Dendrology

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Leaf shape is a common method used to identify trees. Leaf morphology.svg
Leaf shape is a common method used to identify trees.

Dendrology (Ancient Greek : δένδρον, dendron, "tree"; and Ancient Greek : -λογία, -logia , science of or study of) or xylology (Ancient Greek : ξύλον, ksulon, "wood") is the science and study of woody plants (trees, shrubs, and lianas), specifically, their taxonomic classifications. There is no sharp boundary between plant taxonomy and dendrology; woody plants not only belong to many different plant families, but these families may be made up of both woody and non-woody members. Some families include only a few woody species. Dendrology, as a discipline of industrial forestry, tends to focus on identification of economically useful woody plants and their taxonomic interrelationships. As an academic course of study, dendrology will include all woody plants, native and non-native, that occur in a region. A related discipline is the study of sylvics, which focuses on the autecology of genera and species.

Contents

Relationship with botany

Dendrology is a branch of botany that specializes in the characterization and identification of woody plants, while botany is the study of all types of general plants. [1]

Noted dendrologists

See also

Related Research Articles

<i>Ulmus</i> × <i>hollandica</i> Belgica Elm cultivar

The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Belgica', one of a number of hybrids arising from the crossing of Wych Elm with a variety of Field Elm, was reputedly raised in the nurseries of the Abbey of the Dunes, Veurne, in 1694. Popular throughout Belgium and the Netherlands in the 19th century both as an ornamental and as a shelter-belt tree, it was the 'Hollandse iep' in these countries, as distinct from the tree known as 'Dutch Elm' in Great Britain and Ireland since the 17th century: Ulmus × hollandica 'Major'. In Francophone Belgium it was known as orme gras de Malines.

<i>Ulmus</i> Crispa Elm cultivar

The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Crispa' [:'curled', the leaf margin], sometimes known as the Fernleaf Elm, arose before 1800 and was first listed by Willdenow as U. crispa (1809). Audibert listed an U. campestrisLinn. 'Crispa', orme à feuilles crépues [:'frizzy-leaved elm'], in 1817, and an Ulmus urticaefolia [:'nettle-leaved elm'] in 1832; the latter is usually taken to be a synonym. Loudon considered the tree a variety of U. montana (1838). In the 19th century, Ulmus × hollandica cultivars, as well as those of Wych Elm, were often grouped under Ulmus montana. Elwes and Henry (1913) listed 'Crispa' as a form of wych elm, but made no mention of the non-wych samara.

<i>Ulmus</i> × <i>hollandica</i> Serpentina Elm cultivar

The putative hybrid cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Serpentina' is an elm of unknown provenance and doubtful status. Henry identified it as intermediate between U. glabra and U. minor, a view accepted by Bean and by Melville, who believed that the specimens at Kew bearing the name 'Serpentina' were U. glabra "introgressed by U. carpinifolia" [: U. minor] and were similar to but "distinct from 'Camperdownii'".

The putative Wych Elm cultivar Ulmus glabra 'Dovaei', or Doué elm, was raised by the André Leroy nursery at Angers, France, as Ulmus dovaei, before 1868. The Baudriller nursery of Angers marketed it as Ulmus Dowei, "orme de Doué", suggesting a link with the royal nurseries at nearby Doué-la-Fontaine, which stocked elm. Green considered it a form of wych.

Ulmus × hollandica 'Pitteurs' or 'Pitteursii', one of a number of hybrid cultivars arising from the crossing of the Wych Elm Ulmus glabra with a variety of Field Elm Ulmus minor, was first identified by Morren as l'orme Pitteurs (1848). Elwes and Henry (1913) and Krüssmann (1976) listed it as an Ulmus × hollandica cultivar. It was named after the landowner Henri Bonaventure Trudon de Pitteurs of Saint-Trond, near Liège, Belgium, who discovered and first propagated the tree on his estate.

The hybrid elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Modiolina', or Wheel-hub elm, was probably the large-leaved 'Orme tortillard' first described by Duhamel in De l'exploitation des bois (1764). Poederlé (1774) identified the tree as the 'orme maigre' growing in the region that later became part of Belgium. Dumont de Courset described a small-leaved U. campestris var. modiolina, "l'orme tortillard" in 1802 – the first use of the name 'Modiolina'. 'L'orme Tortillard', also known as 'l'orme à moyeux', was considered in France to be the best elm for use by wheelwrights, its timber especially suitable for hubs of wheels. Van Houtte marketed an U. campestris modiolina (tortuosa), and Späth an U. campestris modiolina, from the late 19th century. U. campestris var. modiolinaHort was confirmed as a hybrid by Chevalier in Les Ormes de France (1942) and called U. × 'Modiolina', 'l'orme à moyeux'.

The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Nemoralis' was listed by Schelle in Beissner et al. (1903), as U. campestris f. nemoralisHort. Considered "possibly U. carpinifolia " by Green.

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The elm cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Blandford' was listed by the Urban Forestry Administration (UFA) of the District Department of Transportation in Washington, D.C., as one of its 'street trees' in 2008. As the UFA has no further documentation to support it, the entry may be spurious, but it is most likely the tree is the wych elm cultivar Ulmus glabra 'Superba', known in the UK as the 'Blandford Elm' and introduced to the US in the early 20th century, or possibly the hybrid cultivar Ulmus × hollandica 'Superba' present in some American collections, including Garfield Park, Washington, D.C., in the mid-20th century.

Arboretum national des Barres

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Arboretum Gaston Allard

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James Pass Arboretum Historic site in Syracuse, New York

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<i>Ulmus minor</i> Monumentalis Elm cultivar

The Field Elm cultivar Ulmus minor 'Monumentalis', the tomb elm (Grabmal-Rüster), was raised as a sucker of U. suberosa by Sebastian Rinz, the city gardener of Frankfurt, and described as U. campestris var. monumentalisRinz, 'Pyramid Field Elm', by Kirchner (1864), who said it had only recently been propagated by Rinz and established in the nursery. It was distributed from the 1880s by the Baudriller nursery, Angers, and by the Späth nursery, Berlin, as U. campestris monumentalisRinz., appearing separately in their catalogues from U. minor 'Sarniensis', the Guernsey or Wheatley Elm, with which, according to Henry, it was confused on the continent. Krüssmann, for example, gives 'Monumentalis' as a synonym of 'Sarniensis'. 'Sarniensis' is known as monumentaaliep [:monumental elm] in The Netherlands. Springer noted that the Dutch monumentaaliep was "not the actual monumentaaliep but U. glabraMill.var. Wheatleyi Sim. Louis", and that it "should be renamed U. glabraMill. var. monumentalisHort.(non Rinz)". In England, Smith's of Worcester listed Ulmus monumentalis separately from Ulmus 'Wheatley' in the 1880s.

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References

  1. "Dendrology". Tree Identification. Retrieved June 3, 2019.