Deng Hongkui (Chinese :邓宏魁) is a Chinese immunologist and stem cell researcher. He is a Changjiang Professor, the Boya Chair Professor, and Director of the Institute of Stem Cell Research at Peking University. He was awarded US$1.9 million by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for his research on vaccines for HIV and hepatitis C. In 2017, he and Chen Hu engineered resistance to HIV in mice using CRISPR gene editing, and for the first time used the technique on an AIDS patient.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China. Along with traditional Chinese characters, they are one of the two standard character sets of the contemporary Chinese written language. The government of the People's Republic of China in mainland China has promoted them for use in printing since the 1950s and 1960s to encourage literacy. They are officially used in the People's Republic of China, Malaysia and Singapore.
Stem cells are cells that can differentiate into other types of cells, and can also divide in self-renewal to produce more of the same type of stem cells.
Peking University is a major research university in Beijing, China, and a member of the elite C9 League of Chinese universities. The first modern national university established in China, it was founded during the late Qing Dynasty in 1898 as the Imperial University of Peking and was the successor of the Guozijian, or Imperial College. The university's English name retains the older transliteration of "Beijing" that has been superseded in most other contexts.
Deng Hongkui entered Wuhan University in 1980, where he earned his B.Sc. in 1984. He then studied at Shanghai Second Medical College and earned his master's degree in 1987. In 1990, he moved to the United States to study at the University of California, Los Angeles, where he earned his Ph.D. in 1995,under the supervision of Eli Sercarz. From 1995 to 1998 he was an Aaron Diamond Postdoctoral Fellow at the New York University School of Medicine, where he conducted research under Dan Littman. From 1998 to 2001, he worked as research director of ViaCell, a stem cell biotech company based in Boston.
Wuhan University is in Wuhan, Hubei. It is one of the most prestigious and selective universities in China, which has been selected as a Chinese Ministry of Education Class A Double First Class University. It was one of the four elite universities in the republican period and also one of the oldest universities in China. In 1948, University of Oxford in the United Kingdom wrote to the Ministry of Education in China, confirming that undergraduate students at Wuhan University with degrees in liberal art and science, who had an average grade above 80 would be awarded "the senior status of Oxford". Wuhan university is located at Luojia Hill, with palatial buildings blending Chinese and Western styles. It is regarded by many as one of the most beautiful campuses in China.
The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the fourth-oldest of the 10-campus University of California system. It offers 337 undergraduate and graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university.
In 2001, Deng was awarded the prestigious Changjiang Professorship by the Chinese government, and returned to China to work at Peking University.He initially worked on treating diabetes using human embryonic stem cells. During the SARS outbreak, he conducted research on SARS treatment and vaccine. In 2006, he was awarded US$1.9 million by the Grand Challenges In Global Health initiative of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, for his research on vaccines for HIV and hepatitis C. He became Director of Peking University's Institute of Stem Cell Research in 2013 and was appointed the Boya Chair Professor in 2016.
The Changjiang Scholar award, is the highest academic award issued to an individual in higher education by the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China. It is also known as the Cheung Kong Scholar and the Yangtze River Scholar award.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly known as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Symptoms of high blood sugar include frequent urination, increased thirst, and increased hunger. If left untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or death. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, foot ulcers, and damage to the eyes.
The Grand Challenges in Global Health (GCGH) is a research initiative launched by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation in search of solutions to health problems in the developing world. Fifteen challenges are categorized in groups among seven stated goals plus an eighth group for family health. The disciplines involved include immunology, microbiology, genetics, molecular biology and cellular biology, entomology, agricultural sciences, clinical sciences, epidemiology, population and behavioral sciences, ecology, and evolutionary biology.
In 2017, Deng and his collaborator, Chen Hu of the 307 Hospital, used CRISPR gene editing to transplant human hematopoietic stem cells with the edited CCR5 gene to mice, and conferred HIV resistance to the animals.They subsequently used the technique to treat an AIDS patient who suffered from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It was the first time CRISPR was used on a human HIV patient. 19 months later, the patient's ALL was in complete remission. Their research demonstrated the safety of CRISPR for humans, although the therapy was not effective for curing AIDS as only 5% to 8% of the patient's bone marrow cells carried the edited CCR5 gene, much lower than the ideal 100%. Their findings were published in The New England Journal of Medicine in September 2019.
Chen Hu was a Chinese military physician and stem cell researcher. He served as Director of the PLA Institute of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Research and the Beijing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Therapy Laboratory. Known for his research on hematopoietic stem cell therapy for leukemia, he was awarded the State Science and Technology Progress Award in 2015 and the Ho Leung Ho Lee Prize in 2016. In 2017, he and Deng Hongkui engineered resistance to HIV in mice using CRISPR gene editing, and for the first time used the technique on an AIDS patient. He died of a sudden heart attack before their findings were published.
The 307th Hospital of the Chinese People's Liberation Army, commonly called the 307 Hospital, is a hospital in China. It is in Fengtai District, Beijing. The hospital combines medical treatment, research, and educational studies into a comprehensive hospital, which is one of the first designated medical institutions with medical insurance coverage in Beijing. 307 Hospital of PLA is appointed as the National Clinical Hospital of Disease Control.
CRISPR gene editing is a method by which the genomes of living organisms may be edited. It is based on a simplified version of the bacterial CRISPR/Cas (CRISPR-Cas9) antiviral defense system. By delivering the Cas9 nuclease complexed with a synthetic guide RNA (gRNA) into a cell, the cell's genome can be cut at a desired location, allowing existing genes to be removed and/or new ones added. The Cas9-gRNA complex corresponds with the CAS III CRISPR-RNA complex in the accompanying diagram.
In the medicine field gene therapy is the therapeutic delivery of nucleic acid into a patient's cells as a drug to treat disease. The first attempt at modifying human DNA was performed in 1980 by Martin Cline, but the first successful nuclear gene transfer in humans, approved by the National Institutes of Health, was performed in May 1989. The first therapeutic use of gene transfer as well as the first direct insertion of human DNA into the nuclear genome was performed by French Anderson in a trial starting in September 1990.
An HIV vaccine may have the purpose of protecting individuals who do not have HIV from being infected with the virus, or treating an HIV-infected person. There are two approaches to an HIV vaccine: an active vaccination approach in which a vaccine aims to induce an immune response against HIV; and a passive vaccination approach in which preformed antibodies against HIV are administered.
Deng Nan is a Chinese politician and physicist.
A designer baby is a baby whose genetic makeup has been selected or altered, often to include a particular gene or to remove genes associated with disease. This process usually involves analysing human embryos to identify genes associated with disease, and selecting embryos which have the desired genetic makeup - a process known as pre-implantation genetic diagnosis. Other potential methods by which a baby's genetic information can be altered involve directly editing the genome - a person's genetic code - before birth. This process is not routinely performed and only one instance of this is known to have occurred as of 2019, where Chinese twins Lulu and Nana were edited as embryos, causing widespread criticism.
Yao Zhen was a Chinese biologist and oncologist. He served the first president of Asian-Pacific Organization for Cell Biology.
Dèng Guăngmíng was a Chinese historian who specialized in the 10th to 13th century Song, Jin and Liao dynasties.
Genome editing, or genome engineering, or gene editing, is a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, deleted, modified or replaced in the genome of a living organism. Unlike early genetic engineering techniques that randomly inserts genetic material into a host genome, genome editing targets the insertions to site specific locations.
Cas9 is a protein which plays a vital role in the immunological defense of certain bacteria against DNA viruses, and which is heavily utilized in genetic engineering applications. Its main function is to cut DNA and therefore it can alter a cell's genome.
HIV/AIDS research includes all medical research that attempts to prevent, treat, or cure HIV/AIDS, as well as fundamental research about the nature of HIV as an infectious agent and AIDS as the disease caused by HIV.
Paul S. Knoepfler is an American biologist, writer, and blogger. He is a professor in the Department of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy, the Genome Center, and the Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine. In 2013, Knoepfler was named one of the 50 most influential people in the stem cell field.
Deng Liqun was a Chinese politician and theorist who was one of the leading figures of the Communist Party of China during the 1980s, most well known for his involvement with the party's propaganda work. Deng was born in Guidong County, Hunan province, and joined the Communist Party in 1936. He came from an intellectual family and joined the party out of intellectual commitment. He was often referred to as "Little Deng", to be distinguished from Deng Xiaoping, the "Old Deng".
Stephen H. Tsang is an ophthalmologist and geneticist. He is currently an Associate Professor of Ophthalmology and an Associate Professor of Cell Biology and Pathology at Columbia University Medical Center in New York City, New York, in the United States.
Human germline engineering is the process by which the genome of an individual is edited in such a way that the change is heritable. This is achieved through genetic alterations within the germ cells, or the reproductive cells, such as the egg and sperm. Human germline engineering should not be confused with gene therapy. Gene therapy consists of altering somatic cells, which are all cells in the body that are not involved in reproduction. While gene therapy does change the genome of the targeted cells, these cells are not within the germline, so the alterations are not heritable and cannot be passed on to the next generation.
Alex Marson is an American biologist, specializing in genetics, human immunology, and CRISPR genome engineering. He is a tenured Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF), where he leads research at the Marson Lab.
The Lulu and Nana controversy revolves around twin Chinese girls born in October 2018, who have been given the pseudonyms Lulu and Nana. According to the researcher, He Jiankui, the twins are the world's first germline genetically edited babies. He Jiankui has reported that the girls were born healthy. The girls' parents were participants in a clinical project run by He, in which he offered standard in vitro fertilization services and in addition, used CRISPR-Cas9, a technology that can modify DNA, to modify the CCR5 gene in the embryos that were generated, to attempt to confer genetic resistance to the HIV virus. The clinical project was conducted secretly until November 2018.
He Jiankui is a Chinese biophysics researcher who was an associate professor in the Department of Biology of the Southern University of Science and Technology (SUSTech) in Shenzhen, China.