Deltacoronavirus (genus)

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Deltacoronavirus
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Electron micrograph of coronavirus HKU15. Scale bar indicates 100 nm.
Virus classification Red Pencil Icon.png
(unranked): Virus
Realm: Riboviria
Kingdom: Orthornavirae
Phylum: Pisuviricota
Class: Pisoniviricetes
Order: Nidovirales
Family: Coronaviridae
Subfamily: Orthocoronavirinae
Genus:Deltacoronavirus
Subgenera and species

Deltacoronavirus (Delta-CoV) is one of the four genera ( Alpha- , Beta- , Gamma- , and Delta-) of coronaviruses. It is in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae . They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses. Deltacoronaviruses infect mostly birds and some mammals.

Contents

While the alpha and beta genera are derived from the bat viral gene pool, the gamma and delta genera are derived from the avian and pig viral gene pools. [1]

Recombination appears to be common among deltacoronaviruses. [2] Recombination occurs frequently in the viral genome region that encodes the host receptor binding protein. Recombination between different viral lineages contributes to the emergence of new viruses capable of interspecies transmission and adaptation to new animal hosts. [2]

See also

Related Research Articles

Coronavirus Subfamily of viruses in the family Coronaviridae

Coronaviruses are a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. In cows and pigs they cause diarrhea, while in mice they cause hepatitis and encephalomyelitis.

<i>Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus</i> Species of coronavirus causing SARS and COVID-19

Severe acute respiratory syndrome–related coronavirus is a species of virus consisting of many known strains phylogenetically related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 1 (SARS-CoV-1) that have been shown to possess the capability to infect humans, bats, and certain other mammals. These enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses enter host cells by binding to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. The SARSr-CoV species is a member of the genus Betacoronavirus and of the subgenus Sarbecovirus.

<i>Coronaviridae</i> Family of viruses in the order Nidovirales

Coronaviridae is a family of enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses which infect amphibians, birds, and mammals. The group includes the subfamilies Letovirinae and Orthocoronavirinae; the members of the latter are known as coronaviruses.

<i>Murine coronavirus</i> Species of virus

Murine coronavirus (M-CoV) is a virus in the genus Betacoronavirus that infects mice. Belonging to the subgenus Embecovirus, murine coronaviruses strains are enterotropic or polytropic. Enterotropic strains include mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strains D, Y, RI, and DVIM, whereas polytropic strains, such as JHM and A59, primarily cause hepatitis, enteritis, and encephalitis. Murine coronavirus is an important pathogen in the laboratory mouse and the laboratory rat. It is the most studied coronavirus in animals other than humans, and has been used as an animal disease model for many virological and clinical studies.

Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA mammalian Group 2 Betacoronavirus discovered in Japanese Pipistrellus in Hong Kong. This strain of coronavirus is closely related to the newly identified novel MERS-CoV that is responsible for the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus outbreaks in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy.

<i>Betacoronavirus</i> Genus of viruses in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae

Betacoronavirus is one of four genera of coronaviruses. Member viruses are enveloped, positive-strand RNA viruses that infect mammals. The natural reservoir for betacoronaviruses are bats and rodents. Rodents are the reservoir for the subgenus Embecovirus, while bats are the reservoir for the other subgenera.

Human coronavirus OC43 Species of virus

Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43) is a member of the species Betacoronavirus 1, which infects humans and cattle. The infecting coronavirus is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus that enters its host cell by binding to the N-acetyl-9-O-acetylneuraminic acid receptor. OC43 is one of seven coronaviruses known to infect humans. It is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold and may have been responsible for the 1889–1890 pandemic. It has, like other coronaviruses from genus Betacoronavirus, subgenus Embecovirus, an additional shorter spike protein called hemagglutinin esterase (HE).

<i>Alphacoronavirus</i> Genus of viruses

Alphacoronaviruses (Alpha-CoV) are members of the first of the four genera of coronaviruses. They are positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses that infect mammals, including humans. They have spherical virions with club-shaped surface projections formed by trimers of the spike protein, and a viral envelope.

<i>Gammacoronavirus</i> Genus of viruses

Gammacoronavirus (Gamma-CoV) is one of the four genera of coronaviruses. It is in the subfamily Orthocoronavirinae of the family Coronaviridae. They are enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA viruses of zoonotic origin. Coronaviruses infect both animals and humans.

Human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) is a species of coronavirus which infects humans and bats. It is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA virus which enters its host cell by binding to the APN receptor. Along with Human coronavirus OC43, it is one of the viruses responsible for the common cold. HCoV-229E is a member of the genus Alphacoronavirus and subgenus Duvinacovirus.

<i>Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4</i> Species of virus

Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 is an enveloped, positive-sense single-stranded RNA virus mammalian Group 2 Betacoronavirus that has been found to be genetically related to the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) that is responsible for the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy.

Rousettus bat coronavirus HKU9 (HKU9-1) is an enveloped, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA mammalian Group 2 Betacoronavirus discovered in Rousettus bats in China in 2011. This strain of coronavirus is closely related to the EMC/2012 strain found in London which is related to the Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV). The MERS-CoV species is responsible for the 2012 Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus outbreak in Saudi Arabia, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, France, and Italy.

Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2 is a novel enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus species in the Alphacoronavirus, or Group 1, genus with a corona-like morphology.

Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512 is an enveloped, single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus species in the Alphacoronavirus, or Group 1, genus with a corona-like morphology. It was isolated from a lesser Asiatic yellow house bat discovered in southern China.

Bulbul coronavirus HKU11 is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA Deltacoronavirus of avian origin found in Chinese bulbuls.

<i>Coronavirus HKU15</i> Species of virus

Coronavirus HKU15, sometimes called Porcine coronavirus HKU15 is a virus first discovered in a surveillance study in Hong Kong, China, and first reported to be associated with porcine diarrhea in February 2014. In February 2014, PorCoV HKU15 was identified in pigs with clinical diarrhea disease in the U.S. state of Ohio. The complete genome of one US strain has been published. Since then, it has been identified in pig farms in Canada. The virus has been referred to as Porcine coronavirus HKU15, Swine deltacoronavirus and Porcine deltacoronavirus.

<i>Embecovirus</i> Subgenus of viruses

Embecovirus is a subgenus of coronaviruses in the genus Betacoronavirus. The viruses in this subgenus, unlike other coronaviruses, have a hemagglutinin esterase (HE) gene. The viruses in the subgenus were previously known as group 2a coronaviruses.

<i>Merbecovirus</i> Subgenus of viruses

Merbecovirus is a subgenus of viruses in the genus Betacoronavirus. The viruses in this subgenus were previously known as group 2c coronaviruses.

Coronavirus diseases Wikipedia list article

Coronavirus diseases are caused by viruses in the coronavirus subfamily, a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, the group of viruses cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal. Mild illnesses in humans include some cases of the common cold, while more lethal varieties can cause SARS, MERS and COVID-19. As of 2021, 45 species are registered as coronaviruses, whilst 11 diseases have been identified, as listed below.

Beluga whale coronavirus SW1 is a mammalian Gammacoronavirus, an RNA virus, discovered through genome sequencing in the liver of a single deceased beluga whale and first described in 2008. This was the first description of the complete genome of a coronavirus found in a marine mammal.

References

  1. Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Lau CC, Tsang AK, Lau JH, Bai R, Teng JL, Tsang CC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY (2012). "Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus". J. Virol. 86 (7): 3995–4008. doi:10.1128/JVI.06540-11. PMC   3302495 . PMID   22278237.
  2. 1 2 Lau SKP, Wong EYM, Tsang CC, Ahmed SS, Au-Yeung RKH, Yuen KY, Wernery U, Woo PCY. Discovery and Sequence Analysis of Four Deltacoronaviruses from Birds in the Middle East Reveal Interspecies Jumping with Recombination as a Potential Mechanism for Avian-to-Avian and Avian-to-Mammalian Transmission. J Virol. 2018 Jul 17;92(15):e00265-18. doi: 10.1128/JVI.00265-18. Print 2018 Aug 1. PMID: 29769348