Denpasar

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Denpasar
City of Denpasar
Kota Denpasar
Other transcription(s)
   Balinese ᬤᬾᬦ᭄ᬧᬲᬃ
Aerial view of Bajra Sandhi Monument Denpasar Bali Indonesia.jpg
Aerial view of the Bajra Sandhi Monument
Flag of Denpasar City.png
Lambang Denpasar City.png
Motto(s): 
ᬧᬸᬭᬟᬶᬧᬪᬭᬪᬯᬦ (Balinese)
Puradhipa Bhara Bhavana
(The Capital Supports The Country)
Location Denpasar.png
Location within Bali
Indonesia Bali location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Denpasar
Indonesia Lesser Sunda Islands location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Denpasar
Denpasar (Lesser Sunda Islands)
Indonesia location map.svg
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Denpasar
Denpasar (Indonesia)
Coordinates: 8°39′S115°13′E / 8.650°S 115.217°E / -8.650; 115.217 Coordinates: 8°39′S115°13′E / 8.650°S 115.217°E / -8.650; 115.217
Country Flag of Indonesia.svg  Indonesia
Region Lesser Sunda Islands
Province Coat of arms of Bali.svg  Bali
Settled27 February 1788
Government
  Mayor I.G. Ngurah Jaya Negara
  Vice Mayor I Kadek Agus Arya Wibawa
Area
  Total123.98 km2 (47.87 sq mi)
Elevation
4 m (13 ft)
Population
 (2017)
  Total897,300
  Density7,200/km2 (19,000/sq mi)
  [1] [2]
Demographics
  Ethnic groups
(2010)
Balinese (65.18%)
Javanese (25.78%)
Chinese (1.13%)
Sasak (1.05%)
Madura (0.78%)
Sundanese (0.70%)
Flores (0.53%)
Batak (0.43%)
others (4.42%) [3] [4]
  Religion (2020) Hinduism 67.3%
Islam 22.8%
Protestantism 5.04%
Catholicism 2.36%
Buddhism 2.37%
Confucianism 0.03%
Others 0.02% [5]
  Languages Indonesian (official)
Balinese (regional)
English (international)
Javanese (minority)
Time zone UTC+8 (Indonesia Central Time)
Area code (+62) 361
Vehicle registration DK
HDI Increase2.svg 0.836 (Very High)
Website denpasarkota.go.id
Denpasar montage Denpasar Montage.jpg
Denpasar montage

Denpasar (Indonesian pronunciation:  [denˈpasar] ) (Balinese: ᬤᬾᬦ᭄ᬧᬲᬃ) is the capital of Bali and the main gateway to the island. The city is also a hub for other cities in the Lesser Sunda Islands.

Contents

With the rapid growth of the tourism industry in Bali, Denpasar has encouraged and promoted business activities and ventures, contributing to it having the highest growth rate in Bali Province. The population of Denpasar was 897,300 in 2017, [1] up from 788,445 at the 2010 Census. The surrounding metropolitan area has roughly 2 million residents.

Etymology

The name Denpasar – from the Balinese words "den", meaning north, and "pasar", meaning market – indicates the city's origins as a market-town, on the site of what is now Kumbasari Market (formerly "Peken Payuk"), in the northern part of the modern city. [6]

History

Colonial era

In the 18th and 19th century, Denpasar functioned as the capital of the Hindu Majapahit Kingdom of Badung. [7] Thus, the city was formerly called Badung. The royal palace was looted and razed during the Dutch intervention in 1906. A statue in Taman Puputan (Denpasar's central square) commemorates the 1906 Puputan , in which as many as a thousand Balinese, including the King and his court, committed mass suicide in front of invading Dutch troops, rather than surrender to them. [8]

Independence era

In 1958, Denpasar became the seat of government for the Province of Bali. It remained the administrative centre of both Badung Regency and the City of Denpasar. [9]

Both Denpasar and Badung Regency have experienced rapid physical, economic, social, and cultural growth. [9] Denpasar has become not only the seat of government, but also the centre of commerce, education, industry, and tourism. [9]

With an average population growth of 4.05% per annum, accompanied by rapid development, came a variety of urban problems. It was later resolved[ when? ] that meeting the needs and demands of the burgeoning urban community would be best addressed by giving Denpasar administrative independence from Badung Regency. [9] An agreement was reached to raise the status of Denpasar to that of an autonomous city and on 15 January 1992, Act No. 1 of 1992 officially established the City of Denpasar. It was inaugurated by the Minister of Home Affairs on 27 February 1992. [9]

On 16 November 2009, in a further administrative realignment, Regulation Number 67 shifted the capital of Badung Regency from Denpasar to Mangupura.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Denpasar is located at an elevation of 4 m (13 ft) above sea level. While the total area of 127.78 km2 or 2.18% of the total area of Bali Province. From the use of land, 2,768 hectares of land are paddy, 10,001 hectares are dry land, while the remaining land area is 9 hectares.

Badung River divides Denpasar, after which the river empties into the Gulf of Benoa. [10]

Climate

Denpasar, located just south of the equator, has a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen climate classification: Aw), with hot and humid weather year-round. Due to this, there is little temperature change throughout the year, with temperatures averaging about 28 degrees Celsius. The year is divided into two seasons: wet and dry. The wet season lasts roughly from November to May, while the dry season lasts from June to October.

Climate data for Denpasar, Bali
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Average high °C (°F)33.0
(91.4)
33.4
(92.1)
33.6
(92.5)
34.4
(93.9)
33.1
(91.6)
31.4
(88.5)
30.4
(86.7)
29.6
(85.3)
31.4
(88.5)
33.6
(92.5)
32.7
(90.9)
33.0
(91.4)
32.5
(90.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)28.6
(83.5)
28.8
(83.8)
28.8
(83.8)
29.6
(85.3)
28.6
(83.5)
27.4
(81.3)
26.7
(80.1)
26.1
(79.0)
27.1
(80.8)
28.6
(83.5)
28.1
(82.6)
28.2
(82.8)
28.1
(82.5)
Average low °C (°F)24.1
(75.4)
24.2
(75.6)
24.0
(75.2)
24.8
(76.6)
24.1
(75.4)
23.5
(74.3)
23.0
(73.4)
22.5
(72.5)
22.9
(73.2)
23.7
(74.7)
23.5
(74.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.6
(74.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)345
(13.6)
274
(10.8)
234
(9.2)
88
(3.5)
93
(3.7)
53
(2.1)
55
(2.2)
25
(1.0)
47
(1.9)
63
(2.5)
179
(7.0)
276
(10.9)
1,732
(68.4)
Average precipitation days191714106543261117114
Average relative humidity (%)85858585808080808080858583
Mean monthly sunshine hours 173.1174.0210.7224.7242.9228.1246.8261.7251.3252.5224.4176.42,666.6
Source 1: Weatherbase [11]
Source 2: WeatherOnline (2000 - 2019 sunshine data) [12]

Demography

The city's population was counted as 788,445 in 2010, up from 533,252 in the previous decade. The provincial website lists the December 2017 population at 897,300. [1]

Denpasar's population grew about 4% per year in the period from 2000 to 2010, Denpasar grew much faster from 2005 to 2010 than in the previous five years. The lingering effects of the 2002 Bali bombings had a major depressive effect on tourism, jobs, and immigration from other islands. However, if current trends continue, Denpasar is expected to easily surpass a million residents by the next census. There are about 4.57% more men than women in Denpasar. The 2015 intercensal survey (SUPAS) reported a population of 879,098 people for the city. [13]

Religion in Denpasar [14]

   Balinese Hinduism (63.3%)
   Islam (28.65%)
   Protestantism (4.4%)
   Roman catholic (2.05%)
   Buddhism (1.47%)
   Confucianism and others (0.13%)

Approximately 63.3% of the population are Hindus (BPS 2020), while Islam is the largest minority religion (28.65%), followed by Christianity (6.45%), Buddhism (1.47%), and Confucianism (0.03%). [5]

Administration

Denpasar in 1949 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Luchtfoto van Denpasar TMnr 10029767.jpg
Denpasar in 1949

Administratively, the city government consists of four districts, subdivided into 43 sub-districts with 209 villages. Denpasar has developed numerous measures to improve public services. [15]

Districts

Denpasar is divided into four districts ( kecamatan ), listed below with their 2010 Census populations: [16]

Greater Denpasar

Greater Denpasar spills out into the tourist regions, including Kuta and Ubud. The continuous built-up area includes nearly all of Badung Regency (except Petang District), and most of Gianyar Regency (except for Payangan District), and is known as Sarbagita, from Denpa"Sar"+"BA"dung+"GI"anyar+"TA"banan, a name made official by Presidential Regulation Number 45 of 2011, [17] despite Tabanan just beginning to succumb to urban sprawl. See also List of metropolitan areas in Indonesia.

Administrative divisionArea
(in km2)
Population
(2010 Census)
Population
density (per km2)
Denpasar Municipality123.98788,4456,359.45
Badung Regency418.52543,3321,293.37
Gianyar Regency368.00470,3801,278.21
Denpasar
Metropolitan Area
910.501,802,1571,979.30
Tabanan Regency839.33420,913501.49
Denpasar Extended
Metropolitan Area
(Sarbagita)
1,749.832,223,0701,270.45

Economy

Badung Market in Denpasar. Badung market 2019.jpg
Badung Market in Denpasar.

The development of tourism and structural changes in the economy have had a strong impact on Denpasar. Trade, hotels, and restaurants dominate the city's gross regional domestic product. [18]

Also boosting the economy of Denpasar is the production of craft items such as souvenir carvings and sculptures. The craft industry, however, is experiencing pressure due to the impact of the global financial crises and competition from other Asian developing countries such as Vietnam, Thailand, India, Malaysia and China. These competitor countries maximize the scale of production by utilizing industrial technology, while at Denpasar the craft industry remains focused on traditional skills and hand-made goods, limiting the quantity of production.

Architecture

The real Bali was known for its mud walls and thatched gates. [19] However, gated residential developments and shop houses now characterize urban Bali.

During the late 19th century, the built environment was being constructed based on the political situation of the city. This resulted in the residence of the ruling family becoming the centre of the city. [20] Market squares played an important role in the Badung kingdom, and it continued to do so when the colonial powers came to exert control over Bali. Over the course of the 20th century, Denpasar faced the challenges of changing urban landscapes brought about by political changes. The developments that were brought about by the colonial powers were regarded as eroding the indigenous culture of Bali. Although Denpasar became known as a 'settler city', there was still a strong attachment to the indigenous culture. [21]

Denpasar has undergone massive unplanned development during the 21st century, due to the expansion of tourism leading to the construction of increasingly more modern facilities in the heart of the city. Nonetheless, the market square still plays an important role, with its façade representing traditional elements of the Balinese culture.

Tourism

Sanur Beach Sanur (beach).jpg
Sanur Beach

Denpasar has various attractions. The white sandy beaches are well-known all over the island. The surfing beach is Serangan Island. Sanur beach has calmer waters and is excellent for sunbathing and kitesurfing.

Ten minutes from the Ngurah Rai International Airport lies the town of Kuta (within Badung Regency not administratively under the city jurisdiction), where most of the hotels, restaurants, malls, cafes, marketplaces, and spas that cater to tourists are located. In the Denpasar area, all kinds of Balinese handicrafts are represented in local shops. These include artwork, pottery, textiles, and silver. Batik cloth is sold all over Denpasar, and batik sarongs and men's shirts are widely available.

Education

Denpasar has several notable universities and institutions. Some of them are

Transportation

Air

Ngurah Rai International Airport Anfahrt Ngurah Rai.jpg
Ngurah Rai International Airport

The city is served by Ngurah Rai International Airport, one of the busiest in Indonesia. [22]

Sea

Benoa Harbour is the entrance to the Denpasar by sea and is currently managed by PT Pelindo III. [23] The port is located about 10 km from the city center, and has been operating since 1924.

Land

Public transport in Denpasar, especially for urban transportation, is becoming ineffective and inefficient, [24] with only 30% of vehicles still in operation as of 2010. Public transport is not popular and is used by only about 3% of the total population. [25] Meanwhile, the growth of private vehicle ownership is at 11% per year [ citation needed ] and is not comparable with the construction of new roads. Congestion in the city of Denpasar is unavoidable due to this reason.

Since August 2011, the city has operated a bus rapid transit system called Trans Sarbagita. Two main routes and some feeder lines are operated daily from 5 a.m. until 9 p.m. There is no dedicated lane for the buses: they run on main streets. In 2012 an average of 2,800 passengers per day used the service. [26]

Two major improvements to the road system were completed in 2013. In August, the underpass at the Dewa Ruci intersection was opened. It is slightly beyond the bounds of Denpasar but was co-financed by the town because of the expected positive effects on traffic in Denpasar. [27]
Then the four-lane Bali Mandara Toll Road was opened on 1 October, connecting Benoa Harbor, Ngurah Rai Airport, and Nusa Dua.

Sport

Denpasar has hosted numerous international and national sporting events. Denpasar was the venue for 2008 Asian Beach Games in Bali. Denpasar also held 2009 Asian Archery Championships.

In football, Denpasar is home to the football club Perseden Denpasar, [28] which plays in the Liga 3.

Culture and sights

While arts and culture in Denpasar are largely synonymous with that of Hindu art and culture, there has also been a high level of interaction with other cultures that accompanied the arrival of visitors from all walks of life. Traditional values inspired by Hindu religious rituals still strongly influence the city. [29]

Traditional Balinese culture is still deeply rooted in Denpasar. It may include values, norms and behavior in society based on patrilineal kinship systems. However, over time many of the customary laws have been disputed by people, especially regarding matters of gender and inheritance. [30]

Denpasar has various sights to offer:

Museums

The Bali Museum features Balinese art and history. The museum is built in the traditional Balinese style. There are four main buildings inside the museum, each with their own unique specialization of exhibits. [34]

Sister cities

Denpasar is twinned with:

See also

Related Research Articles

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Puputan

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