PAPAYACEÆ
    ordo CLXXV. ARISTOLOCHIACEÆ
    ordo CLXXVbis. NEPENTHACEÆ
    ordo CLXXVI. STACKHOUSIACEÆ (Page 419)
    [sic]
    ordo CLXXVIII. EUPHORBIACEÆ [Part XV(2)], (Page 1)
    ordo CLXXIX. DAPHNIPHYLLACEÆ [Part XVI(1)], (Page 1)
    ordo CLXXX. BUXACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXbis. BATIDACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXI. EMPETRACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXII. CANNABINEÆ
    ordo CLXXXIII. ULMACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXIIIbis. MORACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXIV. ARTOCARPEÆ
    ordo CLXXXV. URTICACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXVI. PIPERACEÆ
    [sic]
    ordo CLXXXVIII. CHLORANTHACEÆ
    ordo CLXXXIX. GARRYACEÆ (Page 486)
    ordo CXC. CUPULIFERÆ [Part XVI(2)], (Page 1)
    ordo CXCI. CORYLACEÆ (Page 124)
    ordo CXCII. JUGLANDEÆ (Page 134)
    ordo CXCIII. MYRICACEÆ (Page 147)
    ordo CXCIV. PLATANACEÆ
    ordo CXCV. BETULACEÆ (Page 161)
    ordo CXCVI. SALICINEÆ (Page 190)
    ordo CXCVII CASUARINEÆ (Page 332)

Other

Somewhat inconsistently the Prodromus also treats:

  • GYMNOSPERMÆ [Part XVI(2)], (Page 345)
    ordo CXCVIII. GNETACEÆ (Page 347)
    ordo CXCIX. CONIFERÆ (Page 361)
    ordo CC. CYCADACEÆ (Pages 522 - 547)
  • incertæ sedis
    ordo (dubiæ affin.) LENNOACEÆ
    ordo (affin. dubiæ) PODOSTEMACEÆ
    ordo num.? CYTINACEÆ
    ordo incertae sedis BALANOPHORACEÆ

(Overall Index Part XVII Page 323)

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References

  1. 1 2 de Candolle 1819.
  2. 1 2 3 de Candolle 1824–1873.
  3. de Candolle 1818–1821, pp. 117–122.
  4. de Candolle 1824–1873, p. 1.
  5. de Lamarck & de Candolle 1805.
  6. de Lamarck & de Candolle 1815a.
  7. de Lamarck & de Candolle 1815a, Liliaceae p. 198
  8. de Lamarck & de Candolle 1815b.

Bibliography

De Candolle