Demography of England

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Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census.png
Map of population density in England as at the 2011 census
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. (Due to the small size of the City of London density is displayed as part of the overall Greater London area) England counties population (crop).png
The non-metropolitan counties and unitary authorities of England, colour-coded to show population. (Due to the small size of the City of London density is displayed as part of the overall Greater London area)

The demography of England has since 1801 been measured by the decennial national census, and is marked by centuries of population growth and urbanisation. Due to the lack of authoritative contemporary sources, estimates of the population of England for dates prior to the first census in 1801 vary considerably.

Contents

Population

The population of England in 2017 was 55,619,400 [1] . The population at the time of the 2011 census was 53,012,456

Historical population

Population 5000–100BC
YearPop.±%
50000BCbelow 6000    
30000BC100,000    
18000BC300,000+200.0%
01000BC1,500,000+400.0%
Source: [4]
Population 1100–1700
YearPop.±%
10861,710,000    
11903,100,000+81.3%
12203,970,000+28.1%
12504,230,000+6.5%
12794,430,000+4.7%
12904,750,000+7.2%
13154,690,000−1.3%
13254,120,000−12.2%
13484,810,000+16.7%
13512,600,000−45.9%
13772,500,000−3.8%
14002,080,000−16.8%
14302,020,000−2.9%
14501,900,000−5.9%
14902,140,000+12.6%
15222,350,000+9.8%
15412,830,000+20.4%
15603,200,000+13.1%
16004,110,000+28.4%
16505,310,000+29.2%
17005,200,000−2.1%
Source: [5] [6]
Population 1801–2017
YearPop.±%
18017,754,875    
18118,762,178+13.0%
182110,402,143+18.7%
183112,011,830+15.5%
184113,654,914+13.7%
185115,288,885+12.0%
186118,325,052+19.9%
187121,361,235+16.6%
188124,397,385+14.2%
189127,231,229+11.6%
190130,072,180+10.4%
191133,561,235+11.6%
192135,230,225+5.0%
193137,359,045+6.0%
193938,084,321+1.9%
195138,668,830+1.5%
196141,159,213+6.4%
197143,460,525+5.6%
198145,978,080+5.8%
199148,197,672+4.8%
200149,138,831+2.0%
201153,012,456+7.9%
201855,977,000+5.6%
Source: Year(s) 1801–2011 [6] [7] [8] [9]

Vital statistics

[10] This is UK wide information.

Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates
1940567 710545 95221 75814.1
1941539 205499 34339 86213.9
1942608 373448 777159 59615.6
1943641 064469 916171 14816.2
1944704 748461 189243 55917.7
1945638 422456 216182 20615.9
1946773 153460 543312 61019.2
1947829 863484 324345 53920.5
1948728 131439 803288 32817.9
1949686 181478 627207 55416.8
1950654 321477 006177 31515.5
1951636 259513 375122 88415.5
1952632 347466 479165 85815.3
1953642 844472 137170 70715.511.34.2
1954633 395469 074164 32115.211.33.9
1955628 935484 926144 00915.011.73.3
1956659 420488 893170 52715.711.74.0
1957681 736482 174199 56216.111.54.6
1958698 255494 201204 05416.411.74.7
1959706 239495 517210 72216.511.64.9
1960740 858493 553247 30517.111.55.6
1961766 358518 047248 31117.611.95.7
1962793 354523 855269 49918.012.06.0
1963807 017538 105268 91218.212.26.0
1964828 470501 991326 47918.511.37.2
1965816 433516 317300 11618.111.56.6
1966804 957528 981275 97617.711.85.9
1967788 458509 356279 10217.211.26.0
1968775 065541 862233 20316.911.95.0
1969754 456543 425211 03116.411.94.5
1970741 999540 196201 80316.011.64.4
197146 411740 099532 445207 65415.911.54.4
197246 572685 485554 251131 23414.711.92.8
197346 686638 356549 87688 48013.711.81.9
197446 682603 153547 98055 17312.911.71.2
197546 674568 900545 44423 45612.211.70.5
197646 659550 383560 317-9 93411.812.0-0.2
197746 639536 953538 652-1 69911.511.5-0.0
197846 638562 589547 68514 90412.111.70.4
197946 698601 316554 84046 47612.911.91.0
198046 787618 371544 34974 02213.211.61.6
198146 820598 163541 01857 14512.811.61.2
198246 777589 711544 98444 72712.611.70.91.76
198346 813593 255542 50950 74612.711.61.11.75
198446 912600 573531 31469 25912.811.31.51.75
198547 057619 301553 15366 14813.211.81.41.78
198647 187623 609544 54579 06413.211.51.71.76
198747 300643 330531 150112 18013.611.22.41.80
198847 412654 353535 553118 80013.811.32.51.82
198947 552649 357539 804109 55313.711.42.31.79
199047 699666 920528 920138 00014.011.13.91.83
199147 875660 806533 980126 82613.811.22.61.81
199247 998651 784522 660129 12413.610.92.71.79
199348 102636 473540 90495 56913.211.22.01.76
199448 228628 956516 297112 65913.010.72.31.75
199548 383613 257529 03884 21912.710.91.81.71
199648 519614 184526 65087 53412.710.91.81.73
199748 664608 202521 59886 60412.510.71.81.73
199848 820602 111518 08984 02212.310.61.71.72
199949 032589 468517 11972 34912.010.51.51.69
200049 233572 826503 02669 80011.610.21.41.65
200149 449563 744497 87865 86611.410.11.31.63
200249 679565 709500 79264 91711.410.11.31.64
200349 925589 851504 12785 72411.810.11.71.72
200450 194607 184480 717126 46712.19.62.51.77
200550 606613 028479 678133 35012.19.52.61.77
200650 965635 748470 326165 42212.59.23.31.83
200751 381655 357470 721184 63612.89.23.61.88
200851 815672 809475 763197 04613.09.23.81.92
200952 196671 058459 241211 81712.98.84.11.91
201052 642687 007461 017225 99013.18.84.31.94
201153 107688 120452 862235 25813.08.54.51.93
201253 493694 241466 779227 46213.08.74.31.94
201353 865664 517473 552190 96512.38.83.51.85
201454 316661 496468 875192 62112.28.63.61.83
201554 786664 399495 309169 09012.19.03.11.82
201655 268663 157490 454172 70312.08.93.11.81
201755 619646 794498 882147 91211.69.02.61.76
201855 977625 651505 859119 79211.29.02.21.70
2019496 350
Average population (x 1000)Live birthsDeathsNatural changeCrude birth rate (per 1000)Crude death rate (per 1000)Natural change (per 1000)Fertility rates

Historical percent distribution of the total population by age

[11]

Ages1901193119511961
0-14 years32242223
15-64 years63696765
65 years and over571112
Total (%)100100100100

Place of birth

Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows:

Map showing the percentage of the population born outside England according to the 2011 census. Born Outside England 2011 Census.png
Map showing the percentage of the population born outside England according to the 2011 census.
Country of birth2001 [12] 2011 [13]
Number%Number%
Flag of England.svg  England 42,968,59687.44%44,246,59283.46%
Flag of Scotland.svg  Scotland 794,5771.62%708,8721.34%
Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg  Wales 609,7111.24%506,6190.96%
Ulster Banner.svg  Northern Ireland 215,1240.44%206,7350.39%
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg  United Kingdom (not otherwise specified)6,4990.01%
Flag of Ireland.svg  Ireland 459,6620.94%395,1820.75%
Total Born in all EU Member Countries695,0451.41%1,980,2593.73%
EU Member Countries (joined pre 2001)894,9081.69%
Other EU Member Countries

(joined post 2001)

1,085,3512.04%
Flag of the United Nations.svg  UN Other Countries3,396,1166.91%4,961,6989.36%
Total49,138,831100.00%53,012,456100.00%

Below are the 5 largest foreign-born groups in England according to 2014 ONS estimates. [14]

Country of birthEstimated population, 2013Estimated population, 2014Estimated population, 2015
Flag of India.svg  India 698,000748,000751,000
Flag of Poland.svg  Poland 561,000677,000713,000
Flag of Pakistan.svg  Pakistan 479,000499,000478,000
Flag of Ireland.svg  Republic of Ireland 315,000317,000318,000
Flag of Germany.svg  Germany 263,000267,000253,000

Age

The data below is based on the 2011 census. [15] In 2001, the mean age of England's population was 38.60, and the median age was 37.00.

Population pyramid for England as at the 2011 census. Population pyramid for England using 2011 census data.png
Population pyramid for England as at the 2011 census.
Ages attained
(years)
Population% of total
population
% per year
of age band
0–43,318,4496.261.25
5–92,972,6325.611.12
10–143,080,9295.811.16
15–193,340,2656.301.26
20–243,595,3216.781.36
25–293,650,8816.891.38
30–343,509,2216.621.32
35–393,549,1166.691.34
40–443,885,9347.331.47
45–493,879,8157.321.46
50–543,400,0956.411.28
55–592,996,9925.651.13
60–643,172,2775.981.20
65–692,508,1544.730.95
70–742,044,1293.860.77
75–791,669,3453.150.63
80–841,258,7732.370.47
85–89776,3111.460.29
90+403,8170.76

Life expectancy at birth [16]

Ethnicity

The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups:

Ethnic group2001
population
2001
%
2011
population
2011
%
White: British 42,747,13687.042,279,23679.8
White: Irish 624,1151.3517,0011.0
White: Irish Traveller/White Gypsy [note 1] 54,8950.1
White: Other 1,308,1102.72,430,0104.6
White: Total44,679,36191.045,281,142

85.4

Asian or Asian British: Indian 1,028,5462.11,395,7022.6
Asian or Asian British: Pakistani 706,5391.41,112,2822.1
Asian or Asian British: Bangladeshi 275,3940.6436,5140.8
Asian or Asian British: Chinese [note 2] 220,6810.5379,5020.7
Asian or Asian British: Asian Other237,8100.5819,4031.6
Asian or Asian British: Total2,468,9705.14,143,403

7.8

Black or Black British: Caribbean 561,2461.1591,0161.1
Black or Black British: African 475,9381.0977,7411.8
Black or Black British: Other 95,3240.2277,8570.5
Black or Black British: Total1,132,5082.31,846,614

3.5

Mixed: White and Caribbean 231,4240.5415,6160.8
Mixed: White and African 76,4980.2161,5500.3
Mixed: White and Asian Other 184,0140.4332,7080.6
Mixed: Other Mixed 151,4370.3283,0050.3
British Mixed: Total643,3731.41,192,879

2.3

Other: Arab [note 3] 220,9850.4
Other: Any other ethnic group214,6190.4327,4330.6
Other: Total214,6190.4548,418

1.0

Total49,138,83110053,012,456

100

Notes for table above

  1. New category created for the 2011 census
  2. In 2001, listed under the 'Chinese or other ethnic group' heading.
  3. New category created for the 2011 census
Source: 2001 Census KS06 Ethnic group: Key Statistics for local Authorities and 2011 Census: KS201EW Ethnic group: local authorities in England and Wales.

Languages

The most common main languages spoken in England according to the 2011 census are shown below. [17]

RankLanguageUsual residents aged 3+Proportion
1 English 46,936,78092.02%
2 Polish 529,1731.04%
3 Punjabi 271,5800.53%
4 Urdu 266,3300.52%
5 Bengali (with Sylheti and Chatgaya)216,1960.42%
6 Gujarati 212,2170.42%
7 Arabic 152,4900.30%
8 French 145,0260.28%
9 Portuguese 131,0020.26%
10 Spanish 118,5540.23%
11 Tamil 99,7730.20%
12 Turkish 98,0830.19%
13 Italian 90,5470.18%
14 Somali 84,3870.17%
15 Lithuanian 84,3270.17%
16 German 75,1900.15%
17 Persian/Farsi 75,1790.15%
18 Tagalog/Filipino 67,5930.13%
19 Romanian 66,4960.13%
20 Russian 66,2710.13%
Welsh 8,2480.02%
Cornish 5540.00%
Other1,209,6142.37%
Population51,005,610100.00%

Religion

Religion in England (2011 census)

  Christianity (59.4%)
  Not religious (24.7%)
  Not stated (7.2%)
  Islam (5.0%)
  Other religions (2.2%)
  Hinduism (1.5%)

Respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses gave their religions as follows:

Religion2001 [18] 2011 [19]
Number%Number%
Christian 35,251,24471.74%31,479,87659.38%
Muslim 1,524,8873.10%2,660,1165.02%
Hindu 546,9821.11%806,1991.52%
Sikh 327,3430.67%420,1960.79%
Jewish 257,6710.52%261,2820.49%
Buddhist 139,0460.28%238,6260.45%
Other religion143,8110.29%227,8250.43%
No religion 7,171,33214.59%13,114,23224.74%
Religion not stated3,776,5157.69%3,804,1047.18%
Total population49,138,831100.00%53,012,456100.00%

See also

Notes

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      See also B. Campbell (1990), "People and Land in the Middle Ages, 1066–1500", in Robert A. Dodgshon and Robin A. Butlin (eds), Historical Geography of England and Wales, 2nd edition. Elsevier. ISBN   1483288412, pp. 69–122 for discussion of drivers and trends underlying the numbers.
    6. 1 2 Wrigley and Schofield, "The Population History of England, 1541–1871. A reconstruction.", Harvard University Press, 1981, Table 7.8, pgs. 208-9,
    7. At the time of the first census. Census officials estimated that there had been an increase of 77% in the preceding 100 years. In each county women were in the majority. Notes for 1801 taken from Kent 1800–1899 – A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century Bob Ogley (Froglets Publications 2003) ISBN   1-872337-51-1. Wrigley and Schofield estimate 8,664,000 based on birth and death records.]
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