Deheubarth

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Kingdom of Deheubarth

Teyrnas Deheubarth
920–1197
Flag of Deheubarth.svg
Banner of the House of Dinefwr
Coat of arms of Deheubarth.svg
Coat of arms
Anthem:  Unbennaeth Prydain
"The Monarchy of Britain" [1] [2] [3]
Medieval Wales.JPG
Medieval kingdoms of Wales.
Capital Dinefwr
Common languagesWelsh
GovernmentMonarchy
 920–950
Hywel Dda
 1081
Rhys ap Tewdwr
 1155–1197
Rhys ap Gruffydd
Historical era Middle Ages
 Established
920
 Disestablished
1197
Currency ceiniog cyfreith &
ceiniog cwta
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Blank.png Seisyllwg
Blank.png Kingdom of Dyfed
Principality of Wales Flag of Gwynedd.png
^

Deheubarth (Welsh pronunciation:  [dɛˈhəɨbarθ] ; lit. "Right-hand Part", thus "the South") [4] was a regional name for the realms of south Wales, particularly as opposed to Gwynedd (Latin: Venedotia). It is now used as a shorthand for the various realms united under the House of Dinefwr, but that Deheubarth itself was not considered a proper kingdom on the model of Gwynedd, Powys, or Dyfed [5] is shown by its rendering in Latin as dextralis pars or as Britonnes dexterales ("the Southern Britons") and not as a named land. [6] In the oldest British writers, Deheubarth was used for all of modern Wales to distinguish it from Hen Ogledd ( Y Gogledd ), the northern lands whence Cunedda and the Cymry originated. [7]

Contents

History

Cantrefi of Deheubarth, c. 1160. Deheubarth.PNG
Cantrefi of Deheubarth, c. 1160.
Dinefwr Castle, 1740 The south view of Denefawr-Castle, in the county of Caermarthen.jpeg
Dinefwr Castle, 1740
Part of a series on the
History of Wales
Welsh Dragon (Y Ddraig Goch).svg
Atlas Van der Hagen-KW1049B11 031-WALLIA PRINCIPATUS Vulgo WALES..jpeg
Flag of Wales 2.svg   Walesportal

Deheubarth was united around 920 by Hywel Dda out of the territories of Seisyllwg and Dyfed, which had come into his possession. Later on, the Kingdom of Brycheiniog was also added. Caerleon was previously the principal court of the area, but Hywel's dynasty fortified and built up a new base at Dinefwr, near Llandeilo, giving them their name.

After the high-water mark set by Hywel, Dinefwr was repeatedly overrun. First, by the Welsh of the north and east: by Llywelyn ap Seisyll of Gwynedd in 1018; by Rhydderch ab Iestyn of Morgannwg in 1023; by Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd in 1041 and 1043. In 1075, Rhys ab Owain and the noblemen of Ystrad Tywi succeeded in treacherously killing their English-backed overlord Bleddyn ap Cynfyn. Although Rhys was quickly overrun by Gwynedd and Gwent, his cousin Rhys ap Tewdwr through his marriage into Bleddyn's family and through battle reëstablished his dynasty's hegemony over south Wales just in time for the second wave of conquest: a prolonged Norman invasion under the Marcher Lords. In 1093, Rhys was killed in unknown circumstances while resisting their expansion into Brycheiniog and his son Gruffydd was briefly thrown into exile.

Following the death of Henry I, in 1136 Gruffydd formed an alliance with Gwynedd for the purpose of a revolt against Norman incursions. He took part in Owain Gwynedd and Cadwaladr ap Gruffydd's victory over the English at Crug Mawr. The newly liberated region of Ceredigion, though, was not returned to his family but annexed by Owain.

The long and capable rule of Gruffydd's son the Lord Rhys and the civil wars that followed Owain's death in Gwynedd briefly permitted the South to reassert the hegemony Hywel Dda had enjoyed two centuries before. On his death in 1197, though, Rhys redivided his kingdom among his several sons and none of them ever again rivalled his power. By the time Llywelyn the Great won the wars in Gwynedd, in the late 12th century, lords in Deheubarth merely appear among his clients.

Following the conquest of Wales by Edward I, the South was divided into the historic counties of Cardiganshire, Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire by the Statute of Rhuddlan.

Religion

In the arena of the church, Sulien was the leader of the monastic community at Llanbadarn Fawr in Ceredigion. Born ca. 1030, he became Bishop of St David's in 1073 and again in 1079/80. Both of his sons followed him into the service of the church. At this time the prohibition against the marriage of clerics was not yet established. His sons produced a number of manuscripts and original Latin and vernacular poems. They were very active in the ecclesiastical and political life of Deheubarth. One son, Rhygyfarch (Latin: Ricemarchus) of Llanbadarn Fawr, wrote the Life of Saint David and another, Ieuan, was a skillful scribe and illuminator. He copied some the works of Augustine of Hippo and may have written the Life of St. Padarn.

See also

Related Research Articles

Rhys ap Gruffydd Prince of Deheubarth

Rhys ap Gruffydd or ap Gruffudd was the ruler of the kingdom of Deheubarth in south Wales from 1155 to 1197. Today, he is commonly known as The Lord Rhys, in Welsh Yr Arglwydd Rhys, although this title may have not been used in his lifetime. He usually used the title "Proprietary Prince of Deheubarth" or "Prince of South Wales", but two documents have been discovered in which he uses the title "Prince of Wales" or "Prince of the Welsh". Rhys was one of the most successful and powerful Welsh princes, and, after the death of Owain Gwynedd of Gwynedd in 1170, the dominant power in Wales.

Kingdom of Powys Medieval kingdom in Wales

The Kingdom of Powys was a Welsh successor state, petty kingdom and principality that emerged during the Middle Ages following the end of Roman rule in Britain. It very roughly covered the top two thirds of the modern county of Powys and part of today's English West Midlands. More precisely, and based on the Romano-British tribal lands of the Ordovices in the west and the Cornovii in the east, its boundaries originally extended from the Cambrian Mountains in the west to include the modern West Midlands region of England in the east. The fertile river valleys of the Severn and Tern are found here, and this region is referred to in later Welsh literature as "the Paradise of Powys".

Rhys ap Tewdwr Welsh prince

Rhys ap Tewdwr was a king of Deheubarth in Wales and member of the Dinefwr dynasty, a branch descended from Rhodri the Great. He was born in the area which is now Carmarthenshire and died at the battle of Brecon in April 1093.

Aberystwyth Castle Grade I listed castle in Ceredigion

Aberystwyth Castle is a Grade I listed Edwardian fortress located in Aberystwyth, Ceredigion, Mid Wales. It was built in response to the First Welsh War in the late 13th century, replacing an earlier fortress located a mile to the south. During a national uprising by Owain Glyndŵr, the Welsh captured the castle in 1404, but it was recaptured by the English four years later. In 1637 it became a Royal mint by Charles I, and produced silver shillings. The castle was slighted by Oliver Cromwell in 1649.

Gwenllian ferch Gruffydd was Princess consort of Deheubarth in Wales, and married to Gruffydd ap Rhys, Prince of Deheubarth. Gwenllian was the daughter of Gruffudd ap Cynan (1055–1137), Prince of Gwynedd and Angharad ferch Owain, and a member of the princely Aberffraw family of Gwynedd. Gwenllian's "patriotic revolt" and subsequent death in battle at Kidwelly Castle contributed to the Great Revolt of 1136.

Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, sometimes spelled Blethyn, was an 11th-century Welsh king. Harold Godwinson and Tostig Godwinson installed him as the ruler of Gwynedd on his father's death in 1063, during their destruction of the kingdom of Bleddyn's half-brother, Gruffydd ap Llywelyn. He became king of Powys on his brother Rhiwallon's death in 1069. His descendants continued to rule Powys as the House of Mathrafal.

Maredudd ab Owain 10th-century king in Wales

Maredudd ab Owain was a 10th-century king in Wales of the High Middle Ages. A member of the House of Dinefwr, his patrimony was the kingdom of Deheubarth comprising the southern realms of Dyfed, Ceredigion, and Brycheiniog. Upon the death of his father King Owain around AD 988, he also inherited the kingdoms of Gwynedd and Powys, which he had conquered for his father. He was counted among the Kings of the Britons by the Chronicle of the Princes.

Rhys ab Owain was a king of Deheubarth in southern Wales.

Caradog ap Gruffydd was a Prince of Gwent in south-east Wales in the time of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn and the Norman conquest, who reunified his family's inheritance of Morgannwg and made repeated attempts to reunite southern Wales by claiming the inheritance of the Kingdom of Deheubarth.

Brycheiniog Kingdom in mid Wales

Brycheiniog was an independent kingdom in South Wales in the Early Middle Ages. It often acted as a buffer state between England to the east and the powerful south Welsh kingdom of Deheubarth to the west. It was conquered and pacified by the Normans between 1088 and 1095, though it remained Welsh in character. It was transformed into the Lordship of Brecknock and later formed the southern and larger part of the historic county of Brecknockshire. To its south was the Kingdom of Morgannwg.

Dinefwr Castle Grade I listed building in Llandeilo.

Dinefwr Castle is a ruined castle overlooking the River Tywi near the town of Llandeilo, Carmarthenshire, Wales. It lies on a ridge on the northern bank of the Tywi, with a steep drop of one hundred feet to the river. Dinefwr was the chief seat of the Kingdom of Deheubarth. The castle is a Grade I listed building.

This article is about the particular significance of the century 1101–1200 to Wales and its people.

This article is about the particular significance of the century 1001–1100 to Wales and its people.

Wales in the Middle Ages period of history

Wales in the Middle Ages covers the history of the country that is now called Wales, from the departure of the Romans in the early fifth century, until the annexation of Wales into the Kingdom of England in the early sixteenth century.

History of Gwynedd during the High Middle Ages

The history of Gwynedd in the High Middle Ages is a period in the History of Wales spanning the 11th through the 13th centuries. Gwynedd, located in the north of Wales, eventually became the most dominant of Welsh principalities during this period. Distinctive achievements in Gwynedd include further development of Medieval Welsh literature, particularly poets known as the Beirdd y Tywysogion associated with the court of Gwynedd; the reformation of bardic schools; and the continued development of Cyfraith Hywel. All three of these further contributed to the development of a Welsh national identity in the face of Anglo-Norman encroachment of Wales.

The House of Aberffraw is a historiographical and genealogical term historians use to illustrate the clear line of succession from Rhodri the Great of Wales through his eldest son Anarawd.

The House of Mathrafal began as a cadet branch of the House of Dinefwr, taking their name from Mathrafal Castle, their principal seat and effective capital. Although their fortunes rose and fell over the generations, they are primarily remembered as kings of Powys in central Wales.

The Lordship of Brecknock was an Anglo-Norman marcher lordship located in southern central Wales.

References

  1. Wade-Evans, Arthur. Welsh Medieval Law . Oxford Univ., 1909. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
  2. Bradley, A.G. Owen Glyndwr and the Last Struggle for Welsh Independence . G.P. Putnam's Sons (New York), 1901. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
  3. Jenkins, John. Poetry of Wales Archived 2008-06-07 at the Wayback Machine . Houlston & Sons (London), 1873. Accessed 1 Feb 2013.
  4. The orientation of Medieval maps and geographical thinking was towards the east. Facing east, north was thus on the "left-hand" side and south on the right.
  5. Ellis, Thos. P. Welsh Tribal Law & Custom in the Middle Ages , Vol. I, iii, §3. 1926. Accessed 1 February 2013.
  6. Wade-Evans, Arthur. Welsh Medieval Laws . Oxford Uni., 1909. Accessed 31 January 2013.
  7. Williams, Jane. A History of Wales . Cambridge University Press, 2010. Accessed 1 February 2013.

Coordinates: 51°52′36″N4°01′06″W / 51.8768°N 4.0184°W / 51.8768; -4.0184