The Dean drive was a device created and promoted by inventor Norman Lorimer Dean (1902–1972) that he claimed to be a reactionless drive.Dean claimed that his device was able to generate a uni-directional force in free space, in violation of Newton's third law of motion from classical physics. His claims generated notoriety because, if true, such a device would have had enormous applications, completely changing human transport, engineering, space travel and more. Dean made several controlled private demonstrations of a number of different devices, however no working models were ever demonstrated publicly or subjected to independent analysis and Dean never presented any rigorous theoretical basis for their operation. Analysts conclude that the motion seen in Dean's device demonstrations was likely reliant on asymmetrical frictional resistance between the device and the surface on which the device was set, resulting in the device moving in one direction when in operation, driven by the vibrations of the apparatus.
A reactionless drive is a device producing motion without the exhaust of a propellant. A propellantless drive is not necessarily reactionless when it constitutes an open system interacting with external fields; but a reactionless drive is a particular case of a propellantless drive that is a closed system, presumably in contradiction with the law of conservation of momentum. Reactionless drives are often considered similar to a perpetual motion machine. The name comes from Newton's third law, often expressed as, "for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction."
Vacuum is space devoid of matter. The word stems from the Latin adjective vacuus for "vacant" or "void". An approximation to such vacuum is a region with a gaseous pressure much less than atmospheric pressure. Physicists often discuss ideal test results that would occur in a perfect vacuum, which they sometimes simply call "vacuum" or free space, and use the term partial vacuum to refer to an actual imperfect vacuum as one might have in a laboratory or in space. In engineering and applied physics on the other hand, vacuum refers to any space in which the pressure is lower than atmospheric pressure. The Latin term in vacuo is used to describe an object that is surrounded by a vacuum.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics. They describe the relationship between a body and the forces acting upon it, and its motion in response to those forces. More precisely, the first law defines the force qualitatively, the second law offers a quantitative measure of the force, and the third asserts that a single isolated force doesn't exist. These three laws have been expressed in several ways, over nearly three centuries, and can be summarised as follows:
The Dean drive obtained a good deal of publicity in the 1950s and 1960s via the columns and conference presentations of John W. Campbell, the longtime editor of Astounding Science Fiction magazine. At that time, Campbell believed that his magazine had to change society by helping breakthrough research that was rejected by "mainstream" science, and he promoted a series of far-reaching ideas that had dubious scientific bases, like Dianetics, dowsing, the Hieronymus machine, and the Dean Drive. 1960 cover of Astounding magazine featured a painting of a United States submarine near Mars, supposedly propelled there by a Dean drive.Campbell believed that the device worked and claimed to have witnessed it operating on a bathroom scale. The weight reading on the scale appeared to decrease when the device was activated. He subsequently published photographs of the scale with the drive stopped and running. The June
John Wood Campbell Jr. was an American science fiction writer and editor. He was editor of Astounding Science Fiction from late 1937 until his death and was part of the Golden Age of Science Fiction. Campbell wrote super-science space opera under his own name and stories under his primary pseudonym, Don A. Stuart. Campbell also used the pen names Karl Van Kampen and Arthur McCann. His novella Who Goes There? was adapted as the films The Thing from Another World (1951), The Thing (1982), and The Thing (2011).
Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American science fiction magazine published under various titles since 1930. Originally titled Astounding Stories of Super-Science, the first issue was dated January 1930, published by William Clayton, and edited by Harry Bates. Clayton went bankrupt in 1933 and the magazine was sold to Street & Smith. The new editor was F. Orlin Tremaine, who soon made Astounding the leading magazine in the nascent pulp science fiction field, publishing well-regarded stories such as Jack Williamson's Legion of Space and John W. Campbell's "Twilight". At the end of 1937, Campbell took over editorial duties under Tremaine's supervision, and the following year Tremaine was let go, giving Campbell more independence. Over the next few years Campbell published many stories that became classics in the field, including Isaac Asimov's Foundation series, A. E. van Vogt's Slan, and several novels and stories by Robert A. Heinlein. The period beginning with Campbell's editorship is often referred to as the Golden Age of Science Fiction.
Dianetics is a set of ideas and practices regarding the metaphysical relationship between the mind and body created by science fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. Dianetics is practiced by followers of Scientology, the Nation of Islam, and independent Dianeticist groups.
Dean, who was trying to find potential buyers for his technology, was secretive about the details of how it was supposed to work, but it was said to contain asymmetrical rotating weights and to generate a great deal of vibration.[ citation needed ]
Dean and Campbell claimed that Newton’s laws of motion were only an approximation, and that Dean had discovered a fourth law of motion. This has been described as a nonlinear correction to one of Newton’s laws, which, if correct, would allegedly have rendered a reactionless drive feasible after all.[ citation needed ]
One result of the initial articles in Campbell's magazine was that two other researchers, William O. Davis and G. Harry Stine, visited Dean and witnessed a demonstration. Results of this visit were published in the May 1962 and June 1976 issues of the magazine, the name of which had been changed by Campbell from Astounding to Analog. Davis witnessed a demonstration by Dean, and wrote: "It was the conclusion of both Harry Stine and myself that we had witnessed a real anomaly and that the possibility of fraud in the demonstration was slim." Sci-fi writer Jerry Pournelle pointed out that Stine was well qualified to make a judgment on the device, but that he was more gullible than other persons.
George Harry Stine was one of the founding figures of model rocketry, a science and technology writer, and a science fiction author.
Jerry Eugene Pournelle was an American polymath: scientist in the area of operations research and human factors research, science fiction writer, essayist, journalist, and one of the first bloggers. In the 1960s and early 1970s he worked in the aerospace industry, but eventually focused on his writing career. In an obituary in gizmodo, he is described as "a tireless ambassador for the future."
Davis's 1962 article was titled, "The Fourth Law of Motion", and described a hypothesis in which Dean's device (and others) could conserve momentum invisibly via "gravitational-inertial radiation". One detail of Davis's hypothesis involved the forces of action and reaction — physical bodies can respond to those forces nonsimultaneously, or "out of phase" with each other.
"Detesters, Phasers and Dean Drives", a 1976 article by Davis, reported his tests with Stine, an engineer who built devices to test that aspect of the hypothesis. Stine said they were able to reliably create and reproduce a 3-degree phase angle in a linear system, which was not possible according to ordinary physics. But then they failed to reproduce the effect in a pendulum system, using a rocket-powered ballistic pendulum. The pendulum test would have proved beyond doubt that the Drive worked, but Dean refused to subject the original Dean Drive to a pendulum test. Campbell reported that he had seen the Drive subjected to a pendulum test, but Davis and Stine suspect that he only reported what Dean had told him and had never seen the actual test. Davis says the question can't be settled until the pendulum test is made. Their research was terminated in 1965 when the national economy took a downturn, and was never resumed.The 1976 article was an attempt to get research restarted, but apparently failed.
In 1984, physicist Amit Goswami wrote that "Dean's machine made such a splash with readers of science fiction that it is now customary in SF circles to refer to a reactionless drive as a Dean drive."
Dean made a demonstration for a representative of the magazine Popular Mechanics of one of his "Dean drive" devices. The witness reported that "While suspended above the ground, was able to pull a load to itself without itself being pulled toward the load".Another version of the machine was reported to be "able to apply a force to a hand, without moving—yet when the machine was turned off an equivalent force applied by the hand easily moved the machine". William O. Davis, who witnessed the latter demonstration, wrote in his notebook about Dean's explanation of how the device worked, "... does not strike me as valid ... For this reason I have decided to undertake a theoretical study of dynamic systems to see if a concept can be evolved which will describe a world in which Dean's Drive can exist and yet where other known facts are not contradicted." Davis produced a hypothesis and it was published in Analog in 1962.
Later analysis has revealed that the interactions of vibration, friction, and resonance with the springs of the scale are likely the root cause of the apparent weight loss reported by Campbell and others of apparent "anti-gravity" and "reactionless thruster" effects.
In the 1950s Jerry Pournelle, working for an aerospace company, contacted Dean to investigate purchasing the device. Dean refused to demonstrate the device without pre-payment and promise of a Nobel prize. Pournelle's company were unwilling to pay for the right to examine the device and never saw the purported model. 3M sent representatives about the same time, and obtained similar results. Pournelle eventually was convinced that Dean's device never worked.
Dean was granted two U.S. patents on mechanical devices presumably related to his Dean drive claims. His first patent for a "System for converting rotary motion into unidirectional motion" was granted on May 9, 1959.Another patent for a "Variable oscillator system" was granted on May 11, 1965. These two patent designs were the only ones where Dean revealed the design details with an explanation for operation. However, the details were incomplete, and it is not possible to build a Dean Drive just from the explanations in the patent. Dean's patents, as well as patents for many other similar devices, have been analyzed and it has been determined that none can produce net directional thrust in free space or violate Newton's Third Law. Dean also demonstrated other mechanical devices that were clearly different from his patent designs but apparently never sought patents for them nor otherwise revealed their design details or theory of operation.
In 1978 physicist Russell Adams wrote an article in Analog. Searching in the US patent office he had found at least 50 patents of similar reactionless drives. After studying the mechanisms, he concluded that they all relied in friction against the floor they were placed on, and they would be useless in space, where there isn't friction against any surface.
Dean's patented devices, and his explanation of how his Drive was supposed to work, were later shown to develop no net weight loss over time and do not violate Newton's third law of motion. Many other inventors claim to have invented similar devices, and they all still remain unproven, and lacking a solid theoretic basis.
After Dean's death, neither the demonstration devices nor any working devices were found among his experiments. The demonstration devices were clearly different from the devices patented by Dean, and no diagrams were ever found for them. Consequently, it is impossible to test Dean's reported designs or devices to see if they worked as he claimed.
In 1997 physicist John G. Cramer mentioned the Dean Drive in Analog in his column "Alternate View". He said that the demonstration made to Campbell was faulty, and the drive had turned out to be bogus, like many other claims of antigravity devices.
In 2006 a NASA technical memorandum presented the Dean Drive as the most famous example of an "oscillation thruster" and examined its theoretical basis and feasibility as a space drive. It said that "Regrettably, such devices are not breakthroughs, since they still require a connection to the ground to create net motion. The ground is the reaction mass and the frictional connection to the ground is a necessary component to its operation." NASA regularly receives proposals of similar devices, and the memo recommended that future reviews of said proposals "should require that submitters meet minimal thresholds of proof before engaging in further correspondence."
In 2012 a researcher attempting to characterize the Woodward effect, another proposed reactionless drive effect, has stated that she carefully designed her experiments to specifically exclude any "Dean drive" effects: the unintended interaction with the environment in, around or touching the apparatus. She considered these effects "spurious noise".
A Hieronymus machine is any of the patented radionics devices invented by electrical engineer Thomas Galen Hieronymus. Hieronymus received a U.S. Patent for his invention in 1949, which was described in the patent application title as a device for "detection of emanations from materials and measurement of the volumes thereof."
Thomas Townsend Brown was an American inventor whose research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. Instead of being an antigravity force, what Brown observed has generally been attributed to electrohydrodynamics, the movement of charged particles that transfers their momentum to surrounding neutral particles in air, also called "ionic drift" or "ionic wind". For most of Brown's life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. The phenomena came to be called the "Biefeld–Brown effect" and "electrogravitics".
Anti-gravity is creating a place or object that is free from the force of gravity. It does not refer to the lack of weight under gravity experienced in free fall or orbit, or to balancing the force of gravity with some other force, such as electromagnetism or aerodynamic lift. Anti-gravity is a recurring concept in science fiction, particularly in the context of spacecraft propulsion. Examples are the gravity blocking substance "Cavorite" in H. G. Wells's The First Men in the Moon and the Spindizzy machines in James Blish's Cities in Flight.
Eric Roberts Laithwaite was a British electrical engineer, known as the "Father of Maglev" for his development of the linear induction motor and maglev rail system.
The history of perpetual motion machines dates at least back to the Middle Ages. For millennia, it was not clear whether perpetual motion devices were possible or not, but modern theories of thermodynamics have shown that they are impossible. Despite this, many attempts have been made to construct such machines, continuing into modern times. Modern designers and proponents sometimes use other terms, such as "overunity", to describe their inventions.
An ionocraft or ion-propelled aircraft is an aircraft that uses electrohydrodynamics (EHD) to provide lift or thrust in the air without requiring any combustion or moving parts. Current designs do not yet produce enough thrust for manned flight or heavy loads.
"The Men and the Mirror" is a short science fiction story by American writer Ross Rocklynne, published in Astounding Science Fiction in July 1938, since reprinted in Rocklynne's collection of the same title (1973) and in Isaac Asimov's anthology Before the Golden Age (1974). The story is one of three stories by Rocklynne featuring the protagonist Jack Colbie of the Interplanetary Police and his pursuit of interplanetary criminal Edward Deverel.
Theodore Lockard Thomas was an American chemical engineer and Patent attorney who wrote more than 50 science fiction short stories, published between the early 1950s to the late 1970s. He also collaborated on two novels with Kate Wilhelm, as well as producing stories under the pseudonyms of Leonard Lockhard and Cogswell Thomas, and was nominated for a Nebula award and a Hugo Award.
The Woodward effect, also referred to as a Mach effect, is part of a hypothesis proposed by James F. Woodward in 1990. The hypothesis states that transient mass fluctuations arise in any object that absorbs internal energy while undergoing a proper acceleration. Harnessing this effect could generate a reactionless thrust, which Woodward and others claim to measure in various experiments.
A radio frequency (RF) resonant cavity thruster, also known as an EmDrive, is a controversial design concept for a thruster that is claimed to produce thrust by reflecting microwaves internally in the device, in violation of the law of conservation of momentum and other laws of physics. It was introduced in 2001 by Roger Shawyer. No theoretically plausible mechanism of operation for this design has been developed. Nevertheless, several prototypes have been constructed and tested, including by the Advanced Propulsion Physics Laboratory at NASA. Initially, a few tests of prototype drives were reported to produce a small apparent thrust – but subsequent testing failed to reliably reproduce these results.
Perepiteia is claimed to be a new generator developed by the Canadian inventor Thane Heins. The device is named after the Greek word for peripety, a dramatic reversal of circumstances or turning point in a story. The device was quickly attributed the term "perpetual motion machine" by several media outlets. Due to the long history of hoaxes and failures of perpetual motion machines and the incompatibility of such a device with accepted principles of physics, Heins' claims about Perepiteia have been treated with considerable skepticism.
Yubileiny is an educational Russian satellite built by NPO PM to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik 1, the first artificial satellite to be placed into Earth orbit. The satellite was launched on 23 May 2008 aboard a Rokot class rocket from the LC-133 launch facility at the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, after being delayed since the end of 2007. It was a secondary payload accompanying a cluster of three Gonets communication satellites, and utilised the excess capacity of the carrier.
A quantum vacuum thruster is a theoretical system hypothesized to use the same principles and equations of motion that a conventional plasma thruster would use, namely magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), to make predictions about the behavior of the propellant. However, rather than using a conventional plasma as a propellant, a QVT would interact with quantum vacuum fluctuations of the zero-point field.
James F. Woodward is a professor emeritus of history and an adjunct professor of physics at California State University, Fullerton. He is best known for a physics hypothesis proposed in 1990, later expanded, that predicts a series of physical effects that he refers to as Mach effects but others refer to as the Woodward effect. Woodward claims the effect could be used as a reactionless drive for space travel.
Harold G. "Sonny" White is a mechanical engineer, aerospace engineer and applied physicist who is the Advanced Propulsion Team Lead for the NASA Engineering Directorate and is known for proposing new Alcubierre drive concepts and promoting advanced propulsion projects, under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center, including the first practical experiment to test the existence of Alcubierre drive effects.
Analog's War and Peace is the sixth in a series of anthologies of science fiction stories drawn from Analog magazine and edited by then-current Analog editor Stanley Schmidt. It was first published in paperback by Davis Publications and hardcover by The Dial Press in June 1983. The hardcover edition bore the alternate title War and Peace: Possible Futures from Analog.