Defender of the Fatherland Day

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Defender of the Fatherland Day
Vladimir Putin 23 February 2008-1.jpg
Wreath-laying ceremony at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier in Moscow, 23 February 2008
Observed by Russia, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan
SignificanceCelebrates the armed forces and commemorates the founding of the Red Army
ObservancesWreath laying ceremonies, concerts, parades
Date 23 February
Next time23 February 2022 (2022-02-23)
Frequencyannual

Defender of the Fatherland Day (Russian : День защитника ОтечестваDen' zashchitnika Otechestva); Kazakh : Отан қорғаушы күні; Tajik : Рӯзи Дорандаи Ватан; Kyrgyz : Мекенди коргоочулардын күнү; Belarusian : Дзень абаронцы Айчыны) is a holiday observed in Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. It is celebrated on 23 February, except in Kazakhstan, where it is celebrated on 7 May. In Russia and Belarus, it is a federal holiday and, usually, an off-day. Ukraine abolished the holiday starting 1992 (although its Russophone population still commemorates the Soviet Army legacy to this day) and, after the Revolution of Dignity, has instated the somewhat similar Defender of Ukraine Day on 14 October.

Contents

History

First celebrated in 1919, the holiday marks the date in 1918 during the Russian Civil War when the first mass draft into the Red Army occurred in Petrograd and Moscow (on 17 February). [1] In January 1919, it was decided to combine the celebration of that day with the anniversary of the publication of the decree on the establishment of the Red Army (of 18 February 1918). [1] In 1919, 17 February fell on a Monday, so it was decided to move the holiday to the nearest Sunday – 23 February. [1] That choice of day has been retained ever since. [1] It was originally known as "Red Army Day" (Russian : День Красной Армии). [1] In 1923, it was officially named Day of the Red Army and the Navy. [1]

In 1949, it was renamed to Soviet Army and Navy Day (Russian: День Советской армии и Военно-морского флота, romanized: Dyen' Sovyetskoy armii i Voyenno-morskogo flota). [1] Following the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991, the holiday was given its current name in 2002 by Russian President Vladimir Putin, who decreed it a state holiday (in Russia). [2]

Celebrations in Russia and worldwide

The 2008 holiday, with ceremonies being performed by President Putin Vladimir Putin 23 February 2008-2.jpg
The 2008 holiday, with ceremonies being performed by President Putin

Officially, as the name suggests, the holiday celebrates people who are serving or were serving the Russian Armed Forces (both men and women, both military and civilian personnel), but unofficially, nationally it has also come to include the celebration of men as a whole, and to act as a counterpart of International Women's Day on March 8.

The holiday is celebrated with parades and processions in honor of veterans, and women also give small gifts to men in their lives, especially husbands (or boyfriends, fiances), fathers, sons and brothers. As a part of the workplace culture, women often give small gifts to their male co-workers. Consequently, in colloquial usage, the holiday is often referred to as "Men's Day" (Russian: День мужчин, romanized: Den' muzhchin).

One of the holiday traditions in Moscow is a ceremony near the Kremlin, the laying of wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. The Russian President, the heads of both chambers of parliament, military leaders, representatives of other branches of government, heads of political parties as well as Russian Orthodox Church officials [3] arrive at the Alexander Garden which is located near the Moscow Kremlin walls. After a moment of silence, the national anthem is played and a solemn march of an honour guard unit passes. In the evening, the country's leadership is present at a concert dedicated to the holiday on the State Kremlin Palace. Also in the evening in Moscow and in many other cities of Russia, fireworks are displayed. A military parade on Omsk's Cathedral Square is held on 23 February. [4]

In other countries

In Belarus

In Belarus, the holiday (known as Дзень абаронцы Айчыны in the Belarusian language) celebrates the date of 23 February 1918, the date of the formation of the armed forces of modern day Belarus. It was made an official holiday by President Alexander Lukashenko on 25 March 2004. Traditionally, on 23 February, the President of Belarus lays a wreath at the monument on Victory Square in Minsk. Being that they both celebrate the holiday, soldiers of the Armed Forces of Belarus and Russian Armed Forces soldiers also hold joint festive events on 23 February.

In Israel

In Israel, a version of the holiday exists as Yom HaZikaron, a national remembrance day observed in Israel held in 4 Iyar in the Hebrew calendar for all Israeli military personnel in the Israel Defense Forces who lost their lives in the struggle that led to the establishment of the State of Israel and for those who have been killed subsequently while on active duty in Israel's armed forces. This holiday is observed by a number of Jews who have emigrated from Russia and various post-Soviet states.

In Kazakhstan

A T-72 tank during a Defender of the Fatherland Day parade in Astana in 2015. T-72B Vooruzhionnykh Sil Kazakhstana.JPG
A T-72 tank during a Defender of the Fatherland Day parade in Astana in 2015.

In Kazakhstan, Defender of the Fatherland Day is celebrated on 7 May. [5] The Kazakh Armed Forces was established on this date 1992 and was only made national holiday in October 2012. The holiday often coincides with the Victory Day celebrations on May 9.

In Kyrgyzstan

A Defender of the Fatherland Day parade in Bishkek. Defender of the Fatherland Day in Kyrgyzstan.jpg
A Defender of the Fatherland Day parade in Bishkek.

In Kyrgyzstan, Defender of the Fatherland Day is a non-working holiday. In Bishkek, there is a military parade of the Bishkek Garrison. [6] [7] The holiday was first introduced in the country by the Government of Kyrgyzstan on January 20, 2003. [8] Personnel of the Kyrgyz Army have their own professional holiday on May 29, which is the Day of the Armed Forces of Kyrgyzstan.

In South Ossetia

February 23 is an official holiday in the partially recognized Republic of South Ossetia. The country's leadership pay to veterans who served in the Soviet Army as well as all those who served in the Armed Forces of South Ossetia and died in the 1991–1992 South Ossetia War and the Russo-Georgian War. The holiday also coincide with festive events that surround the creation of the Ministry of Defense of the republic.[ citation needed ]

In Tajikistan

Armed Forces Day in 2013. Tajik National Army Day 01.jpg
Armed Forces Day in 2013.

In Tajikistan, the holiday is known as "Tajik National Army Day" (Tajik : Рӯзи Артиши Миллӣ Тоҷик), celebrating the Tajik National Army. However, it has been known that other military units, such as the Tajik Air Force, have taken part in the celebration. [9]

In Transnistria

In Transnistria, Defender of the Fatherland Day is a public holiday. The main celebrations are held in Tiraspol. They are attended by the President of the republic and the heads of defence/law enforcement agencies. [10] By decree of President Igor Smirnov on 13 June 2001, it was included in the list of professional holidays and is a non-working holiday. [11]

In Turkmenistan

Defender of the Fatherland Day (Turkmen : Watan gününiň goragçysy) in Turkmenistan is celebrated on 27 January, celebrating the anniversary of the founding of the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan. It was previously celebrated as Army Day until President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow changed its name in 2009. [12] The Ministry of Defense organizes festive concerts and activities in military units on this day. The current military doctrine was adopted on the eve of the holiday in 2016. [13]

In Ukraine

Soldiers taking the oath of alligence in October 2017. Defender of Ukraine Day 2017 01.jpg
Soldiers taking the oath of alligence in October 2017.

In Ukraine, Defender of the Fatherland Day (Ukrainian : День захисника Вітчизни/ Den' zakhysnyka Vitchyzny) was never celebrated as a state holiday. [14] In 1999 President Leonid Kuchma recognized 23 February as Defenders of the Fatherland Day. [14] [15] President Petro Poroshenko deprived the day of this status on 24 August 2014; according to Poroshenko, Ukraine should not celebrate the holidays of the "military-historical calendar of Russia" but "will honor the defenders of our homeland, not someone else's". [16] On 14 October 2014, a decree by Poroshenko moved the celebration to that day instead by creating Defender of Ukraine Day. [17] [18]

Today, even though it is not a public holiday, many women will still give some extra attention to male relatives, friends, husbands and boyfriends, especially to those serving in the Armed Forces of Ukraine. [19] [20] Armed Forces Day for the entire Armed Forces is celebrated yearly on 6 December with special programs and nationwide gun salutes and fireworks displays. [20]

The Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic continue to celebrate Defender of the Fatherland Day.[ citation needed ]

See also

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Defender of the Fatherland Day is a professional holiday for the Armed Forces of Turkmenistan celebrated annually on 27 January. It commemorates the de facto anniversary of founding of Turkmenistan's National Army in 1992 via the founding of the Ministry of Defense. The event is marked by military parades, fireworks and ceremonies all around the country. The holiday is perceived to be the Turkmen analogue to the Defender of the Fatherland Day in Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States celebrated traditionally on 23 February. It was previously celebrated as Army Day until President Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedow changed its name in 2009.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 (in Ukrainian) Таємниця 23 лютого. Українцям є що святкувати "'Mystery of February 23. Ukrainians have something to celebrate", Ukrayinska Pravda (23 February 2013)
  2. Russian Nationalism and the National Reassertion of Russia by Marlène Laruelle, Taylor & Francis, 2009, ISBN   0415484464 (page 245)
  3. В День защитника Отечества Святейший Патриарх Кирилл возложил венок к могиле Неизвестного солдата у Кремлевской стены
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  5. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-20. Retrieved 2018-06-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  7. Тимофеенко, Анна (2012-02-23). В Бишкеке прошли показательные выступления Бишкекского гарнизона и духового оркестра Минобороны. K-News (in Russian). Retrieved 2017-12-20.
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  9. John Pike. "Tajikistan- Air Force". globalsecurity.org.
  10. Военно-спортивный праздник, посвящённый Дню защитника Отечества — 23/02/18
  11. https://mopmr.org/2020/02/23/23-%D1%84%D0%B5%D0%B2%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%BB%D1%8F-%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%BD%D1%8C-%D0%B7%D0%B0%D1%89%D0%B8%D1%82%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%BA%D0%B0-%D0%BE%D1%82%D0%B5%D1%87%D0%B5%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B0-2/
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  13. https://sng.today/ashkhabad/5867-turkmenistan-prazdnuet-den-zaschitnika-otechestva.html
  14. 1 2 Uncertain Defenders of the Motherland Day Archived 2017-08-31 at the Wayback Machine , Kyiv Weekly (27 February 2012)
  15. Law regarding Defender of the Fatherland Day Archived 2009-02-25 at the Wayback Machine Legislation of Ukraine
  16. (in Ukrainian) Poroshenko: Ukraine will never celebrate February 23 Archived 2014-08-25 at the Wayback Machine , TVi (24 August 2014)
    English-language translation of Poroshenko's Independence Day remarks in Kyiv, Kyiv Post (24 August 2014)
  17. Ukraine's Defenders Day to be observed on October 14, February 23 celebration canceled, Interfax-Ukraine (14 October 2014)
  18. President proclaimed October 14 the Day of Defender of Ukraine, president.gov.ua (14 October 2014)
  19. Ukrainian Holidays, Optima Tours
    Feminists Contest Politics and Philosophy (Philosophy and Politics), Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN   978-90-5201-252-0 (page 197)
  20. 1 2 Culture Smart! Ukraine by Anna Shevchenko, Kuperard, 2006, ISBN   978-1-85733-327-5