Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus

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Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus
Born
Died43 BC
Known forAssassin of Julius Caesar

Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus (born April 27, [1] ca. 85–81 BC, [2] died 43 BC) was a Roman politician and general of the 1st century BC and one of the leading instigators of Julius Caesar's assassination. [3] [4]

Ancient Rome History of Rome from the 8th-century BC to the 5th-century

In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the Italian city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire. The civilization began as an Italic settlement in the Italian Peninsula, conventionally founded in 753 BC, that grew into the city of Rome and which subsequently gave its name to the empire over which it ruled and to the widespread civilisation the empire developed. The Roman Empire expanded to become one of the largest empires in the ancient world, though still ruled from the city, with an estimated 50 to 90 million inhabitants ) and covering 5.0 million square kilometres at its height in AD 117.

Assassination of Julius Caesar Stabbing attack that caused the death of Julius Caesar

The assassination of Julius Caesar was a conspiracy of several Roman senators, notably led by Marcus Junius Brutus, Cassius Longinus, and Decimus Brutus, at the end of the Roman Republic. They stabbed Caesar to death in the Theatre of Pompey on the Ides of March 44 BC.

Contents

Biography

Early life

He was the son of Decimus Junius Brutus, who was consul in 77 BC. His mother was possibly Sempronia, who was the wife of Decimus's father in all surviving records, but historian Ronald Syme has propossed that Decimus's father may have been married to another woman before Sempronia, a Postumia who could have been a sister of the wife of Servius Sulpicius Rufus, since Decimus and Rufus's son were described as cousins. [5]

Decimus Junius Brutus was a Roman politician who was elected consul in 77 BC.

Semprònia was an Ancient Roman woman who was the wife of Decimus Junius Brutus, the consul of 77 B.C. and possibly mother of his son Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus who became one of Julius Caesar's assassins.

Ronald Syme New Zealand historian and classicist

Sir Ronald Syme, was a New Zealand-born historian and classicist. Long associated with Oxford University, he is widely regarded as the 20th century's greatest historian of ancient Rome. His great work was The Roman Revolution (1939), a masterly and controversial analysis of Roman political life in the period following the assassination of Julius Caesar.

Decimus was adopted by Aulus Postumius Albinus, but kept his own family name, only adding his adoptive father's cognomen Albinus. Syme felt this supports his assertment that Decimus mother was a previous wife of his father and not Sempronia, as having kinship with the Postumia gens would have made it logical for Aulus Postumius Albinus to adopt him. [5]

Aulus Postumius Albinus

Aulus Postumius Albinus was a politician of the Roman Republic, and second consul in 99 BC with M. Antonius. Aulus Gellius quotes the words of a senatus consultum passed in their consulship in consequence of the spears of Mars having moved. Cicero mentions him as being a good orator.

A cognomen was the third name of a citizen of ancient Rome, under Roman naming conventions. Initially, it was a nickname, but lost that purpose when it became hereditary. Hereditary cognomina were used to augment the second name, the gens, in order to identify a particular branch within a family or family within a clan. The term has also taken on other contemporary meanings.

Kinship human relationship term; web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of most humans in most societies; form of social connection

In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated. Anthropologist Robin Fox states that "the study of kinship is the study of what man does with these basic facts of life – mating, gestation, parenthood, socialization, siblingship etc." Human society is unique, he argues, in that we are "working with the same raw material as exists in the animal world, but [we] can conceptualize and categorize it to serve social ends." These social ends include the socialization of children and the formation of basic economic, political and religious groups.

On several occasions Julius Caesar expressed how he loved Decimus Brutus like a son. Ronald Syme argued that if a Brutus was the natural son of Caesar, Decimus was more likely than Marcus Brutus. [6] Decimus was named an heir in the second degree in Caesar's will and was designated to become guardian of any child Caesar would have. Roman historian Appian interpeted this as being an adoption of Decimus by Caesar. [7]

Julius Caesar 1st-century BC Roman politician and general

Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a populist Roman dictator, politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He also wrote Latin prose.

Appian of Alexandria was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.

Decimus Brutus spent his youth mainly in the company of Publius Clodius Pulcher, Gaius Scribonius Curio, and Marcus Antonius.[ citation needed ]

Publius Clodius Pulcher was a Roman patrician and a politician. As tribune, he pushed through an ambitious legislative program, including a grain dole, but he is chiefly remembered for his feud with Cicero and Titus Annius Milo, whose bodyguards murdered him on the Appian Way.

Gaius Scribonius Curio was the name of a father and son who lived in the late Roman Republic.

Mark Antony Roman politician and general

Marcus Antonius, commonly known in English as Mark Antony or Anthony, was a Roman politician and general who played a critical role in the transformation of the Roman Republic from an oligarchy into the autocratic Roman Empire.

During the Wars

He served in Caesar's army during the Gallic wars and was given the command of the fleet in the war against the Veneti in 56 BC. [8] In a decisive sea battle, Decimus Brutus succeeded in destroying the Veneti's fleet. Using sickle-like hooks fitted on long poles, Decimus Brutus attacked the enemy's sails, leaving them immobilized and easy prey to Roman boarding parties. He also served against Vercingetorix in 52 BC. [9]

Veneti (Gaul) Gallic tribe

The Veneti were a seafaring Celtic people who lived in the Brittany peninsula (France), which in Roman times formed part of an area called Armorica. They gave their name to the modern city of Vannes.

Vercingetorix protohistoric chieftain of the Arverni tribe, defeated by Julius Caesar during the Gallic wars

Vercingetorix was a king and chieftain of the Arverni tribe; he united the Gauls in a revolt against Roman forces during the last phase of Julius Caesar's Gallic Wars.

When the Republican Civil War broke out, Decimus Brutus sided with his commander, Caesar, and was entrusted once again with fleet operations. Richard Billows argued that Caesar loved Decimus Brutus almost as a son. [10] In 50BC he married a woman whos family was anti-Caesar. [11] [12]

The Greek city of Massilia (present-day Marseille) sided with Pompey the Great, and Caesar, hastening to reach Hispania and cut Pompey off from his legions, left Decimus Brutus in charge of the naval blockade of Massilia. Within thirty days, Decimus Brutus built a fleet from scratch, defeated the Massilian fleet twice, and together with Gaius Trebonius (who commanded the siege) secured the capitulation of Massilia. [13]

Ides of March and its aftermath

When Caesar returned to Rome as dictator after the final defeat of the Republican faction in the Battle of Munda (45 BC), Marcus Brutus joined the conspiracy against Caesar, after being convinced by Cassius and Decimus. In 44 BC, Decimus was made Praetor Peregrinus by personal appointment of Caesar and was designated to be the governor of Cisalpine Gaul in the following year.

On the Ides of March (March 15), when Caesar decided not to attend the Senate meeting in the curia at the theatre of Pompey due to the concerns of his wife, he was persuaded to attend by Decimus Brutus, who escorted him to the senate house, and neatly evaded Mark Antony, who wished to tell Caesar of the assassination plot. After Caesar was attacked by the first assassin, Servilius Casca, Decimus and the rest of the conspirators attacked and killed him. In all, Caesar suffered approximately 23 stab wounds. According to Nicolaus of Damascus, Decimus struck him through the thigh.

The assassins received an amnesty the next day, issued by the senate at the instigation of Mark Antony, Caesar's fellow consul. But the situation was not peaceful; Rome's population and Caesar's legionaries wanted to see the conspirators punished. The group decided to lie low, and Decimus used his office of Praetor Peregrinus to stay away from Rome. Decimus was named an heir in the second degree in Caesar's will.

Activity in Gallia Cisalpina

The climate of reconciliation soon passed and slowly the conspirators were starting to feel the strain of the assassination. Thus, at the beginning of 43 BC, Decimus Brutus hurried to Gallia Cisalpina, the province assigned to him as propraetor, and started to levy his own troops. He was ordered by the Senate to surrender his province to Antony but refused. This was the act of provocation to which Antony was only too happy to respond. With his own political situation on the verge of disaster and himself declared public enemy, defeating Decimus Brutus was a way for Antony to regain his ascendancy and get control of the strategically important Italian Gaul.

In 43 BC Decimus Brutus occupied Mutina, laying in provisions for a protracted siege. Antony obliged him, and blockaded Decimus Brutus' forces, intent on starving them out.

Nevertheless, the consuls of the year, Aulus Hirtius and Gaius Pansa, marched northward to raise the siege. Guided by Cicero (whose Philippics date from this time), the Senate was inclined to view Mark Antony as an enemy. Caesar Octavian, the nineteen-year-old heir of Caesar, and already raised to the rank of propraetor, accompanied Gaius Pansa north. The first confrontation occurred on April 14 at the battle of Forum Gallorum, where Antony hoped to deal with his opponents piecemeal. Antony defeated the forces of Gaius Pansa and Octavian, which resulted in Pansa suffering mortal wounds; however, Antony was then defeated by a surprise attack from Hirtius. A second battle on 21 April at Mutina resulted in a further defeat for Antony and Hirtius' death. Antony withdrew, unwilling to become the subject of a double circumvallation as Caesar had done to Vercingetorix at Alesia.

With the siege raised, Decimus Brutus cautiously thanked Octavian, now commander of the legions that had rescued him, from the other side of the river. Octavian coldly indicated he had come to oppose Antony, not aid Caesar's murderers. Decimus Brutus was given the command to wage war against Antony, but many of his soldiers deserted to Octavian.

Flight and death

His position deteriorating by the day, Decimus Brutus fled Italy, abandoning his legions. He attempted to reach Macedonia, where Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus had stationed themselves but was executed en route by a Gallic chief loyal to Mark Antony.

Several letters written by Decimus Brutus during the last two years of his life are preserved among Cicero's collected correspondence.

Cultural depictions

Decimus legacy is not as notable as that of another Brutus who was among the conspirators, Marcus Brutus, whom he is often confused for, or merged with, in depictions.

[14]

In Shakespeare's Julius Caesar , Decimus Brutus is mistakenly called "Decius". He also appears in the play Cato, a Tragedy by Joseph Addison also here under the name "Decius". [15] He appears with his actual name in the play The Tragedy of Cicero . [16]

In Allan Massie's 1993 book entitled Caesar, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus narrates his story and reason for joining in Caesar's assassination while being held captive by the Gallic chief.

In Colleen McCullough's novels Caesar and The October Horse (of her Masters of Rome series) Decimus Brutus is an important character in. In these novels, he and Gaius Trebonius are portrayed as the real leaders of the assassination conspiracy.

In Conn Iggulden's Emperor series of books the historical figures of Decimus Brutus and Marcus Brutus are blended together into the one character named Marcus Brutus.

In Ben Kane's books The Forgotten Legion, The Silver Eagle, and Road To Rome, Decimus Brutus is shown as a fairly major character to the plot and the rest of the book as Fabiola's lover. [17]

In Robert Harris' novel, Dictator, it is Decimus, not Marcus, who is the Brutus targeted during Caesar's assassination by Caesar's alleged accusatory words, "Even you?". The phrase, more often rendered as "Et tu", is immortalized in Shakespeare's Julius Caesar. [18]

In S.J.A Turney's series of novels titled Marius Mules , Decimus Brutus is heavily featured as a brilliant naval commander and one of Caesar's most loyal officers.

See also

Related Research Articles

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References

  1. The date of Decimus Brutus's birth is based on a letter from Cicero to Marcus Brutus (Ad Brutum 1.15.8). News of Decimus's victory at Mutina was announced at Rome on his birthday (natalis). Based on the timeline reconstructed from Cicero's letters, which were abundant during this period, it has been argued that the date would have been April 27. See Bernard Camillus Bondurant, Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus: A Historical Study (University of Chicago Press, 1907), p. 94, with a further note to Schmidt, Jahrb. f. Philol. (1892), p. 333.
  2. Ronald Syme, "Bastards in the Roman Aristocracy," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 104 (1960), p. 327, argues for a birth date of 81 on the basis of Decimus's quaestorship, the most probable year of which is 50 BC: since quaestor was the first step on the Roman career track, and the age requirement in this period was 30, a man of Decimus' standing and connections is not likely to have waited past the age of eligibility to launch his political career.
  3. Plutarch. "Life of Caesar". University of Chicago. p. 595. ...at this juncture Decimus Brutus, surnamed Albinus, who was so trusted by Caesar that he was entered in his will as his second heir, but was partner in the conspiracy of the other Brutus and Cassius, fearing that if Caesar should elude that day, their undertaking would become known, ridiculed the seers and chided Caesar for laying himself open to malicious charges on the part of the senators...
  4. Suetonius (121). "De Vita Caesarum" [The Twelve Caesars]. University of Chicago. p. 107. More than sixty joined the conspiracy against [Caesar], led by Gaius Cassius and Marcus and Decimus Brutus.
  5. 1 2 Syme, Ronald; "No Son for Caesar?" – page: 8
  6. Ronald Syme, "Bastards in the Roman Aristocracy," pp. 323–327 (JSTOR Online Preview). Thomas Africa thought Syme had recanted this view; see "The Mask of an Assassin: A Psychohistorical Study of M. Junius Brutus," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 8 (1978), p. 615, note 28, referring to Syme's book Sallust (Berkeley, 1964), p. 134. This would appear to be a misreading, given Syme's fuller argument twenty years later in "No Son for Caesar?" Historia 29 (1980) 422–437, pp. 426–430 regarding the greater likelihood that Decimus would be the Brutus who was Caesar's son.
  7. Syme, Rondald; "No Son for Caesar?" – page: 7
  8. Caesar. Gallic Wars. III.11.
  9. Caesar. Gallic Wars. VII.9.
  10. Richard A. Billows, "Julius Caesar: The Colossus of Rome," pp. 249 (Google Books Online Preview).
  11. http://www.historyofwar.org/articles/people_brutus_decimus.html
  12. https://www.history.com/news/julius-caesar-assassin-ides-of-march
  13. Caesar, The Civil War, book II, sections 8 and 9.
  14. Vinci), Leonardo (da (1999). An Overview of Leonardo's Career and Projects Until C.1500. ISBN   9780815329343.
  15. 1837. The Works of Joseph Addison: The Tatler. The Guardian. The Freeholder. The Whig-examiner. The lover. Dialogues upon the usefulness of ancient medals. Remarks on several parts of Italy, etc. The present state of the war. The late trial and conviction of Count Tariff. The evidences of the Christian religion. Essay on Virgil's Georgics. Poems on several occasions. Translations from Ovid's Metamorphoses. Notes on some of the foregoing stories in Ovid's Metamorphoses. Poemata. Rosamond. Cato. The drummer – 479
  16. Clare, Janet; Shirley, James; Davenant, Sir William (2002). Drama of the English Republic, 1649–60. ISBN   9780719044823.
  17. "The Forgotten Legion (The Legion Chronicles)", Ben Kane, Published by Preface 2008, Version 1.0.
  18. Harris, Robert, Dictator, Alfred A. Knopf, NYC, NY, 2015; chapter XIII.

Bibliography