A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are often chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position; alternatively, a geographic position may be expressed in a combined three-dimensional Cartesian vector. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection.
|Established||25 March 1814|
|Central bank of||The Netherlands|
|Succeeded by||European Central Bank (1999)1|
|1 De Nederlandsche Bank still exists but many functions have been taken over by the ECB.|
De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) is the central bank of the Netherlands. It is part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). De Nederlandsche Bank is a public limited company (Dutch: naamloze vennootschap) whose every day policy is overseen by the Governing Board. Being an NV, DNB has a Supervisory Board (Dutch: Raad van Commissarissen). In addition, there is an advisory body called the Bank Council (Dutch: Bankraad). As a public entity the DNB has a function as both part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and an independent public body (Dutch: zelfstandig bestuursorgaan).
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is the institution that manages the currency, money supply, and interest rates of a state or formal monetary union, and oversees their commercial banking system. In contrast to a commercial bank, a central bank possesses a monopoly on increasing the monetary base in the state, and also generally controls the printing/coining of the national currency, which serves as the state's legal tender. A central bank also acts as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of financial crisis. Most central banks also have supervisory and regulatory powers to ensure the solvency of member institutions, to prevent bank runs, and to discourage reckless or fraudulent behavior by member banks.
The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.
The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) consists of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 28 member states of the European Union (EU).
As a part of the ESCB, DNB is co-responsible for the determination and implementation of the monetary policy for the Euro area, besides being a link in the international payment system. As an independent public body, DNB exercises prudential supervision of financial institutions.
An international monetary system is a set of internationally agreed rules, conventions and supporting institutions that facilitate international trade, cross border investment and generally the reallocation of capital between nation states. It should provide means of payment acceptable to buyers and sellers of different nationalities, including deferred payment. To operate successfully, it needs to inspire confidence, to provide sufficient liquidity for fluctuating levels of trade, and to provide means by which global imbalances can be corrected. The system can grow organically as the collective result of numerous individual agreements between international economic factors spread over several decades. Alternatively, it can arise from a single architectural vision, as happened at Bretton Woods in 1944.
On 2 May 1998, the European heads of state or government decided that the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) would begin on 1 January 1999 with eleven Member States of the European Union (EU), the Netherlands included. As from 1 June 1998, the Dutch central bank, De Nederlandsche Bank N.V., forms part of the European System of Central Banks (ESCB). On the same day, the new Bank Act (of 1998) came into force. Nearly 185 years into its existence, the Nederlandsche Bank has entered a new phase.
Under the 1998 Bank Act – replacing that of 1948 – the Bank has the following tasks:
The first two tasks – also known as the ESCB tasks – ensue entirely from the Maastricht Treaty. Decisions in these areas are taken at the European level by the ECB Governing Council, on which the President of the Nederlandsche Bank has a seat. Promoting the smooth operation of payment systems has both a European and a national dimension. The statistical task is also partly ESCB-related and partly a national concern. The DNB is responsible for international macro-economic statistical analysis for countries outside the EU.These two tasks will not be transferred to ESCB level at the start of EMU. Here the Nederlandsche Bank remains fully in control. However, in a Europe where economies are becoming increasingly interlocked, many banking supervisory rules are drawn up at the international level. DNB serves as the banker's bank to general Dutch banks.
One of the government appointed members of the Social-Economic Council is always a representative of DNB.
|President of De |
|Term of office||Previous Experience(s)||Party|
| Dr. |
|1 May 1946 – |
1 May 1967
(21 years, 0 days)
| Dr. |
|1 May 1967 – |
1 January 1982
(14 years, 245 days)
| Minister of Economic Affairs |
Minister of Finance
| Anti-Revolutionary Party |
| Christian Democratic Appeal |
| Dr. |
|1 January 1982 – |
1 July 1997
(15 years, 151 days)
| Minister of Finance |
| Dr. |
|1 July 1997 – |
1 July 2011
(14 years, 0 days)
| Treasurer–General |
|Christian Democratic Appeal|
| Dr. |
|1 July 2011 – |
(7 years, 193 days)
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