Deniliquin

Last updated

Deniliquin
New South Wales
Deniliquin Boer War Memorial Lamp 001.JPG
Deniliquin town centre
Australia New South Wales location map blank.svg
Red pog.svg
Deniliquin
Coordinates 35°32′0″S144°58′0″E / 35.53333°S 144.96667°E / -35.53333; 144.96667 Coordinates: 35°32′0″S144°58′0″E / 35.53333°S 144.96667°E / -35.53333; 144.96667
Population7,862 (2016 census) [1]
Postcode(s) 2710
Elevation93.0 m (305 ft)
Location
LGA(s) Edward River Council
County Townsend
State electorate(s) Murray
Federal Division(s) Farrer
Mean max tempMean min tempAnnual rainfall
23.5 °C
74 °F
9.2 °C
49 °F
405.7 mm
16 in

Deniliquin, /dəˈnɪlɪkwɪn/ [2] known locally as "Deni", is a town in the Riverina region of New South Wales close to the border with Victoria. It is the largest town in the Edward River Council local government area.

Riverina Region in New South Wales, Australia

The Riverina is an agricultural region of South-Western New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The Riverina is distinguished from other Australian regions by the combination of flat plains, warm to hot climate and an ample supply of water for irrigation. This combination has allowed the Riverina to develop into one of the most productive and agriculturally diverse areas of Australia. Bordered on the south by the state of Victoria and on the east by the Great Dividing Range, the Riverina covers those areas of New South Wales in the Murray and Murrumbidgee drainage zones to their confluence in the west.

New South Wales State of Australia

New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, and South Australia to the west. Its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, which is also Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen.

Edward River Council Local government area in New South Wales, Australia

The Edward River Council is a local government area in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. This area was formed in 2016 from the merger of the Deniliquin Council with the surrounding Conargo Shire.

Contents

Deniliquin is located at the intersection of the Riverina and Cobb Highway approximately 725 kilometres (450 mi) south west of the state capital, Sydney and 285 kilometres (177 mi) due north of Melbourne. The town is divided in two parts by the Edward River, an anabranch of the Murray River, with the main business district located on the south bank.

Riverina Highway highway in New South Wales

The Riverina Highway is a 220-kilometre (140 mi)-long state highway located in the Riverina region of New South Wales, Australia. The road was constructed over several decades with final asphalt concrete sealing completed during the 1960s.

Cobb Highway highway in New South Wales

The Cobb Highway is a state highway in the western Riverina and the far western regions of New South Wales, with a short section in Victoria, Australia.

Sydney City in New South Wales, Australia

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australia's east coast, the metropolis surrounds Port Jackson and extends about 70 km (43.5 mi) on its periphery towards the Blue Mountains to the west, Hawkesbury to the north, the Royal National Park to the south and Macarthur to the south-west. Sydney is made up of 658 suburbs, 40 local government areas and 15 contiguous regions. Residents of the city are known as "Sydneysiders". As of June 2017, Sydney's estimated metropolitan population was 5,230,330 and is home to approximately 65% of the state's population.

The town services a productive agricultural district with prominent rice, wool and timber industries. At the 2016 census, the urban population of Deniliquin was 6,833. [3]

History

Prior to European settlement, the Aboriginal inhabitants of the Deniliquin area were the Barapa Baraba people. [4]

Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands before British colonisation. The time of arrival of the first Indigenous Australians is a matter of debate among researchers. The earliest conclusively human remains found in Australia are those of Mungo Man LM3 and Mungo Lady, which have been dated to around 50,000 years BP. Recent archaeological evidence from the analysis of charcoal and artefacts revealing human use suggests a date as early as 65,000 BP. Luminescence dating has suggested habitation in Arnhem Land as far back as 60,000 years BP. Genetic research has inferred a date of habitation as early as 80,000 years BP. Other estimates have ranged up to 100,000 years and 125,000 years BP.

In 1843 the entrepreneur and speculator Benjamin Boyd acquired land in the vicinity of present-day Deniliquin (probably via his agent Augustus Morris). The location was known as The Sandhills, but Boyd (or Morris) named it Deniliquin after 'Denilakoon', a local Aborigine famed for his wrestling prowess. [5] An inn and a punt were established on the site in the period 1845-47 and the town site was surveyed in 1848 and gazetted in 1850. [4] The original Native Police force of Frederick Walker was organised at Deniliquin in 1848. Deniliquin Post Office opened on 1 January 1850. [6]

Benjamin Boyd was a Scottish-born Australian pioneer and entrepreneur, and briefly, a politician.

In 1853, William John Wills of the Burke and Wills expedition worked as a shepherd at the Royal Bank sheep station near Deniliquin.

William John Wills Explorer of Australia

William John Wills was a British surveyor who also trained as a surgeon. He achieved fame as the second-in-command of the ill-fated Burke and Wills expedition, which was the first expedition to cross Australia from south to north, finding a route across the continent from the settled areas of Victoria to the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Burke and Wills expedition Australian exploration expedition in 1860–61 led by Robert OHara Burke and William John Wills

The Burke and Wills expedition was organised by the Royal Society of Victoria in Australia in 1860–61. It consisted of 19 men led by Robert O'Hara Burke and William John Wills, with the objective of crossing Australia from Melbourne in the south, to the Gulf of Carpentaria in the north, a distance of around 3,250 kilometres. At that time most of the inland of Australia had not been explored by non-Indigenous people and was largely unknown to the European settlers.

As Deniliquin was established on the convergence of major stock routes between the colonies of Queensland, New South Wales and the Victorian gold rush centres of Victoria, it soon became an important river crossing and the first bridge was built over the Edward River in 1861. The Deniliquin and Moama Railway Company built a private railway in 1879 to connect with Moama, across the Murray River from the busy river port of Echuca, connected by rail to Melbourne. [4]

A water trough on a sheep farm 50 km north of the town Deniliquin water trough.JPG
A water trough on a sheep farm 50 km north of the town

Wool growing quickly became a major industry and the area around Deniliquin was home to several Merino studs. [4] In 1861, George Hall Peppin and his two sons, experienced English sheep breeders, established a Merino stud at Wanganella station, north of Deniliquin. There, the brothers developed the Peppin Merino, able to thrive in drier inland regions. Today, as many as 70 per cent of Merinos in Australia are said to be directly descended from these sheep. [7]

In the 1860s, Deniliquin was the centre of a short-lived campaign by wealthy pastoralists including Peppin, George Desailly, Robert Landale and William Brodribb for secession from New South Wales and the creation of a new Riverina colony. This campaign was supported by David Jones, the proprietor of the local newspaper the Pastoral Times. [8] [9]

On 19 December 1868, Deniliquin was constituted as The Municipality of Deniliquin, and the first Municipal Election was held on 23 February 1869. In 1993 the enactment of the Local Government Act (NSW) saw the name of the council changed from the Municipality of Deniliquin to the Deniliquin Council. [10]

Large-scale irrigation schemes came to the Deniliquin area with the establishment of the Deniboota and Denimein Irrigation Districts in 1938 and the Berriquin Irrigation District in 1939, using water diverted from the Murray River at Lake Mulwala through the Mulwala Canal. An ample and reliable water supply led to the development of water intensive industries such as rice growing. [11]

During the Second World War, RAAF Station Deniliquin was home to No. 7 Service Flying Training School RAAF. It was also a final disbanding site for squadrons returning from active duty against the Japanese in the Pacific. No. 22 Squadron RAAF [12] and No. 30 Squadron RAAF [13] were disbanded here in 1946, and in 1945 and 1946 it was also a base for No. 78 Squadron RAAF before it was finally disbanded in Williamtown. [14]

Also World War 2, Muswellbrook was the location of RAAF No.15 Inland Aircraft Fuel Depot (IAFD), completed in 1942 and closed on 29 August 1944. Usually consisting of 4 tanks, 31 fuel depots were built across Australia for the storage and supply of aircraft fuel for the RAAF and the US Army Air Forces at a total cost of £900,000 ($1,800,000). [15]

In April 2006 the Herald Sun reported on their front cover that the Edward River was dry, with an accompanying photograph showing a dry creek. [16] This was later revealed to be erroneous; the photograph was of an unknown channel on a farm within 60 kilometres (37 mi) of Deniliquin, while the Edward River is in fact still running. Deniliquin Council and members of the Deniliquin community have since attempted to rectify the damage to local tourism by improving the profile of Deniliquin in various media outlets. [17]

Heritage listings

Deniliquin has a number of heritage-listed sites, including:

Population

According to the 2016 census of Population, there were 7,862 people in Deniliquin, including the surrounding rural area.

Industry

Deniliquin Court house Deniliquin Court House 003.JPG
Deniliquin Court house
The Federal Hotel in Deniliquin Federal Hotel, Deniliquin, New South Wales.JPG
The Federal Hotel in Deniliquin

Deniliquin is a service centre for the surrounding agricultural region. The region includes both dryland and irrigated areas. The dryland areas support grazing, in particular beef cattle and wool growing. Deniliquin is home to many famous Merino studs and the saltbush plains produce quality medium class wool.

The irrigated areas produce a range of high yield crops. Rice was a major crop until the recent drought. The largest rice mill in the southern hemisphere is in Deniliquin, producing large packs and bulk rice for export markets. [21] The rice mill closed in December 2007 and will reopen in April 2011. [22] [23]

Deniliquin is also the headquarters of Murray Irrigation Limited, an irrigator owned private company and one of the largest privately owned irrigation supply companies in the world. Murray Irrigation manages the operations of the Berriquin, Deniboota, Denimein and Wakool Irrigation Areas in the Murray Valley. These areas produce 50% of Australia’s rice crop, 20% of NSW milk production, 75% of NSW processing tomatoes and 40% of NSW potatoes. [24]

Sawmills in the area process timber harvested from the River red gum forests lining the Edward and Murray floodplains. [25]

As the largest town in the south western Riverina, there is a range of government and commercial services to residents of the town and the surrounding area.

Climate

Deniliquin has a semi-arid climate with hot, dry summers and cool winters. The town's highest temperature of 49.6 °C (121.3 °F) was reached on 12 January 1878 and is one of the highest ever recorded in Australia. [26] [27]

Climate data for Deniliquin, NSW (Visitor Information Centre [>1858-Current]); 96 m AMSL; 35° 31' 41.88" S
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)49.6
(121.3)
47.2
(117.0)
45.0
(113.0)
41.7
(107.1)
31.1
(88.0)
25.6
(78.1)
25.9
(78.6)
29.8
(85.6)
35.0
(95.0)
40.8
(105.4)
44.2
(111.6)
47.8
(118.0)
49.6
(121.3)
Average high °C (°F)32.5
(90.5)
32.0
(89.6)
28.7
(83.7)
23.5
(74.3)
18.6
(65.5)
15.1
(59.2)
14.4
(57.9)
16.4
(61.5)
19.7
(67.5)
23.6
(74.5)
27.5
(81.5)
30.6
(87.1)
23.6
(74.4)
Average low °C (°F)15.7
(60.3)
15.7
(60.3)
13.3
(55.9)
9.5
(49.1)
6.5
(43.7)
4.5
(40.1)
3.4
(38.1)
4.4
(39.9)
6.2
(43.2)
8.8
(47.8)
11.7
(53.1)
14.1
(57.4)
9.5
(49.1)
Record low °C (°F)4.4
(39.9)
4.5
(40.1)
0.6
(33.1)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.9
(25.0)
−5.6
(21.9)
−6.1
(21.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−1.7
(28.9)
0.6
(33.1)
2.2
(36.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)28.2
(1.11)
28.2
(1.11)
32.1
(1.26)
30.2
(1.19)
38.0
(1.50)
39.8
(1.57)
34.9
(1.37)
36.7
(1.44)
37.7
(1.48)
39.3
(1.55)
29.9
(1.18)
29.7
(1.17)
404.7
(15.93)
Average precipitation days3.83.64.15.17.49.19.69.58.47.45.34.677.9
Average relative humidity (%)30333744566362554840343144
Source: [28]

Climate data is sourced from Deniliquin Visitor Information Centre, of which was established in 1858 and is still active today; thereby, yielding one of the longest climate reference periods of any station in Australia, plainly showing a downwards trend in terms of temperature and still available on the Bureau of Meteorology's website.

Deniliquin 1878; Hottest Year on Record

Climate data for Deniliquin, NSW (Visitor Information Centre [1878]); 96 m AMSL; 35° 31' 41.88" S
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)49.6
(121.3)
47.2
(117.0)
39.2
(102.6)
31.7
(89.1)
22.2
(72.0)
18.3
(64.9)
22.3
(72.1)
26.0
(78.8)
28.8
(83.8)
33.4
(92.1)
43.9
(111.0)
45.1
(113.2)
49.6
(121.3)
Average high °C (°F)38.8
(101.8)
31.3
(88.3)
30.0
(86.0)
25.0
(77.0)
18.6
(65.5)
12.7
(54.9)
14.8
(58.6)
17.8
(64.0)
22.3
(72.1)
26.2
(79.2)
28.7
(83.7)
32.5
(90.5)
24.9
(76.8)
Average low °C (°F)17.5
(63.5)
17.0
(62.6)
15.2
(59.4)
10.4
(50.7)
5.3
(41.5)
1.4
(34.5)
3.0
(37.4)
2.7
(36.9)
5.3
(41.5)
6.4
(43.5)
10.0
(50.0)
11.8
(53.2)
8.8
(47.9)
Record low °C (°F)12.1
(53.8)
9.2
(48.6)
8.1
(46.6)
3.8
(38.8)
2.1
(35.8)
−2.2
(28.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−6.1
(21.0)
0.4
(32.7)
2.5
(36.5)
3.6
(38.5)
6.2
(43.2)
−6.1
(21.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches)0.0
(0.0)
187.7
(7.39)
225.5
(8.88)
59.0
(2.32)
7.4
(0.29)
31.0
(1.22)
81.8
(3.22)
16.2
(0.64)
25.3
(1.00)
61.4
(2.42)
19.1
(0.75)
0.0
(0.0)
714.4
(28.13)
Average precipitation days07654895773061
Source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology; Deniliquin 1878

Notable people

Notable people from or having lived in the Deniliquin area include:

Education

Deniliquin is well serviced by the education sector. The town has 3 public primary schools (Deniliquin South PS, Deniliquin North P.S, Edward PS), 1 Catholic primary school (St Michael's PS), 1 public high school (Deniliquin HS) and 1 independent K-10 school (Deniliquin Christian School)

It has a TAFE NSW Campus, which is part of the Riverina Institute of TAFE. [30]

Deniliquin is also the base for the NSW Department of Education South West Riverina regional office. South West Music Regional Conservatorium, part of a network of regional Conservatoriums in NSW, also offers a range of music tuition in schools and at their campus in Hardinge St.

Sport

Sporting clubs in the area include:

Deni Play on the Plains Festival

Two Utes at the Deni Ute muster 2002 Deni ute muster 2002 two utes.jpg
Two Utes at the Deni Ute muster 2002

Deniliquin is home to the Play on the Plains Festival held each September/October on the New South Wales Labour Day long weekend. The festival includes the famous 'Deniliquin Ute Muster' [31]

The Deni Play On The Plains Festival has set the following world records: [31]

Music

Central Hotel DeniliquinCentralHotel.JPG
Central Hotel

Deniliquin has had many local bands, some notable ones being the Lincolns, the Stormtroopers and the Lexies. Attempts been made to encourage other bands to come to Deniliquin to perform, with varying success. Solo performers who came from Deniliquin include Shane McGrath, Michael Gorham and Joel Sulman, with local artists often showcased at the Deniliquin Ute Muster. [32]

Music festivals

Deniliquin has been home to many music festivals. These include:

Held over the Easter long weekend and has bought acts such as Status Quo, Santana, Jason Mraz (2013) and will hold in 2014 John Mayer, Elvis Costello, local artist Michael Gorham and previous local blues artist Joel Sulman. It won Best Inland Festival for 2013 and continues to grow as the time gets closer to launch!

Aerial picture of the town Deniliquin.JPG
Aerial picture of the town

Media

The local newspaper is the Deniliquin Pastoral Times. It is published on Tuesdays and Fridays and – on each of these days – has a circulation of 2787, with an estimated readership of 10,260. [38] Other newspapers circulated throughout the Deniliquin region include The Herald Sun , The Age , The Sydney Morning Herald and The Daily Telegraph.

There are three local radio stations: 102.5FM (classic rock), 1521 2QN (classic hits) and 106.1FM (country music narrowcast), while ABC Local Radio's ABC Riverina service (broadcast from Wagga Wagga) is available on AM675. Other stations broadcasting throughout the region include Radio National, SBS Radio and 2KY Racing Radio.

Locally available TV stations include ABC Television (ABC TV, ABC Comedy, ABC Me and ABC News), SBS Television (SBS TV, SBS Viceland, SBS Food and NITV), Prime7 (Prime7 HD, 7Two, 7mate, 7flix and Racing.com), WIN Television (WIN HD, 10 Bold, 10 Peach, TVSN, WIN Gold and Sky News on WIN) and Southern Cross Nine (Nine HD, 9Gem, 9Go!, 9Life, SBN and Aspire TV). WIN Television produces a half-hour-long regional news bulletin which screens from Monday to Friday at 6pm.

In 2008 the thriller, The Clinic , was filmed in Deniliquin. The producers used many of the town’s locations while shooting, including the Peppin Motor Inn, Warbreccan Homestead, Deniliquin abattoirs and the largest rice mill in the Southern Hemisphere.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Deniliquin at Wikimedia Commons

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