In Ancient Greece, a deme or demos (Ancient Greek : δῆμος) was a suburb or a subdivision of Athens and other city-states. Demes as simple subdivisions of land in the countryside seem to have existed in the 6th century BC and earlier, but did not acquire particular significance until the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. In those reforms, enrollment in the citizen-lists of a deme became the requirement for citizenship; prior to that time, citizenship had been based on membership in a phratry, or family group. At this same time, demes were established in the main city of Athens itself, where they had not previously existed; in all, at the end of Cleisthenes' reforms, Athens was divided into 139 demes. to which one should add Berenikidai, established in 224/223 BC, Apollonieis (201/200 BC) and Antinoeis (126/127). The establishment of demes as the fundamental units of the state weakened the gene , or aristocratic family groups, that had dominated the phratries.
A deme functioned to some degree as a polis in miniature, and indeed some demes, such as Eleusis and Acharnae, were in fact significant towns. Each deme had a demarchos who supervised its affairs; various other civil, religious, and military functionaries existed in various demes. Demes held their own religious festivals and collected and spent revenue.
Demes were combined with other demes from the same area to make trittyes , larger population groups, which in turn were combined to form the ten tribes, or phylai of Athens. Each tribe contained one trittys from each of three regions: the city, the coast, and the inland area.
Cleisthenes divided the landscape in three zones—urban ( asty ), coastal ( paralia ) and inland ( mesogeia )—and the 139 demes were organized into 30 groups called trittyes ("thirds"), ten for each of the zones and into ten tribes, or phylai , each composed of three trittyes, one from the coast, one from the city, and one from the inland area.
Cleisthenes also reorganized the Boule, created with 400 members under Solon, so that it had 500 members, 50 from each tribe, each deme having a fixed quota.
The ten tribes were named after legendary heroes and came to have an official order:
In 307/306 – 224/223 BC the system was reorganized with the creation of two Macedonian Phylai (XI. Antigonis and XII. Demetrias), named after Demetrius I of Macedon and Antigonus I Monophthalmus, and an increase in the membership of the Boule to 600. Each of the ten tribes, except Aiantis, provided three demes (not necessarily one for trittyes); the missing contribution of Aiantis was covered by two demes of Leontis and one from Aigeis.
The Egyptian Phyle XIII. Ptolemais, named after Ptolemy III Euergetes was created in 224/223 BC and the Boule was again increased to 600 members, the twelve tribes giving each a demos. A new village was creatied and named Berenikidai after Ptolemy's wife Berenice II of Egypt.
In 201/200 BC the Macedonian Phylae were dissolved and the villages (except the two given to Ptolemais) went back to their original tribes. In the spring of 200 BC Tribe XIV. Attalis, named after Attalus I, was created following the same scheme used for the creation of the Egyptian Phyle: each tribe contributed a deme and a new deme, Apollonieis, wais created in honour of Apollonis, wife of Attalus I of Pergamum. As a consequence there were again 12 tribeas and 600 members of the Boule. From this period onward, quotas were no longer assigned to the demes for the 50 Boule members from each tribe
The last modification was the creation in 126/127 of XV. Hadrianis, named after the Emperor Hadrian, following the same scheme: each tribe contributed a deme and a new deme, Antinoeis, was created in honour of Hadrian's favourite, Antinous. Each tribe contributed 40 members to the Boule.
In the first three periods there it a more detailed system of fixed quotas which essentially remained unchanged. There is no evidence for a single general reapportionment of quotas within each of the first three periods, while there are evident small quota-variations between the first and the second periods.
More precisely in:
As regards the last two periods, the material illustrates the complete collapse of the quota-system from 201/200 BC.
Some deme lists suggest extendsions of the list of 139+3 by adding 43 other names ,some of which have been considered by scholars as Attic demes.The criticism performed by John S. Traill shows that 24 are the result of error, ancient or modern, or of misinterpretation and 19 are well known chiefly from inscriptions of the second and third centuries AD, i.e. in the fifth period, and thus for political purposes they were originally dependent on legitimate Cleisthenic demes.
There weresix pairs of homonymous demes:
There were six divided demes, one composed of three parts:
|Upper Agryle||2||3||3||One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Themakos||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Upper Lamptrai||5||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Pambotadai||1(0)||1||2||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Upper Pergase||2||3||3||One deme to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Upper Ankyle||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Diomeia||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Phegaia||3(4)||3(4)||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Gargettos||4||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Ikarion||5(4)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Kydantidai||1(2)||1(2)||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kydathenaion||12(11)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Probalinthos||5||5||5||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Konthyle||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kytheros||2(1)||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Oa||4||4||4||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Upper Paiania||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Oion Kerameikon||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Skambonidai||3||4||4||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Lower Potamos||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Deiradiotai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Potamioi Deiradiotai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Sounion||4||6||6||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Aithalidai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Hekale||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Poros||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Eitea||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Hagnous||5||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Prospalta||5||5||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Boutadai||1||1||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Hippotomadai||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Tyrmeidai||1(0)||1||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Kothokidai||2(1)||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period|
|Phyle||2||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third period|
|Thria||7||8||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Daidalidai||1||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Melite||7||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Xypete||7||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Athmonon||6||10||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Phlya||7||9||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Koile||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Korydallos||1||1||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Auridai||1||to XI.Antigonis in the second and third periods|
|Elaious||1||1||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Oinoe||2||to XII.Demetrias in the second and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Oion Dekeleikon||3||3||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Oinoe||4||4||6||to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Trikorynthos||3||3||6||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Aphidna||16||16||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period and to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Aigilia||6||7||to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Atene||3||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods and to XIV.Attalis in the fourth period|
|Besa||2||2||to XV.Hadrianis in the fifth period|
|Thorai||4||to XII.Demetrias in the second and third periods|
|Kolonai||2||to XI.Antigonis in the second period and to XIII.Ptolemais in the third period|
|Kydantidai||Aigeis||inland||1 (2)||1 (2)||1|
|Pambotadai||Erechteis||coast||1 (0)||1 (0)||2|
|Phegaia||Aigeis||coast||3 (4)||3 (4)||4|
When the city was settled under the support of Pericles and the command of Lampon and Xenocritus the population was organized in ten tribes, following the Athenian organization: there were tribes for the population of 1. Arcadia, 2. Achaea, 3. Elis, 4. Boeotia, 5. Delphi, 6. Dorians, 7. Ionians, 8. population of Euboea, 9. the islands and 10. Athenians.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2019)
The term "deme" (dēmos) survived into the Hellenistic and Roman eras. By the time of the Byzantine Empire, the term was used to refer to one of the four chariot racing factions, the Reds, the Blues, the Greens and the Whites.
In modern Greece, the term dēmos is used to denote one of the municipalities.
Cleisthenes or Clisthenes was an ancient Athenian lawgiver credited with reforming the constitution of ancient Athens and setting it on a democratic footing in 508 BC. For these accomplishments, historians refer to him as "the father of Athenian democracy." He was a member of the aristocratic Alcmaeonid clan. He was the younger son of Megacles and Agariste making him the maternal grandson of the tyrant Cleisthenes of Sicyon. He was also credited with increasing the power of the Athenian citizens' assembly and for reducing the power of the nobility over Athenian politics.
In cities of ancient Greece, the Boule was a council of over 500 citizens appointed to run daily affairs of the city. Originally a council of nobles advising a king, boulai evolved according to the constitution of the city: In oligarchies boule positions might have been hereditary, while in democracies members were typically chosen by lot and served for one year. Little is known about the workings of many boulai, except in the case of Athens, for which extensive material has survived.
Cape Sounion is the promontory at the southernmost tip of the Attic peninsula, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) south of the town of Lavrio, and 70 kilometres (43 mi) southeast of Athens. It is part of Lavreotiki municipality, East Attica, Greece. It is 59.6 km away from Athens.
Phyle is an ancient Greek term for tribe or clan. Members of the same phyle were known as symphyletai, literally: fellow tribesmen. They were usually ruled by a basileus. Some of them can be classified by their geographic location: the Geleontes, the Argadeis, the Hopletes, and the Agikoreis, in Ionia ; the Hylleans, the Pamphyles, the Dymanes, in the Dorian region.
Gerakas is a suburb of Athens and a former municipality in East Attica, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pallini, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit.
The trittyes, singular trittys, were population divisions in ancient Attica, established by the reforms of Cleisthenes in 508 BC. The name means "third". There were thirty trittyes and ten tribes in Attica. Each tribe was composed of three trittyes, one from the coast (paralia), one from the city (asty), and one from the inland area (mesogeia). Trittyes were composed of one or more demes; demes were the basic unit of division in Attica.
The period of the 5th century BC in classical Greece is generally considered as beginning in 500 BC and ending in 404 BC, though this is debated. This century is essentially studied from the Athenian viewpoint, since Athens has left more narratives, plays and other written works than the other Greek states. If one looks at Athens, our principal source, one might consider that this century begins in 510 BC, with the fall of the Athenian tyrant and Cleisthenes's reforms. If one looks at the whole Greek world, however, we might place its beginning at the Ionian Revolt in 500 BC, that provoked the first Persian invasion of 492 BC. The Persians were finally defeated in 490 BC. A second Persian attempt failed in 480–479 BC. The Delian League then formed, under Athenian hegemony and as Athens' instrument. Athens' excesses caused several revolts among the allied cities, which were all put down by force, but Athenian dynamism finally awoke Sparta and brought about the Peloponnesian War in 431 BC. After both sides were exhausted, a brief peace occurred, and then the war resumed to Sparta's advantage. Athens was definitively defeated in 404 BC, and some internal Athenian agitations ended the 5th century in Greece.
The city of Athens during the classical period of ancient Greece was the major urban centre of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League. Athenian democracy was established in 508 BC under Cleisthenes following the tyranny of Isagoras. This system remained remarkably stable, and with a few brief interruptions remained in place for 180 years, until 322 BC. The peak of Athenian hegemony was achieved in the 440s to 430s BC, known as the Age of Pericles.
Acamantis was one of the phylai (tribes) of classical Athens, created during the reforms of Cleisthenes. It was named after the legendary hero Acamas, and included the demes of Cholargos, Eiresidai, Hermos, Iphistiadai, Kerameis, Kephale, Poros, Thorikos, Eitea, Hagnous, Kikynna, Prospalta and Sphettos.
Antiochis was one of the ten tribes (phylai) into which the Ancient Athenians were divided.
Cydathenaeum or Kydathenaion was one of the demes in ancient Athens. It belonged in the phyle (tribe) Pandionis.
Alopece was an asty-deme of the city of Athens, but located exterior to the city wall of Athens. Alopece was situated only eleven or twelve stadia from the city, and not far from Cynosarges. It possessed a temple of Aphrodite, and also apparently one of Hermaphroditus.
Aiantis was a phyle of ancient Attica with six demes, the deme with the greatest area was Aphidna.
Erechtheis was a phyle (tribe) of ancient Athens with fourteen demes.
Aigeis is the tribe name of a phyle of Ancient Greece who as a tribal group inhabited a number of demes of the area of Greece known as Attica.
Pandionis is a phyle (tribes) of ancient Attica which had eleven demes at the time of the creation of the phyle, which is when the phyle was created as part of a group of ten phylai.
Leontis is a phyle which had twenty demes at the time of the creation of the phyle, which is at the time of the creation of a group of ten phylai.
The Mesogeia or Mesogaia is a geographical region of Attica in Greece.
Lower Ancyle or Ankyle Hypenerthen was the name of a deme of ancient Attica. It was located east of Athens and bordering Agryle to the south. Upper Ancyle passed from the phyle Aigeis to Antigonis in 307/306 BCE; Lower Ancyle remained in the Aigeis phyle.