Denpasar

Last updated

Denpasar
City of Denpasar
Kota Denpasar
Other transcription(s)
   Balinese ᬤᬾᬦ᭄ᬧᬲᬃ
Denpasar Montage.jpg
From top, left to right: Bajra Sandhi Monument, Bali Museum, Mayor's office building, Fast food outlets with traditional Balinese architecture, and Cellular superstore in the city center.
Flag of Denpasar City.png
Lambang Denpasar City.png
Motto(s): 
ᬧᬸᬭᬟᬶᬧᬪᬭᬪᬯᬦ (Balinese)
Puradhipa Bhara Bhavana
(The Capital Supports The Country)
Location Denpasar.png
Location within Bali
Indonesia Bali location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Denpasar
Location in Bali
Indonesia Lesser Sunda Islands location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Denpasar
Indonesia location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Denpasar
Location in Indonesia
Coordinates: 8°39′S115°13′E / 8.650°S 115.217°E / -8.650; 115.217 Coordinates: 8°39′S115°13′E / 8.650°S 115.217°E / -8.650; 115.217
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Lesser Sunda Islands
Province Coat of arms of Bali.svg  Bali
Settled27 February 1788
Government
  Mayor I.G. Ngurah Jaya Negara
  Vice Mayor I Kadek Agus Arya Wibawa
Area
   City 127.78 km2 (49.34 sq mi)
  Urban
724 km2 (280 sq mi)
  Metro
1,749.83 km2 (675.61 sq mi)
Population
 (2020)
   City 725,314
  Density5,700/km2 (15,000/sq mi)
   Urban
1,779,122
   Metro
2,245,620
  Metro density1,300/km2 (3,300/sq mi)
  [1] [2]
Demographics
  Ethnic groups
(2010)
Balinese (65.18%)
Javanese (25.78%)
Chinese (1.13%)
Sasak (1.05%)
Madura (0.78%)
Sundanese (0.70%)
Flores (0.53%)
Batak (0.43%)
others (4.42%) [3] [4]
  Religion (2020) Hinduism 67.3%
Islam 22.8%
Protestantism 5.04%
Catholicism 2.36%
Buddhism 2.37%
Confucianism 0.03%
Others 0.02% [5]
  Languages Indonesian (official)
Balinese (regional)
English (international)
Javanese (minority)
Time zone UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Area code (+62) 361
Vehicle registration DK
HDI (2022)Increase2.svg 0.900 (Very High)
Website denpasarkota.go.id

Denpasar (Indonesian pronunciation:  [denˈpasar] ; Balinese: ᬤᬾᬦ᭄ᬧᬲᬃ) is the capital of Bali and the main gateway to the island. The city is also a hub for other cities in the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Contents

With the rapid growth of the tourism industry in Bali, Denpasar has encouraged and promoted business activities and ventures, contributing to it having the highest growth rate in Bali Province. The population of Denpasar was 725,314 at the 2020 Census, [6] down from 788,445 at the 2010 Census due to pandemic outflow, despite having hit 879,098 in 2015, while the metropolitan area centred on Denpasar (called Sarbagita) had 2,388,680 residents in 2020. Pandemic and travel related closures has further exacerbated the population loss, with mid 2022 estimate of 653,136 people.

Etymology

The name Denpasar – from the Balinese words "den", meaning north, and "pasar", meaning market – indicates the city's origins as a market-town, on the site of what is now Kumbasari Market (formerly "Peken Payuk"), in the northern part of the modern city. [7]

History

Colonial era

In the 18th and 19th century, Denpasar functioned as the capital of the Hindu Majapahit Kingdom of Badung. [8] Thus, the city was formerly called Badung. The royal palace was looted and razed during the Dutch intervention in 1906. A statue in Taman Puputan (Denpasar's central square) commemorates the 1906 Puputan , in which as many as a thousand Balinese, including the King and his court, committed mass suicide in front of invading Dutch troops, rather than surrender to them. [9]

Independence era

In 1958, Denpasar became the seat of government for the Province of Bali. It remained the administrative centre of both Badung Regency and the City of Denpasar. [10]

Both Denpasar and Badung Regency have experienced rapid physical, economic, social, and cultural growth. [10] Denpasar has become not only the seat of government, but also the centre of commerce, education, industry, and tourism. [10]

With an average population growth of 4.05% per annum, accompanied by rapid development, came a variety of urban problems. It was later resolved [ when? ] that meeting the needs and demands of the burgeoning urban community would be best addressed by giving Denpasar administrative independence from Badung Regency. [10]

An agreement was reached to raise the status of Denpasar to that of an autonomous city and on 15 January 1992, Act No. 1 of 1992 officially established the City of Denpasar. It was inaugurated by the Minister of Home Affairs on 27 February 1992. [10]

On 16 November 2009, in a further administrative realignment, Regulation Number 67 shifted the capital of Badung Regency from Denpasar to Mangupura.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Aerial view of northern part of Denpasar Denpasar Utara (27190547400).jpg
Aerial view of northern part of Denpasar

Denpasar is located at an elevation of 4 m (13 ft) above sea level. While the total area of 127.78 km2 or 2.18% of the total area of Bali Province. From the use of land, 2,768 hectares of land are paddy, 10,001 hectares are dry land, while the remaining land area is 9 hectares.

Badung River divides Denpasar, after which the river empties into the Gulf of Benoa. [11]

Climate

Denpasar, located just south of the equator, has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification: Am), with hot and humid weather year-round. Due to this, there is little temperature change throughout the year, with temperatures averaging about 28 degrees Celsius. The year is divided into two seasons: wet and dry. The wet season lasts roughly from November to May, while the dry season lasts from June to October.

Climate data for Denpasar, Bali
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.7
(89.1)
31.5
(88.7)
30.7
(87.3)
29.9
(85.8)
30.2
(86.4)
30.9
(87.6)
31.4
(88.5)
31.6
(88.9)
31.3
(88.3)
31.0
(87.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)26.9
(80.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
27.1
(80.8)
26.8
(80.2)
26.0
(78.8)
25.6
(78.1)
25.8
(78.4)
26.3
(79.3)
26.9
(80.4)
27.2
(81.0)
27.2
(81.0)
26.7
(80.0)
Average low °C (°F)23.1
(73.6)
23.1
(73.6)
22.9
(73.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.2
(72.0)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.4
(70.5)
21.8
(71.2)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.1
(73.6)
22.4
(72.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)323
(12.7)
251
(9.9)
199
(7.8)
89
(3.5)
86
(3.4)
75
(3.0)
67
(2.6)
47
(1.9)
46
(1.8)
117
(4.6)
162
(6.4)
279
(11.0)
1,741
(68.6)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.1174.0210.7224.7242.9228.1246.8261.7251.3252.5224.4176.42,666.6
Average ultraviolet index 131313131199121313131312
Source 1: [12]
Source 2: WeatherOnline (2000 - 2019 sunshine data) [13]

Demography

Religion in Denpasar [14]

   Balinese Hinduism (63.3%)
   Islam (28.65%)
   Protestantism (4.4%)
   Roman Catholic (2.05%)
   Buddhism (1.47%)
   Confucianism and others (0.13%)

The city's population was counted as 788,445 in 2010, up from 533,252 in the previous decade. The provincial website lists the December 2017 population at 897,300. [1]

Denpasar's population grew about 4% per year in the period from 2000 to 2010, Denpasar grew much faster from 2005 to 2010 than in the previous five years. The lingering effects of the 2002 Bali bombings had a major depressive effect on tourism, jobs, and immigration from other islands. However, if current trends continue, Denpasar is expected to easily surpass a million residents by the next census. There are about 4.57% more men than women in Denpasar. The 2015 intercensal survey (SUPAS) reported a population of 879,098 people for the city. [15]

Approximately 63.3% of the population are Hindus (BPS 2020), while Islam is the largest minority religion (28.65%), followed by Christianity (6.45%), Buddhism (1.47%), and Confucianism (0.03%). [5]

Administration

Denpasar in 1949 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Luchtfoto van Denpasar TMnr 10029767.jpg
Denpasar in 1949

Administratively, the city government consists of four districts, subdivided into 43 sub-districts with 209 villages. Denpasar has developed numerous measures to improve public services. [16]

Districts

Denpasar is divided into four districts ( kecamatan ), listed below with their 2010 Census populations: [17]

Greater Denpasar

Greater Denpasar spills out into the tourist regions, including Kuta and Ubud. The continuous built-up area includes nearly all of Badung Regency (except Petang District), and most of Gianyar Regency (except for Payangan District), and is known as Sarbagita, from Denpa"Sar"+"BA"dung+"GI"anyar+"TA"banan, a name made official by Presidential Regulation Number 45 of 2011, [18] despite Tabanan just beginning to succumb to urban sprawl. See also List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia.

Administrative divisionArea
(in km2)
Population
(2010 Census)
Population
density (per km2)
Denpasar Municipality123.98788,4456,359.45
Badung Regency418.52543,3321,293.37
Gianyar Regency368.00470,3801,278.21
Denpasar
Metropolitan Area
910.501,802,1571,979.30
Tabanan Regency839.33420,913501.49
Denpasar Extended
Metropolitan Area
(Sarbagita)
1,749.832,223,0701,270.45

Economy

Badung Market in Denpasar. Badung Market 2019.jpg
Badung Market in Denpasar.

The development of tourism and structural changes in the economy have had a strong impact on Denpasar. Trade, hotels, and restaurants dominate the city's gross regional domestic product. [19]

Also boosting the economy of Denpasar is the production of craft items such as souvenir carvings and sculptures. The craft industry, however, is experiencing pressure due to the impact of the global financial crises and competition from other Asian developing countries such as Vietnam, Thailand, India, Malaysia and China. These competitor countries maximize the scale of production by utilizing industrial technology, while at Denpasar the craft industry remains focused on traditional skills and hand-made goods, limiting the quantity of production.

Architecture

Bali was once known for its mud walls and thatched gates but gated residential developments and shop houses now characterize urban Bali. [20]

During the late 19th century, the built environment was being constructed based on the political situation of the city. This resulted in the residence of the ruling family becoming the centre of the city. [21]

Market squares played an important role in the Badung kingdom, and it continued to do so when the colonial powers came to exert control over Bali. Over the course of the 20th century, Denpasar faced the challenges of changing urban landscapes brought about by political changes. The developments that were brought about by the colonial powers were regarded as eroding the indigenous culture of Bali. Although Denpasar became known as a 'settler city', there was still a strong attachment to the indigenous culture. [22]

Denpasar has undergone massive unplanned development during the 21st century, due to the expansion of tourism leading to the construction of increasingly more modern facilities in the heart of the city. Nonetheless, the market square still plays an important role, with its façade representing traditional elements of the Balinese culture.[ citation needed ]

Tourism

Sanur Beach Sanur (beach).jpg
Sanur Beach

Denpasar has various attractions. The white sandy beaches are well-known all over the island. The surfing beach is Serangan Island. Sanur beach has calmer waters and is excellent for sunbathing and kitesurfing.

Ten minutes from the Ngurah Rai International Airport lies the town of Kuta (within Badung Regency not administratively under the city jurisdiction), where most of the hotels, restaurants, malls, cafes, marketplaces, and spas that cater to tourists are located. In the Denpasar area, all kinds of Balinese handicrafts are represented in local shops. These include artwork, pottery, textiles, and silver. Batik cloth is sold all over Denpasar, and batik sarongs and men's shirts are widely available.

Education

Denpasar has several notable universities and institutions. Some of them are

Transportation

Air

Ngurah Rai International Airport Anfahrt Ngurah Rai.jpg
Ngurah Rai International Airport

The city is served by Ngurah Rai International Airport, one of the busiest in Indonesia. [23]

Sea

Benoa Harbour is the entrance to the Denpasar by sea and is currently managed by PT Pelindo III. [24] The port is located about 10 km from the city center, and has been operating since 1924.

Land

Public transport in Denpasar, especially for urban transportation, is becoming ineffective and inefficient, [25] with only 30% of vehicles still in operation as of 2010. Public transport is not popular and is used by only about 3% of the total population. [26] Meanwhile, the growth of private vehicle ownership is at 11% per year [ citation needed ] and is not comparable with the construction of new roads. Congestion in the city of Denpasar is unavoidable due to this reason.

Since August 2011, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Sarbagita. Two main routes and some feeder lines are operated daily from 5 a.m. until 9 p.m. There is no dedicated lane for the buses: they run on main streets. In 2012 an average of 2,800 passengers per day used the service. [27]

The central government's Ministry of Transport initiated another system called as Trans Metro Dewata in 7 September 2020. The system now serves 5 corridors, all also without separate lane, focusing more on the city. [28] [29]

Two major improvements to the road system were completed in 2013. In August, the underpass at the Dewa Ruci intersection was opened. It is slightly beyond the bounds of Denpasar but was co-financed by the town because of the expected positive effects on traffic in Denpasar. [30]
Then the four-lane Bali Mandara Toll Road was opened on 1 October, connecting Benoa Harbor, Ngurah Rai Airport, and Nusa Dua.

Sport

Denpasar has hosted numerous international and national sporting events. Denpasar was the venue for 2008 Asian Beach Games in Bali. Denpasar also held 2009 Asian Archery Championships.

In football, Denpasar is home to the football club Perseden Denpasar, [31] which plays in the Liga 3.

Culture and sights

While arts and culture in Denpasar are largely synonymous with that of Hindu art and culture, there has also been a high level of interaction with other cultures that accompanied the arrival of visitors from all walks of life. Traditional values inspired by Hindu religious rituals still strongly influence the city. [32]

Traditional Balinese culture is still deeply rooted in Denpasar. It may include values, norms and behavior in society based on patrilineal kinship systems. However, over time many of the customary laws have been disputed by people, especially regarding matters of gender and inheritance. [33]

Denpasar has various sights to offer:

Museums

The Bali Museum features Balinese art and history. The museum is built in the traditional Balinese style. There are four main buildings inside the museum, each with their own unique specialization of exhibits. [37]

Sister cities

Denpasar is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bali</span> Province and island in Indonesia

Bali is a province of Indonesia and the westernmost of the Lesser Sunda Islands. East of Java and west of Lombok, the province includes the island of Bali and a few smaller neighbouring islands, notably Nusa Penida, Nusa Lembongan, and Nusa Ceningan. The provincial capital, Denpasar, is the most populous city in the Lesser Sunda Islands and the second-largest, after Makassar, in Eastern Indonesia. The upland town of Ubud in Greater Denpasar is considered Bali's cultural centre. The province is Indonesia's main tourist destination, with a significant rise in tourism since the 1980s. Tourism-related business makes up 80% of its economy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Lombok</span> Island in Indonesia

Lombok is an island in West Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia. It forms part of the chain of the Lesser Sunda Islands, with the Lombok Strait separating it from Bali to the west and the Alas Strait between it and Sumbawa to the east. It is roughly circular, with a "tail" to the southwest, about 70 kilometres across and a total area of about 4,738.65 square kilometres. The provincial capital and largest city on the island is Mataram.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Balinese people</span> Ethnic group in Indonesia

The Balinese people are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali. The Balinese population of 4.2 million live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population. There are also significant populations on the island of Lombok and in the easternmost regions of Java.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Mataram (city)</span> City and capital of West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

Mataram is a city and the capital of the Indonesian province of West Nusa Tenggara. The city is surrounded on all the landward sides by West Lombok Regency and lies on the western side of the island of Lombok, Indonesia. It is also the largest city of the province, and had a population of 402,843 at the 2010 Census and 429,651 at the 2020 Census.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Kuta</span> Place in Bali, Indonesia

Kuta is a tourist area, administratively an urban village (kelurahan), and the capital of Kuta District, Badung Regency, southern Bali, Indonesia. A former fishing village, it was one of the first towns on Bali to see substantial tourist development, and as a beach resort remains one of Indonesia's major tourist destinations. It is known internationally for its long sandy beach, varied accommodation, many restaurants and bars, and many renowned surfers who visit from Australia. It is located near Bali's Ngurah Rai Airport.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Nusa Dua</span>

Nusa Dua is a resort area built in the 1970s in the southern part of Bali, Indonesia. Known as an enclave of large five-star resorts, it covers 350 hectares of land and encloses more than 20 resorts. It is located 22 kilometers from Denpasar, the provincial capital of Bali, and is administered under South Kuta District, Badung Regency. Nusa Dua means two islands, because there are two islands in the bay of Bali Tourism Development Corporation area. On the southern side lies Peninsula Island, and on the northern side lies Nusa Dharma Island, which is smaller but shadier, and which contains the Pura/Temple Nusa Dharma.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Sanur, Bali</span> Place in Bali, Indonesia

Sanur is a coastal stretch of beach east of Denpasar in southeast Bali, which has grown into a little town in its own right. A 5.1 km (3.2 mi) area of Sanur's coastline, from Matahari Terbit Beach to Mertasari Beach, was reclaimed in 2008.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Puputan</span>

Puputan is an old Javanese loanword or term for mass ritual suicide in preference to facing the humiliation of surrender. Notable puputans in the history of Bali occurred in 1906 and 1908, when the Balinese were being subjugated by the Dutch.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">I Gusti Ngurah Rai</span>

Colonel I Gusti Ngurah Rai was an Indonesian National Hero who commanded Indonesian forces in Bali against the Dutch during the Indonesian War of Independence. He was killed in the Battle of Margarana.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Kuta</span> District in Badung Regency, Bali Province, Indonesia

South Kuta is a district (kecamatan) within Badung Regency of Bali. It consists of Nusa Dua, a large peninsula projecting south from Bali island.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Dutch intervention in Bali (1906)</span>

The Dutch intervention in Bali in 1906 was a Dutch military intervention in Bali as part of the Dutch colonial suppression, killing over 1,000 people, most of whom were civilians. It was part of the Dutch campaign for the suppression of most of the Netherlands East-Indies. The campaign killed the Balinese rulers of Badung and their wives and children, as well as destroying the southern Bali kingdoms of Badung and Tabanan and weakening the kingdom of Klungkung. It was the sixth Dutch military intervention in Bali.

Tuban, Kuta is a village in Badung Regency, Bali, Indonesia. It is served by Ngurah Rai International Airport, with Kelan bordering south. Kelan is a part of Tuban subdistricts, Kuta Subdistrict, Badung, Bali. Tuban is bordering north to Kuta, bordering east to Benoa Port, bordering south to Jimbaran and bordering west to the Indian Ocean.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Badung Regency</span> Regency in Bali, Indonesia

Badung is a regency of Bali, Indonesia. Its regency seat is in the upland town of Mangupura. It covers districts to the west of the provincial capital of Denpasar, and it has a land area of 418.52 km2.

I Wayan Gobiah was a Balinese teacher and writer. He is best known for Nemoe Karma, a 1931 novel which is considered the first Balinese-language novel.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bali Mandara Toll Road</span> Toll Road in Bali, Indonesia

Bali Mandara Toll Road or Nusa Dua-Ngurah Rai-Benoa Toll Road is a toll road carried by a bridge stretching across the Gulf of Benoa 12.7 km in length. The Rp 2.48 Trillion highway connects the city of Denpasar and South Kuta, Badung Regency, Nusa Dua and Ngurah Rai International Airport. The reason behind construction of Bali Mandara Toll Road was to prevent traffic jams on the Ngurah Rai Bypass Road, previously the only road connecting areas of Bali south of the airport with areas north of the airport. The Ngurah Rai Bypass Road, a land-based route, could not be widened because of the location of the airport runway. Consequently, the Bali Mandara Toll Road was built over water.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Trans Sarbagita</span>

Trans Sarbagita is a bus rapid transit (BRT) system in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia. The system began its operations on 18 August 2011. It was designed to rebuild Bali's public transport system. As of 2014, the buses carried 5,000 passengers per day with 25 Buses in operation. The buses run in 2 routes, the first is Batubulan-Nusa Dua vv and Denpasar Kota-Garuda Wisnu Kencana vv. The ticket prices are 3,500 IDR for adults and 2,500 IDR for students. in 2015 Trans Sarbagita launched two new routes, Tabanan-Mengwi-Bandara and Mahendradata-Sanur-Lebih.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bali Kingdom</span> Series of kingdoms in Bali, Indonesia

The Kingdomship of Bali was a series of Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms that once ruled some parts of the volcanic island of Bali, in Lesser Sunda Islands, Indonesia. With a history of native Balinese kingship spanning from the early 10th to early 20th centuries, Balinese kingdoms demonstrated sophisticated Balinese court culture where native elements of spirit and ancestral reverence combined with Hindu influences – adopted from India through ancient Java intermediary – flourished, enriched and shaped the Balinese culture.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ngurah Rai International Airport</span> Airport in Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia

I Gusti Ngurah Rai International Airport, is the main airport in Bali, located 13 km south of Denpasar. Ngurah Rai is the second busiest airport in Indonesia after Soekarno–Hatta International Airport. In 2018, the airport served 23,779,178 passengers. The airport has category IX and is capable of serving wide-body aircraft including the Boeing 747-8 and Airbus A380.

I Gusti Ngurah Made Agung (1876-1906) was the king of Badung, Bali who died in battle during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906). He was declared a National Hero of Indonesia by President Joko Widodo in 2015.

References

  1. 1 2 "BPS Provinsi Bali". Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 1 January 2014.
  2. "Denpasar in Figures 2017". Badan Pusta Statistik Denpasar. Retrieved 30 June 2018.
  3. Aris Ananta; Evi Nurvidya Arifin; M. Sairi Hasbullah; Nur Budi Handayani; dan Agus Pramono (2015). Demography of Indonesia's Ethnicity. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies dan BPS – Statistics Indonesia.
  4. "Peta Sebaran Penduduk Menurut Suku Bangsa Provinsi Bali 2000 dan 2010" (in Indonesian) Retrieved 14 July 2018
  5. 1 2 "Kota Denpasar Dalam Angka 2020". www.denpasarkota.bps.go.id. Badan Pusat Statistik. Retrieved 20 February 2021.
  6. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2021.
  7. "Gambaran Umum Kota Denpasar dan Pemertahanan Bahasa Bali" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  8. Achmadi, Amanda (2010). "Reading urban Bali: Untold history, unwanted urbanism". RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs. 44 (2): 156. ISSN   0815-7251.
  9. "Bali History from 1846 to 1949 – Bali Historical Guide, The Dutch Occupation in Bali" . Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 "Sejarah Kota Denpasar" . Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  11. I.B. Kade Sugirawan, Kondisi Ekologi Perairan Muara Sungai Badung di Teluk Benoa Ditinjau dari Parameter Fisika, Kimia, dan Biologi, Skripsi, Institut Pertanian Bogor, 1992.
  12. "Denpasar Climate".
  13. "Total Hours of Sunshine - Denpasar - Climate Robot Indonesia". www.weatheronline.co.uk. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
  14. "Penduduk Menurut Wilayah dan Agama yang Dianut di Kota Denpasar". sp2010.bps.go.id. Retrieved 2 September 2021.
  15. "Penduduk Bali 2015" [ permanent dead link ]
  16. Djojosoekarto, A., Siahaan, H.M.P., Setiyawati, N.H., (2008), Pelayanan publik dalam persepsi masyarakat: hasil survei persepsi masyarakat dengan metode citizen report card di daerah, Kemitraan Partnership, ISBN   979-26-9631-8
  17. Biro Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, 2011.
  18. "Kerja Sama Kunci Terwujudnya Perpres Rencana Tata Ruang Kawasan Perkotaan". BKPRN. Archived from the original on 1 July 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  19. "Motivasi Kerja Perempuan Bali pada Hotel Berbintang di Kota Denpasar" (PDF). LIPI. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2011.
  20. Achmadi, Amanda (2010). "Reading urban Bali: Untold history, unwanted urbanism". RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs. 44 (2): 149–178. ISSN   0815-7251.
  21. Achmadi, Amanda (2010). "Reading urban Bali: Untold history, unwanted urbanism". RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs. 44 (2): 157–158. ISSN   0815-7251.
  22. Achmadi, Amanda (2010). "Reading urban Bali: Untold history, unwanted urbanism". RIMA: Review of Indonesian and Malaysian Affairs. 44 (2): 155. ISSN   0815-7251.
  23. Anjaiah, Veeramalla. "Indian firm to manage Bali airport operations". The Jakarta Post . Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  24. "Benoa – Bali". PT Pelabuhan Indonesia III (PERSERO). Archived from the original on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  25. Ni Nyoman Murniasih, Evaluasi Kinerja Pelayanan Aangkutan Kota Denpasar Ditinjau Dari Pihak Operator, Skripsi, Institut Teknologi Bandung, 2005
  26. "Angkot di Denpasar Mati Suri". Bali Post. Archived from the original on 17 May 2013. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  27. "Trans Sarbagita buses claimed to ease traffic". TheJakartaPost. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 21 March 2013.
  28. "Trans Metro Dewata Diluncurkan Di Bali" . Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  29. "Rute Trans Metro Dewata" . Retrieved 24 July 2021.
  30. "Dewa Ruci underpass officially opened". TheJakartaPost.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2013.
  31. "Perseden Denpasar Tembus Babak Semifinal". KONI. Retrieved 25 January 2013.
  32. Profil daerah kabupaten dan kota, Volume 2, Penerbit Buku Kompas, 2001, ISBN   979-709-054-X.
  33. Mery Wanyi Rihi, Kedudukan Anak Angkat Menurut Hukum Waris Adat Bali (Studi Kasus Di Kelurahan Sesetan, Kecamatan Denpasar Selatan, Kota Denpasar dan Pengadilan Negeri Denpasar), Tesis, Universitas Diponegoro, 2006
  34. Birgit Borowski. Bali and Lombok, p. 133. Ostfildern 2013
  35. Birgit Borowski. Bali and Lombok, p. 137. Ostfildern 2013
  36. Birgit Borowski. Bali and Lombok, p. 134. Ostfildern 2013
  37. Bali and Lombok, pp. 62–62.
  38. "International co-operation of Gdynia". Gdynia.pl. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016.