Debt bondage in India

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India has one of the highest rates of slavery in the world, see Global Slavery Index. (Estimates from the Walk Free Foundation.) Modern incidence of slavery.png
India has one of the highest rates of slavery in the world, see Global Slavery Index. (Estimates from the Walk Free Foundation.)

Debt bondage in India or Bandhua Mazdoori (बंधुआ मज़दूरी) was legally abolished in 1976 but remains prevalent due to weak enforcement by the government. [1] Bonded labour is a system in which lenders force their borrowers to repay loans through labor. [1] Additionally, these debts often take a large amount of time to pay off and are unreasonably high, propagating a cycle of generational inequality. [2] This is due to the typically high interest rates on the loans given out by employers. [3] Although debt bondage is considered to be a voluntary form of labor, people are forced into this system by social situations. [2]

Contents

Debt bondage has deep roots in Indian history, dating back to the period when India was under colonial rule. [4] On a more recent note, according to the 2016 Global Slavery Index, India has the 4th most slaves with 19 million Indians enslaved in some form, including debt bondage. [2] Many Indians enter debt bondage to reduce alternative risks of financial burden and violence. [3] Additionally, the Indian caste system has led to social inequality and corruption which collectively allow this system to persist. [2] [5] Agricultural and brick kiln workers, including child laborers, are the main Indians involved in this practice. [6] [7] Although the Indian government has committed to awarding compensations for freed workers, [8] most workers face negative consequences such as further inequality and health effects, which often results in these laborers committing suicide. [9] [10]

The rise of Dalit activism, government legislation starting as early as 1949, as well as ongoing work by NGOs and government offices to enforce labour laws and rehabilitate those in debt, appears to have contributed to the reduction of bonded labour in India. [11] Additionally, both domestic and international organizations have been involved in the legal and rehabilitation process of ending this practice. [3] [9] However, according to research papers presented by the International Labour Organization, there are still many obstacles to the eradication of bonded labour in India. [12] [13]

History

Before Independence

Workers in colonial India Life and work in India; an account of the conditions, methods, difficulties, results, future prospects and reflex influence of missionary labor in India, especially in the Punjab mission of the United (14776444271).jpg
Workers in colonial India

Although there were far more cases of involuntary slavery in eighteenth and nineteenth century India, the colonial history of India set a precedent for debt bondage. [4] Specifically, Indian indentured workers were in high demand from European colonial powers, and many Indians were sent to Australia to reduce the costs and societal effects of indentured servitude. [4] France, who had an economic and political presence in India, created a system of indentured servitude in the Indian Ocean which about 3,000 Indians were a part of in the 1830s. [4] By 1847, there were over 6,500 indentured servants in the Indian Ocean, including those in India. [4] These French settlers traditionally held onto wages which initiated a system of debt bondage. [4] In the second half of the nineteenth century, many Indians successfully formed unions and utilized trials to free these workers. [4] Nevertheless, India felt the impacts of these historical systems of labor in the twentieth century. [4]

In 1935, the colonial government passed the Government of India Act whose purpose was to develop the Indian economy. [5] Nevertheless, this further stratified the social hierarchy in India, contributing to the debt bondage system. [5] Before India gained independence in 1947, the caste system and hierarchy of land ownership allowed the Indian social system to mirror feudalism. [5] Specifically, members of the high castes in India gave out loans to members of the lower castes. [5] These lenders forced their borrowers to repay these loans through labor. [5] The fact that these borrowers could not purchase land allowed this practice to perpetuate across generations. [5]

Bonded Labor System Act of 1976

In 1976, Indira Gandhi and the Indian government passed the Bonded Labor System Act of 1976 which released bonded laborers and stated that the practice of debt bondage in India was no longer allowed. [5] This act also allowed the Indian judicial powers to set up trials for labor offenses at both the national and local levels. [2] [14] This legislation canceled all debt against bonded laborers and delegated the enforcement of this set of rules to district magistrates. [14] These individuals were responsible for distributing credit to former laborers and making sure that local systems of labor were not corrupted once again. [14] However, due to poor enforcement, many workers stayed under debt bondage. [5] According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment in India, nearly 300,000 Indians were still under debt bondage in 2009. [5] Many researchers, such as Augendra Bhukuth, Jérôme Ballet, and Nicolas Sirven, argue that this is part of a larger effort of employers looking to exert a strong sense of discipline and control over their workers. [3] Authors such as Isabelle Guérin argue that this act did not clearly define debt bondage which made the policies created by this legislation up to one's interpretation. [15] Additionally, many Indians are not educated about this act. [16]

Forms of Debt Bondage

It is estimated by Siddharth Kara that 84 to 88% of the bonded laborers in the world are in South Asia. [17] Out of all forms of systems in slavery in the world, the Indian debt bondage system has one of the highest numbers of forced laborers. [5] According to the Ministry of Labor and Employment of the Government of India, there are over 300,000 bonded laborers in India, with a majority of them in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, and Odisha. [2] Many historians such as Tom Brass debate the ethics of the debt bondage system. [18] Whereas some analysts say that bonded labor is a form of anti-capitalism and limits the freedom of choice for laborers, others say that this system is voluntary. [18]

Agricultural Workers

Debt bondage in India is most prevalent in agricultural areas, with 80% of workers in the debt bondage system being involved in agriculture. [1] [5] Many farmers take out loans to be able to work on land, and landlords generate high amounts of profit by paying these workers less than minimum wage. [5] These farmers inevitably accumulate interest due to the need of health care and basic resources. [5] Farmers taking out small loans can find themselves paying interest that exceeds 100% of the loans per year. [1] Additionally, many lenders only let the value of labor pay off interest and require the principal loan amount to be paid off through cash. [5] According to a 2012 study, farmers receive as little as 180 US dollars and accumulate penalties for taking sick days. [2] This reduces the potential that farmers have to develop their land. [18] Agricultural workers that are close to entering debt bondage have recently looked toward maistries who offer interest-free loans and more money to borrowers. [3]

According to a study about labor in Andhra Pradesh located in South India, the Palamur debt bondage system began in the 1930s. [6] Workers in this system rely on a district leader who is in charge of distributing work, money, food, and resources. [6] These laborers face poor living conditions, intense work and long hours, and are not able to unionize or effectively communicate with other workers. [6] Additionally, district leaders often do not employ workers during the monsoon season, forcing workers to look towards other occupations and sources of income. [6]

Children

In 2013, India had the highest number of child laborers in the world. [19] Most Indian child laborers are centered in rural India in the agricultural industry. [19] As of 2009, most of these children worked in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, and Bihar. [19] According to both 1997 and 2003 studies in India, there were 15 million bonded child laborers centered in India. [14] [20] 98% of these individuals were a part of the Dalit caste, which is the lowest Indian caste, or the indigenous Adivasi group. [14] The presence of a large number of child laborers is regarded as a serious issue in terms of economic welfare. [21] These children are often tied to this debt bondage to work for their employers for a time period that could be stretched to a lifetime, and usually for minimal or no wages. [22] This in turn contributes to a long term employer-slave relationship. [22] Child laborers are typically put into the debt bondage system by their parents to pay off economic and social costs. [14] According to a 2001 study by the Physicians for Humans Rights, most child laborers are working to pay off loans for their parents and receive as little as 18 rupees a day. [20] Although Articles 24 and 39 of the Indian constitution protect Indian children from debt bondage labor, these individuals cannot form unions and are more vulnerable to low wages and exploitation. [14] Recent initiatives to end the participation of children in debt bondage has led to the creation of an underground market for the labor of these individuals. [20] Whereas some researchers argue that eradicating child labor will lower wages for children that will continue to work despite institutionalized rules against this form of labor, others such as Augendra Bhukuth argue that getting rid of this institution is necessary. [23]

Brick kiln workers in Hyderabad, a city in India Brick klin workers in hyderabad.jpg
Brick kiln workers in Hyderabad, a city in India

Other Workers

Workers in the brick kiln and sugarcane industries often enter debt bondage. [7] Researchers specifically categorize the brick kiln industry as a form of debt bondage since workers in this institution receive money in advance which they must later pay off. [23] According to a 2003 study, although most Indian laborers in the brick kiln industry did not enter debt bondage, the number of workers entering debt bondage was increasing due to a lack of trust between brokers, or lenders, and borrowers. [7] Although employers in charge of this industry do not employ children, workers inevitably turn to their children to improve their chances of completing their work and receiving a loan in the first place. [23] According to a 2007 study in Chennai and Madurai in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu about the brick kiln industry, many Indians hold different views on the relationship between brokers and workers. [7] Whereas some argue that this relationship is built upon mutualism, others cite the harms of this connection since workers in this industry are seasonal, receive conditional advances, and receive low wages, often only covering the costs of food. [7] As of 2019, there are over 23 million Indians involved in the brick kiln industry, many of whom are involved in debt bondage. [24]

Additionally, industries such as the quarrying, mining, and manual cleaning businesses hire cheap workers through debt bondage. [2] Although the Indian government passed the Manual Scavengers and Rehabilitation Act in 2013, there were over 12,000 laborers in this industry in 2016, mostly centered in Uttar Pradesh. [2] One other form of debt bondage is that of Sumangali in which families of lower caste levels enter debt bondage to pay off high dowries. [2]

Contributing Factors

Caste System

Woman of Dalit Caste in 1942 Mumbai Dalit or Untouchable Woman of Bombay (Mumbai) according to Indian Caste System - 1942.jpg
Woman of Dalit Caste in 1942 Mumbai

The Indian caste system, which was widely popular in the 20th century, has 5 tiers, with Dalits making up the base of this system. [5] Researchers such as author Sarah Knight believe that the caste system and its contribution to social stratification makes debt bondage more acceptable. [5] Specifically, Dalits have little access to education, health care, and housing which forces them to take out loans and enter forced labor. [5] Additionally, they often do not qualify for loans from banks which forces them to borrow money from lenders at a high interest rate. [14] Due to a lack of education, these individuals often don't learn about human rights or have a proper platform for activism. [5] Hence, there is a correlation between economic opportunity and one's caste. [25] Although the government has attempted to create quota based initiatives to increase the opportunity of mobility in both the economic and political spheres, these initiatives have historically been met with opposition by Indians from higher castes. [25] Many political organizations such as the Bahujan Samaj Party have attempted to represent Indians from lower castes. [25] However, one criticism of such organizations is that they tend to reinforce class immobility by separating politics by caste. [25]

Inequality

Although debt bondage is outlawed in India, many Indians especially from developing communities do not receive education about their rights. [16] The development of technology for agriculture in India varies from state to state. [2] Thus, many landowners rely on Indians and migrants for cheap labor. [2] Additionally, many industries, such as the gem-cutting industry, tend to have a high frequency of child laborers. [2] This perpetuates a system of educational inequality in which members of low castes and children of laborers have little to no access to education. [2] According to a 2010 survey, 76 in 100 bonded laborers in India were unable to read or write. [2] Illiteracy in India leads to more of an unawareness of legal and human rights. [26]

In reference to child labor, since debt is often passed down from generation to generation, many children find themselves in the debt bondage system at a very early age. [18] In addition to illiteracy, unemployment and poverty are commonly cited as causes of children entering the debt bondage system. [19] According to a mathematical economic analysis of the institution of child debt bondage by researchers Arnab Basu and Nancy Chau, children mainly enter the institution of debt bondage due to the high incidence of poverty in many parts of India and the world. [27] Additionally, this system is cyclical due to the developing public education system in India. [14] Many schools do not prepare students for life post-graduation which decreases their chances of social mobility. [14] Child laborers often find themselves working when the growing season and public school schedule coincide. [26]

Corruption

Researchers also cite the corruption of the Indian government and judicial system as a factor of debt bondage. [5] Due to the millions of pending cases in the court system, many workers who entered debt bondage have issues with access to judges. [5] Additionally, due to the tendency for monopolies to form in India, lenders often force debt laborers to borrow more money through high interest rates. [26] When workers encounter unexpected expenses, such as paying for religious ceremonies or medical care, they run an even higher risk of accumulating even more debt and interest. [26] Migrant workers from neighboring countries specifically are more susceptible to entering into these long-lasting lender-borrower relationships due to a general lack of attention for the rights of workers. [26]

One of the reasons that this corruption is able to persist is due to the statistics dispersed about Indian labor. [9] For example, the National Sample Survey Office under the Ministry of Planning and Program Implementation is responsible for collecting and spreading information about job counts and statistics about labor. [9] However, they often do not correctly do so, allowing the unethical aspects of labor in India to go unnoticed. [9] In 2016, the Indian government set a goal of freeing over 18 million Indians from debt bondage over a span of 14 years by increasing payments to former bonded laborers. [8] However, according to 2019 data, most laborers have not received these additional compensations, leading to an influx of workers taking out loans and entering debt bondage again. [8]

Author and academic Siddharth Kara believes that:

Bonded labour is a relic of history that should have long ago been eliminated from South Asia, but greed, corruption, and government ineffectiveness allow this caustic mode of exploitation to persist well into modern times. In order to ensure basic human rights, guarantee untainted global supply chains, and protect international security, the forces that promote bonded labour must be tackled immediately. [1]

Consequences

Farmers' Suicides

Rally for Farmers' Rights in 2005 Bhopal, India Farmers rally, Bhopal, India, 11-2005.jpg
Rally for Farmers' Rights in 2005 Bhopal, India

Due to the lack of restrictions on the agricultural industry, the profits that workers in this industry receive widely fluctuates, creating an unreliable source of income for farmers. [10] In 2018, nearly half of all Indian agricultural households accumulated a debt equivalent to nearly fifteen-hundred US dollars. [28] Due to the structure and rules set by many Indian banks, these households cannot take out more loans to develop their land. [28] Instead, they accumulate large amounts of interest and enter debt bondage. [28] Additionally, this industry is marked by high levels of competition and seasonal profits. [10] Thus, farmers are more susceptible to committing suicide if they do not have a large amount of land and are in debt. [10] These individuals typically commit suicide using pesticides. [10] In fact, farmers in some rural parts of India are twice as likely to commit suicide than urban Indians. [10] From 1997 to 2012, over 180,000 farmers committed suicide in India due to the burden of debt. [5] In 2016, there were over 11,000 suicides by Indian farmers. [29] However, the Indian government did not disclose how many of these deaths were directly caused by debt. [29]

Further Inequality

Mahatma Gandhi, who criticized the bondage system Mahatma-Gandhi, studio, 1931.jpg
Mahatma Gandhi, who criticized the bondage system

The debt bondage institution in India is characterized by a system known as halipratha which relies on a master-servant connection. [9] Mahatma Gandhi criticized this system and its employers and attempted to declare the Bonded Labour Liberation Day in 1939. [9] However, these employers did not accept these initiatives since they involved increasing wages for workers and ending debt bondage for long term workers. [9] Researchers such as Jan Breman claim that the motivations of employers under this system is not primarily economic but is rather marked by a drive to develop political power and dominance over others. [9] For example, the debt bondage system was used as a way to force tribes in nineteenth century Gujurat into lower castes. [9]

On a more current note, many Indian workers are a part of a new form of bonded labor. [9] This system is characterized by work which requires long hours and an environment that fails to allow laborers to organize or find other jobs. [9] Thus, workers in this system are trapped by their occupation and hand these economics burdens down across generations, leading to cases of child labor. [9] Child labor specifically stunts the intellectual growth of students in primary education. [19] This system also leads to lower school attendance and fewer opportunities for social mobility. [19] Nevertheless, many employers cite this form of labor as a way for families to receive a steady form of income. [19]

Health Effects

Many laborers in the debt bondage system are vulnerable to hazardous health conditions such as infection from dangerous working conditions. [2] According to a study about the brick kiln industry in India, many workers under the debt bondage system suffer from enduring high levels of heat during the summer. [23] Laborers in this industry are forced into uncomfortable positions for long periods of time. [30] For this reason, they face long-term musculoskeletal problems. [30] Children specifically are susceptible to skin and breathing diseases. [19] Child laborers in the debt bondage system often receive cuts and burns or contract liver disease due to their participation in the silver, beedi, and silk industries. [14] Additionally, laborers in the agriculture industry are vulnerable to snake bites and pesticide poisoning due to a lack of protective gear and clean drinking and cleansing water. [20] Nevertheless, workers are typically forced to continue to work through these health conditions since taking time off work can cause these laborers to accumulate more debt. [16]

Initiatives

Government Regulations

Indira Gandhi in 1967, 9 years before passing the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act Indira Gandhi in 1967.jpg
Indira Gandhi in 1967, 9 years before passing the Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act

The passage of the Bonded Labor System Act of 1976 by Indira Gandhi and the Indian government set a precedent for future government initiatives to tackle labor issues. [5] In 1978, the Indian government instituted a national plan to disperse over 20,000 rupees (about 300 US dollars) to each freed debt laborer. [2] On a similar note, the National Rural Employment Guarantee Act recently guaranteed employment to one adult in a rural house that has a considerable financial burden. [3] State governments take on this issue in a variety of ways. [3] For example, many Indian states target landless workers in local debt relief efforts. [3]

Additionally, to tackle the issue of child labor, the government passed the Child Labor Act and National Policy on Child Labor in 1986 and 1987 respectively. [19] These initiatives created projects such as the National Child Labor Project which created rehabilitation programs for children and provided education and food to former child laborers. [19] They also regulated the hours and conditions of child laborers and utilized a team of inspectors to prohibit these individuals from working in dangerous industries. [14] Later on, in 1994, the Elimination of Child Labor Act incorporated more vocational training into schools to help students find opportunities for social mobility post-graduation. [14] Researchers such as Arnab Basu and Nancy Chau suggest that countries with a high incidence of child debt bondage like India must first address the low wages of farmers and the lack of alternatives to entering debt bondage for individuals in poverty. [27]

Organizations

Bandhua Mukti Morcha, or the Bonded Labour Liberation Front, is an organization whose purpose is to identify and free bonded laborers in India. [31] Since 1981, the year Swami Agnivesh created this organization, the Bonded Labour Liberation Front has helped release nearly 180,000 bonded laborers and has initiated rehabilitation efforts to get these individuals back on their feet. [31] Additionally, this organization has been active in advocating for a higher minimum wage and more government efforts in ending debt bondage in India. [31]

In 1993, the Human Rights Act created the National Human Rights Commission which investigates issues of human rights violations. [5] Another organization that works on similar initiatives is the Center for Education and Communication which collaborates with NGOs and is responsible for educating the world about this issue. [5] Additionally, the Academy of Development Science created a grain bank to tackle the issue of food scarcity and help Indians stay out of debt. [5] Finally, the Indian National Commission on Labor has met numerous times to create more protection for Indian workers, especially those who cannot organize. [9]

On an international level, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights outlawed the practice of debt bondage. [3] Similarly, in 1956, the United Nations Supplementary Convention on the Abolition of Slavery officially prohibited this institution. [27] Additionally, more recently, the Dalit Freedom Network, a British NGO, has brought many children out of debt bondage and has worked to end Dalit slavery. [2] Organizations such as the UNRISD recommend more state involvement and collaboration between the government and businesses to solve issues of poverty. [32] Anti-Slavery International is involved in relieving thousands of Indian brick kiln and agricultural workers from debt bondage in Chhattisgarh, Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. [24] They also work with community groups and organize legal efforts to free Indians from slavery. [24]

International Labor Organization

The International Labor Organization, or ILO, is responsible for dissecting labor issues and making sure exports are ethical. [33] In 1998, India passed 39 out of the 189 conventions of the ILO, including an agreement about ending forced labor. [33] This was a part of a larger initiative by the ILO to force countries to end forced labor through the Declaration on Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work. [26]

Additionally, the ILO has implemented micro-finance initiatives to help Indians in debt. [33] This organization has been careful to use micro-finance, or the distribution of small loans at low interest costs, to help Indians who have a high risk of entering debt bondage or falling back into this form of forced labor. [26] The intervention of the ILO in India has led to the creation of the Integrated Rural Development Society and Madras Social Service Society which focus on preventative measures for the issue of debt bondage. [26] This has forced state governments to commit more time and attention towards tackling bonded labor issues. [26] Additionally, this has led to more initiatives which involve teaching employers about alternatives to debt bondage, increasing educational opportunities for students, and providing aid for the costs of health care. [26]

See also

General:

Related Research Articles

Debt bondage Persons pledge of their labor or services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation

Peonage, also known as debt slavery or bonded labour, is the pledge of a person's services as security for the repayment for a debt or other obligation, where the terms of the repayment are not clearly or reasonably stated, and the person who is holding the debt thus has some control over the laborer. Freedom is assumed on debt repayment. The services required to repay the debt may be undefined, and the services' duration may be undefined, thus allowing the person supposedly owed the debt to demand services indefinitely. Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation.

Indentured servitude System of unfree labor

Historically, an indentured servant or indentured laborer was a man who took out a loan, most often to pay for the cost of his transportation to a job location: from Europe to North America, for example. In order to pay off this loan, the employee (indenturee) agreed to work without salary for the lender for a specific number of years.

Unfree labour Work people are employed in against their will

Unfree labour is any work relation, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence, compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.

Kamaiya and Kamlari were two traditional systems of bonded labour practised in the western Terai of Nepal. Both were abolished after protests, in 2000 and 2006 respectively.

Slavery in India

Slavery in India was an established institution in ancient India by the start of the common era, or likely earlier. However, its study in ancient times is problematic and contested because it depends on the translations of terms such as dasa and dasyu. Slavery was banned in the Mauryan Empire.

Labour in India refers to employment in the economy of India. In 2012, there were around 487 million workers in India, the second largest after China. Of these over 94 percent work in unincorporated, unorganised enterprises ranging from pushcart vendors to home-based diamond and gem polishing operations. The organised sector includes workers employed by the government, state-owned enterprises and private sector enterprises. In 2008, the organised sector employed 27.5 million workers, of which 17.3 million worked for government or government owned entities.

Slavery in the 21st century

Contemporary slavery, also known as modern slavery or neo-slavery, refers to institutional slavery that continues to occur in present-day society. Estimates of the number of slaves today range from around 38 million to 46 million, depending on the method used to form the estimate and the definition of slavery being used. The estimated number of slaves is debated, as there is no universally agreed definition of modern slavery; those in slavery are often difficult to identify, and adequate statistics are often not available. The International Labour Organization estimates that, by their definitions, over 40 million people are in some form of slavery today. 24.9 million people are in forced labor, of whom 16 million people are exploited in the private sector such as domestic work, construction or agriculture; 4.8 million persons in forced sexual exploitation, and 4 million persons in forced labor imposed by state authorities. 15.4 million people are in forced marriage.

Indian labour law refers to laws regulating labour in India. Traditionally, Indian governments at federal and state level have sought to ensure a high degree of protection for workers, but in practice, this differs due to form of government and because labour is a subject in the concurrent list of the Indian Constitution.

Human trafficking in India, although illegal under Indian law, remains a significant problem. People are frequently illegally trafficked through India for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced/bonded labour. Although no reliable study of forced and bonded labour has been completed, NGOs estimate this problem affects 20 to 65 million Indians. Men, women and children are trafficked in India for diverse reasons. Women and girls are trafficked within the country for the purposes of commercial sexual exploitation and forced marriage, especially in those areas where the sex ratio is highly skewed in favour of men. Men and boys are trafficked for the purposes of labour, and may be sexually exploited by traffickers to serve as gigolos, massage experts, escorts, etc. A significant portion of children are subjected to forced labour as factory workers, domestic servants, beggars, and agriculture workers, and have been used as armed combatants by some terrorist and insurgent groups.

Child labour in India

In 2011 the national census of India found the total number of child labourers, aged 5–14, to be at 10.1 million, out of the total of 259.64 million children in that age group. The child labour problem is not unique to India; worldwide, about 217 million children work, many full-time.

Pakistan is a source, transit, and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to trafficking in persons, specifically forced labour and prostitution. The largest human trafficking problem is bonded labour, concentrated in the Sindh and Punjab provinces in agriculture and brick making, and to a lesser extent in mining and carpet-making. Estimates of bonded labour victims, including men, women, and children, vary widely, but are likely well over one million. In extreme scenarios, when labourers speak publicly against abuse, landowners have kidnapped labourers and their family members. U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 2 Watchlist" in 2017.

Human trafficking in Nepal is a growing criminal industry affecting multiple other countries beyond Nepal, primarily across Asia and the Middle East. Nepal is mainly a source country for men, women and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking. U.S. State Department's Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons placed the country in "Tier 2" in 2017.

Child labour in Pakistan is the employment of children for work in Pakistan, which causes them mental, physical, moral and social harm. The Human Rights Commission of Pakistan estimated that in the 1990s, 11 million children were working in the country, half of whom were under age ten. In 1996, the median age for a child entering the work force was seven, down from eight in 1994. It was estimated that one quarter of the country's work force was made up of children.

The Indian Slavery Act, 1843, also known as Act V of 1843, was an act passed in British India under East India Company rule, which outlawed many economic transactions associated with slavery.

Slavery in international law

Slavery in international law is governed by a number of treaties, conventions and declarations. Foremost among these is the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (1948) that states in Article 4: “no one should be held in slavery or servitude, slavery in all of its forms should be eliminated.”

Syeda Ghulam Fatima

Syeda Ghulam Fatima is a Pakistani human and labour rights activist, known for her work in ending bonded labour in brick kilns, and is General Secretary of Lahore-based Bonded Labour Liberation Front Pakistan (BLLF).

Ehsan Ullah Khan

Muhammad Ehsan Ullah Khan is the founder of the Bonded Labour Liberation Front (BLLF) of Pakistan, an organization that has freed more than 100,000 slaves in its country.

Blood Bricks Campaign

The Blood Bricks Campaign is an international campaign that focuses on fighting against the use of modern slavery in the Indian bricks kiln industry, while also exposing companies that use blood bricks in their supply chain. It was launched in 2014 by multiple, different organizations including Union Solidarity International (USi), Prayas, Action Aid Association, War on Want, and Thompsons Solicitors. This campaign's objectives include supporting unionizing efforts by workers, applying pressure to state and federal governments to enforce or amend laws, identifying companies that use bricks from bonded or forced labour, and bringing attention to the working conditions in the brick industry in India, as well as other parts of the world.

Labour in Nepal Overview of workforce in Nepal, workers rights, labour laws and challenges

Nepal has a labour force of 16.8-million-workers, the 37th largest in the world as of 2017. Although agriculture makes up only about 28 per cent of Nepal's GDP, it employs more than two-thirds of the workforce. Millions of men work as unskilled labourers in foreign countries, leaving the household, agriculture, and raising of children to women alone. Most of the working-age women are employed in agricultural sector, contributions to which are usually ignored or undervalued in official statistics. Few women who are employed in the formal sectors face discrimination and significant wage gap. Almost half of all children are economically active, half of which are child labourers. Millions of people, men, women and children of both sexes, are employed as bonded labourers, in slavery-like conditions. Trade unions have played a significant role in earning better working conditions and workers' rights, both at the company level and the national government level. Worker-friendly labour laws, endorsed by the labour unions as well as business owners, provide a framework for better working conditions and secure future for the employees, but their implementation is severely lacking in practice. Among the highly educated, there is a significant brain-drain, posing a significant hurdle in fulfilling the demand for skilled workforce in the country.

The haruwa–charuwa system is a forced-labour system based on debt bondage, prevalent in the agricultural sector of the eastern Terai region in Nepal. Haruwa means "forced tiller" and are usually adult males, while charuwa means "forced cattle-herder" and are usually women and children. The victims of this bonded labour system are usually dalit families, most commonly from the Musahar caste. Due to landlessness and poverty, they are forced into service of landowner families under slavery-like conditions. The haruwa–charuwa system is similar to the Haliya and Kamaiya systems of western Nepal.

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