# Demihypercube

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In geometry, demihypercubes (also called n-demicubes, n-hemicubes, and half measure polytopes) are a class of n-polytopes constructed from alternation of an n-hypercube, labeled as hγn for being half of the hypercube family, γn. Half of the vertices are deleted and new facets are formed. The 2n facets become 2n(n−1)-demicubes, and 2n(n−1)-simplex facets are formed in place of the deleted vertices. [1]

## Contents

They have been named with a demi- prefix to each hypercube name: demicube, demitesseract, etc. The demicube is identical to the regular tetrahedron, and the demitesseract is identical to the regular 16-cell. The demipenteract is considered semiregular for having only regular facets. Higher forms don't have all regular facets but are all uniform polytopes.

The vertices and edges of a demihypercube form two copies of the halved cube graph.

An n-demicube has inversion symmetry if n is even.

## Discovery

Thorold Gosset described the demipenteract in his 1900 publication listing all of the regular and semiregular figures in n-dimensions above 3. He called it a 5-ic semi-regular. It also exists within the semiregular k21 polytope family.

The demihypercubes can be represented by extended Schläfli symbols of the form h{4,3,...,3} as half the vertices of {4,3,...,3}. The vertex figures of demihypercubes are rectified n-simplexes.

## Constructions

They are represented by Coxeter-Dynkin diagrams of three constructive forms:

1. ... (As an alternated orthotope) s{21,1,...,1}
2. ... (As an alternated hypercube) h{4,3n−1}
3. .... (As a demihypercube) {31,n−3,1}

H.S.M. Coxeter also labeled the third bifurcating diagrams as 1k1 representing the lengths of the 3 branches and led by the ringed branch.

An n-demicube, n greater than 2, has n(n−1)/2 edges meeting at each vertex. The graphs below show less edges at each vertex due to overlapping edges in the symmetry projection.

n 1k1  Petrie
polygon
Schläfli symbol Coxeter diagrams
A1n
Bn
Dn
Elements Facets:
Demihypercubes &
Simplexes
Vertex figure
VerticesEdges     FacesCells4-faces5-faces6-faces7-faces8-faces9-faces
2 1−1,1demisquare
(digon)
s{2}
h{4}
{31,−1,1}

22
2 edges
--
3 101demicube
(tetrahedron)
s{21,1}
h{4,3}
{31,0,1}

464       (6 digons )
4 triangles
Triangle
(Rectified triangle)
4 111 demitesseract
(16-cell)
s{21,1,1}
h{4,3,3}
{31,1,1}

8243216      8 demicubes
(tetrahedra)
8 tetrahedra
Octahedron
(Rectified tetrahedron)
5 121 demipenteract
s{21,1,1,1}
h{4,33}{31,2,1}

168016012026     10 16-cells
16 5-cells
Rectified 5-cell
6 131 demihexeract
s{21,1,1,1,1}
h{4,34}{31,3,1}

3224064064025244    12 demipenteracts
32 5-simplices
Rectified hexateron
7 141 demihepteract
s{21,1,1,1,1,1}
h{4,35}{31,4,1}

6467222402800162453278   14 demihexeracts
64 6-simplices
Rectified 6-simplex
8 151 demiocteract
s{21,1,1,1,1,1,1}
h{4,36}{31,5,1}

1281792716810752828840321136144  16 demihepteracts
128 7-simplices
Rectified 7-simplex
9 161 demienneract
s{21,1,1,1,1,1,1,1}
h{4,37}{31,6,1}

25646082150437632362882352098882448274 18 demiocteracts
256 8-simplices
Rectified 8-simplex
10 171 demidekeract
s{21,1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1}
h{4,38}{31,7,1}

51211520614401228801424641155846480024000530053220 demienneracts
512 9-simplices
Rectified 9-simplex
...
n 1n−3,1n-demicubes{21,1,...,1}
h{4,3n−2}{31,n−3,1}
...
...
...
2n−1 2n (n−1)-demicubes
2n−1 (n−1)-simplices
Rectified (n−1)-simplex

In general, a demicube's elements can be determined from the original n-cube: (with Cn,m = mth-face count in n-cube = 2nmn!/(m!(nm)!))

• Vertices: Dn,0 = 1/2 Cn,0 = 2n−1 (Half the n-cube vertices remain)
• Edges: Dn,1 = Cn,2 = 1/2 n(n−1) 2n−2 (All original edges lost, each square faces create a new edge)
• Faces: Dn,2 = 4 * Cn,3 = 2/3 n(n−1)(n−2) 2n−3 (All original faces lost, each cube creates 4 new triangular faces)
• Cells: Dn,3 = Cn,3 + 23 Cn,4 (tetrahedra from original cells plus new ones)
• Hypercells: Dn,4 = Cn,4 + 24 Cn,5 (16-cells and 5-cells respectively)
• ...
• [For m = 3,...,n−1]: Dn,m = Cn,m + 2m Cn,m+1 (m-demicubes and m-simplexes respectively)
• ...
• Facets: Dn,n−1 = 2n + 2n−1 ((n−1)-demicubes and (n−1)-simplices respectively)

## Symmetry group

The stabilizer of the demihypercube in the hyperoctahedral group (the Coxeter group ${\displaystyle BC_{n}}$ [4,3n−1]) has index 2. It is the Coxeter group ${\displaystyle D_{n},}$ [3n−3,1,1] of order ${\displaystyle 2^{n-1}n!}$, and is generated by permutations of the coordinate axes and reflections along pairs of coordinate axes. [2]

## Orthotopic constructions

Constructions as alternated orthotopes have the same topology, but can be stretched with different lengths in n-axes of symmetry.

The rhombic disphenoid is the three-dimensional example as alternated cuboid. It has three sets of edge lengths, and scalene triangle faces.

## Related Research Articles

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In geometry, a hypercube is an n-dimensional analogue of a square and a cube. It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1-skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the space's dimensions, perpendicular to each other and of the same length. A unit hypercube's longest diagonal in n dimensions is equal to .

In geometry, an alternation or partial truncation, is an operation on a polygon, polyhedron, tiling, or higher dimensional polytope that removes alternate vertices.

In five-dimensional geometry, a five-dimensional polytope or 5-polytope is a 5-dimensional polytope, bounded by (4-polytope) facets. Each polyhedral cell being shared by exactly two 4-polytope facets.

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In geometry, a 6-demicube or demihexteract is a uniform 6-polytope, constructed from a 6-cube (hexeract) with alternated vertices removed. It is part of a dimensionally infinite family of uniform polytopes called demihypercubes.

In geometry, a demihepteract or 7-demicube is a uniform 7-polytope, constructed from the 7-hypercube (hepteract) with alternated vertices removed. It is part of a dimensionally infinite family of uniform polytopes called demihypercubes.

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In geometry, a 9-cube is a nine-dimensional hypercube with 512 vertices, 2304 edges, 4608 square faces, 5376 cubic cells, 4032 tesseract 4-faces, 2016 5-cube 5-faces, 672 6-cube 6-faces, 144 7-cube 7-faces, and 18 8-cube 8-faces.

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In six-dimensional geometry, a six-dimensional polytope or 6-polytope is a polytope, bounded by 5-polytope facets.

In geometry of five dimensions or higher, a cantic 5-cube, cantihalf 5-cube, truncated 5-demicube is a uniform 5-polytope, being a truncation of the 5-demicube. It has half the vertices of a cantellated 5-cube.

In six-dimensional geometry, a runcic 5-cube or is a convex uniform 5-polytope. There are 2 runcic forms for the 5-cube. Runcic 5-cubes have half the vertices of runcinated 5-cubes.

In seven-dimensional geometry, a cantic 7-cube or truncated 7-demicube as a uniform 7-polytope, being a truncation of the 7-demicube.

## References

1. Regular and semi-regular polytopes III, p. 315-316
2. "week187". math.ucr.edu. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
Family An Bn I2(p) / Dn E6 / E7 / E8 / / Hn
Regular polygon Triangle Square p-gon Hexagon Pentagon
Uniform polyhedron Tetrahedron OctahedronCube Demicube DodecahedronIcosahedron
Uniform polychoron 5-cell 16-cellTesseract Demitesseract 24-cell 120-cell600-cell
Uniform 5-polytope 5-simplex 5-orthoplex5-cube 5-demicube
Uniform 6-polytope 6-simplex 6-orthoplex6-cube 6-demicube 122221
Uniform 7-polytope 7-simplex 7-orthoplex7-cube 7-demicube 132231321
Uniform 8-polytope 8-simplex 8-orthoplex8-cube 8-demicube 142241421
Uniform 9-polytope 9-simplex 9-orthoplex9-cube 9-demicube
Uniform 10-polytope 10-simplex 10-orthoplex10-cube 10-demicube
Uniform n-polytope n-simplex n-orthoplexn-cube n-demicube 1k22k1k21 n-pentagonal polytope
Topics: Polytope familiesRegular polytopeList of regular polytopes and compounds