Den Helder

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Den Helder
Den Helder, watertoren 2006-08-06 10.28.JPG
Den Helder water tower in the village
Flag of Den Helder.svg
Flag
Coat of arms of Den Helder.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0400 (2009).svg
Location in North Holland
Coordinates: 52°56′N4°45′E / 52.933°N 4.750°E / 52.933; 4.750 Coordinates: 52°56′N4°45′E / 52.933°N 4.750°E / 52.933; 4.750
Country Netherlands
Province North Holland
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Jan de Boer] (D66)
Area
[2]
  Total178.80 km2 (69.04 sq mi)
  Land45.25 km2 (17.47 sq mi)
  Water133.55 km2 (51.56 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
1 m (3 ft)
Population
 (2018) [4]
  Total55,559
  Density1,229/km2 (3,180/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Heldernaar
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
1780–1789
Area code 0223
Website www.denhelder.nl

Den Helder (Dutch pronunciation: [dɛn ˈɦɛldər] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a municipality and a city in the Netherlands, in the province of North Holland. Den Helder occupies the northernmost point of the North Holland peninsula. It is home to the country's main naval base. From here the Royal TESO ferryboat service operates the transportation link between Den Helder and the nearby Dutch Wadden island of Texel to the north.

Contents

Etymology

Before the year 1928 the official name of Den Helder was Helder. The origin of the name Helder is not entirely clear. The name Helder may have come from Helle/Helde, which means "hill" or "hilly grounds", or from Helre, which means a sandy ridge. Another explanation is that the name derived from Helsdeur (Hell's Door), likely because in the water between Den Helder and Texel (called Marsdiep) the current was so strong that many ships were lost.

History

Satellite image (May 2007) NASA 20070501 Den Helder NL.jpg
Satellite image (May 2007)
Lange Jaap lighthouse Vuurtoren-Huisduinen.jpg
Lange Jaap lighthouse

Huisduinen was the original older part of the city, whereas Helder itself was a nearby smaller hamlet. When a harbour was built near Helder the village began to grow and later became the seat of governance instead of Huisduinen. Due to its strategic location at the tip of the North Holland peninsula, multiple fortifications were built in the area.

Den Helder has played an important part in Dutch shipping. During the Dutch Golden Age, ships would be assembled near Den Helder and sail the world's oceans from there.

On 23 January 1795, the French captured 14 Dutch ships and 850 guns in the town's deep-frozen harbour. [5] In 1799 the city was the target of the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland.

During the 1820s, the North Holland Canal was dug from Amsterdam to Den Helder. The lighthouse Lange Jaap was built in 1877 and is the tallest cast-iron lighthouse in Europe, at 63.45 meters (208.2 ft). In the Second World War most of the city was evacuated and the old city center was destroyed.

Geography

Climate

Den Helder is on the tip of a lowland peninsula jutting out into the North Sea Because of this, Den Helder's climate is heavily moderated by the maritime environment. Also, Den Helder is one of the sunniest cities in the Netherlands. [6]

Climate data for Den Helder, Netherlands (1991-2020)(record high and low since 1906)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)13.7
(56.7)
16.2
(61.2)
20.5
(68.9)
27.9
(82.2)
31.0
(87.8)
31.7
(89.1)
34.8
(94.6)
33.8
(92.8)
32.6
(90.7)
25.1
(77.2)
17.7
(63.9)
15.3
(59.5)
34.8
(94.6)
Average high °C (°F)6.0
(42.8)
6.2
(43.2)
8.7
(47.7)
12.4
(54.3)
15.8
(60.4)
18.5
(65.3)
20.8
(69.4)
21.1
(70.0)
18.3
(64.9)
14.3
(57.7)
10.0
(50.0)
7.0
(44.6)
13.3
(55.9)
Daily mean °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
3.9
(39.0)
5.9
(42.6)
9.0
(48.2)
12.4
(54.3)
15.2
(59.4)
17.5
(63.5)
17.8
(64.0)
15.4
(59.7)
11.6
(52.9)
7.8
(46.0)
5.0
(41.0)
10.5
(50.9)
Average low °C (°F)1.7
(35.1)
1.4
(34.5)
3.0
(37.4)
5.5
(41.9)
9.0
(48.2)
11.8
(53.2)
14.1
(57.4)
14.4
(57.9)
12.1
(53.8)
8.7
(47.7)
5.2
(41.4)
2.6
(36.7)
7.5
(45.5)
Record low °C (°F)−18.8
(−1.8)
−20.0
(−4.0)
−16.0
(3.2)
−5.1
(22.8)
−4.0
(24.8)
−0.3
(31.5)
4.2
(39.6)
3.9
(39.0)
0.9
(33.6)
−6.0
(21.2)
−11.9
(10.6)
−13.4
(7.9)
−20.0
(−4.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)65.6
(2.58)
50.1
(1.97)
43.7
(1.72)
34.9
(1.37)
42.0
(1.65)
58.7
(2.31)
62.5
(2.46)
89.1
(3.51)
84.7
(3.33)
96.5
(3.80)
83.5
(3.29)
75.3
(2.96)
786.6
(30.97)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 70.297.8155.7214.5246.6230.4240.5219.7161.2122.168.560.61,887.8
Source: knmi.nl (Klimaatatlas van Nederland, normaalperiode 1991–2020), Wetterzentrale.de (for record highs and lows, since 1906)

Population centres

The municipality of Den Helder consists of the following cities, towns, villages and/or districts: Den Helder, Huisduinen, Julianadorp, and the hamlets Friese Buurt and De Kooy.

The major areas of Den Helder are Old Den Helder, Nieuw-Den Helder, and De Schooten. Nieuw-Den Helder was built in the 1950s, following World War II, when there was a great need for additional housing. De Schooten was constructed in the 1960s.

Topography

DenHelder-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg

Dutch Topographic map of Den Helder (town), March 2014.

Den Helder was the site of a naval base as early as the 18th century. An Anglo-Russian invasion force landed at Den Helder in August 1799 and captured the Batavian navy there (see Battle of Castricum). French emperor Napoleon Bonaparte, visiting Den Helder in 1811, was impressed with the town's strategic location and ordered the construction of a fort (Kijkduin) and naval dockyards (Willemsoord). The docks were built during the years 1813–1827. In 1947, it officially became the Royal Netherlands Navy's main centre of operations. Den Helder continues to be the navy's main base today. The Royal Netherlands Naval College is also located in the city, as is the Dutch Navy Museum.

The old naval dockyards of Willemsoord, located in the north of the city, now house restaurants, a cinema, and other recreational facilities. The naval docks and administration have been moved to a new location further east.

Transport

The watertower of Den Helder Watertoren in de avond.jpg
The watertower of Den Helder

The town is served by two railway stations:

Den Helder can be reached by these main roads:

These roads all have only two lanes. There is no highway leading to Den Helder.

Local government

The municipal council of Den Helder consists of 31 seats, which are divided as follows (after some changes, in parentheses the result of the 2018 elections):

Notable people

Gerard 't Hooft, 2008 Gerard 't Hooft.jpg
Gerard 't Hooft, 2008
Marleen Barth, 2015 1. Marleen Barth (16425789752).jpg
Marleen Barth, 2015

Public thinking & Public Service

The Arts

Dick Ket, Autoportrait, 1932 Dick Ket - Autoportrait.jpg
Dick Ket, Autoportrait, 1932

Sport

Edith Bosch, 2012 Olympiers arriveren bij het Torentje Edith Bosch (7781064788) (cropped).jpg
Edith Bosch, 2012

The Frank Boeijen Groep song Haast (rust roest) contains the line " 's avonds in Den Helder". (English- In the evening in Den Helder) The Rob de Nijs song Jan Klaassen de Trompetter contains the line "hij marcheerde van Den Helder tot Den Briel". (English- He marched from Den Helder to Den Briel).

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References

  1. "Samenstelling college" [Members of the board] (in Dutch). Gemeente Den Helder. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten 2020" [Key figures for neighbourhoods 2020]. StatLine (in Dutch). CBS. 24 July 2020. Retrieved 19 September 2020.
  3. "Postcodetool for 1784MC". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 26 February 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 1 January 2019. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  5. Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: P-Z, p.1009
  6. (Dutch) Climate table, per station. KNMI.nl, retrieved january 12, 2021.
  7. IMDb Database retrieved 10 December 2019