Deobandi

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Deobandi (Pashto and Persian : دیوبندی; Urdu : دیوبندی; Bengali : দেওবন্দি; Hindi : देवबन्दी) is a revivalist movement within Sunni (primarily Hanafi) Islam. [1] It is centered in India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Bangladesh, has spread to the United Kingdom, and has a presence in South Africa. [2] The name derives from Deoband, India, where the school Darul Uloom Deoband is situated. The movement was inspired by scholar Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703–1762), [3] [4] and it was founded in 1867 in the wake of the First War of Indian Independence in northern India a decade earlier. [5]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Bengali language Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Bengali people of South Asia

Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla, is an Indo-Aryan language primarily spoken by the Bengalis in South Asia. It is the official and most widely spoken language of Bangladesh and second most widely spoken of the 22 scheduled languages of India, behind Hindi. In 2015, 160 million speakers were reported for Bangladesh, and the 2011 Indian census counted another 100 million.

Hanafi one of the four Madhhabs in jurisprudence within Sunni Islam

The Hanafi school is one of the four religious Sunni Islamic schools of jurisprudence (fiqh). It is named after the scholar Abū Ḥanīfa an-Nu‘man ibn Thābit, a tabi‘i whose legal views were preserved primarily by his two most important disciples, Abu Yusuf and Muhammad al-Shaybani. The other major schools of Sharia in Sunni Islam are Maliki, Shafi`i and Hanbali.

Contents

History

The Deobandi movement developed as a reaction to the British colonialism which was seen by a group of Indian scholars consisting of Rashid Ahmad Gangohi, Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi, Shah Rafi al-Din, Sayyid Muhammad Abid, Zulfiqar Ali, Fadhl al-Rahman Usmani and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi to be corrupting Islam. The group founded an Islamic seminary known as Darul Uloom Deoband, [6] where the Islamic revivalist and anti-imperialist ideology of the Deobandis began to develop. [7] In time, the Darul Uloom Deoband became the second largest focal point of Islamic teaching and research after the Al-Azhar University, Cairo. Through the organisations such as Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and Tablighi Jamaat, the Deobandi ideology began to spread.

Rashīd Aḥmad ibn Hidāyat Aḥmad Ayyūbī Anṣārī Gangohī was an Indian Deobandi Islamic scholar, a leading figure of the Deobandi movement, a Hanafi jurist and scholar of hadith.

Muhammad Yaqub Nanautawi (1833–1884) - alternately, Nanotvi - was an Indian Islamic scholar, and one of the earliest teachers of Islamic Madrassa in Deoband, famously called Darul Uloom Deoband in India.

Darul Uloom Deoband madrasah

The Darul Uloom Deoband is the Darul uloom Islamic school in India where the Sunni Deobandi Islamic movement began. It is located at Deoband, a town in Saharanpur district, Uttar Pradesh. The school was founded in 1866 by the ulema.

Towards the time of the Indian independence movement, the Deobandis advocated a notion of composite nationalism by which Hindus and Muslims were seen as one nation who were asked to be united in the struggle against the British. [8] In 1919, a large group of Deobandi scholars formed the political party Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind and opposed the partition of India. [8] Deobandi scholar Maulana Syed Husain Ahmad Madani helped to spread these ideas through his text Muttahida Qaumiyat Aur Islam . [8] A minority group later dissented from this position and joined Muhammad Ali Jinnah's Muslim League, forming the Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam in 1945. [9]

Indian independence movement Indian struggle for freedom from British

The Indian independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end the British Raj and encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Raj (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years (1857–1947) considering movement against British Indian Empire. The Indian Independence movement includes both protest and militant (violent) mechanisms to root out British Administration from India.

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind Indian Islamic organization

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind or Jamiat Ulama-I-Hind is one of the leading organisations of Islamic scholars belonging to the Deobandi school of thought in India. It was founded in 1919 by a group of Deobandi scholars. Mufti Kifayatullah was elected the first president of the organization.

Opposition to the partition of India

Opposition to the partition of India was widespread in British India in the 20th century and it continues to remain a contentious issue in South Asian politics. Most individuals of the Hindu and Sikh faiths were opposed to the partition of India, as were many Muslims in that country.

Graduates of Darul Uloom Deoband in India from countries such as Saudi Arabia, South Africa, China and Malaysia opened thousands of madaaris throughout the world. [10] :33

Presence

In India

The Deobandi Movement in India is controlled by the Darul Uloom Deoband and the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind. About 20% of the Indian Muslims [11] identify as Deobandi. Even though a minority, the Deobandis form the dominant group among Indian Muslims due to their access to state resources and representation in Muslim bodies. The Deobandis are referred to as 'Wahhabis' by their opponents — the Barelvis and the Shias. In reality, they are not Wahhabis, even though they share many of their beliefs. The true Wahhabis among Indian Muslims are said to be fewer than 5 percent. [12] [13] [14] [15]

Islam in India

Islam is the second-largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or 201 million people identifying as adherents of Islam. It makes India the country with the largest Muslim population outside Muslim-majority countries. The majority of Indian Muslims belong to the Sunni sect of Islam. The religion first arrived at the western coast of India when Arab traders as early as the 7th century CE came to coastal Malabar and Konkan-Gujarat. Cheraman Juma Mosque in Kerala is thought to be the first mosque in India, built in 629 CE by Malik Deenar. Following an expedition by the governor of Bahrain to Bharuch in the 7th century CE, immigrant Arab and Persian trading communities from South Arabia and the Persian Gulf began settling in coastal Gujarat. Ismaili Shia Islam was introduced to Gujarat in the second half of the 11th century, when Fatimid Imam Al-Mustansir Billah sent missionaries to Gujarat in 467 AH/1073 CE. Islam arrived in North India in the 12th century via the Turkic invasions and has since become a part of India's religious and cultural heritage. Over the centuries, there has been significant integration of Hindu and Muslim cultures across India and Muslims have played a notable role in economics, politics, and culture of India.

Barelvi movement of Ahmad Raza Khan Brailvi

Barelvi is a movement following the Sunni Hanafi school of jurisprudence, with over 200 million followers in South Asia. The name derives from the north Indian town of Bareilly, the hometown of its founder and main leader Ahmed Raza Khan (1856–1921). Although Barelvi is the commonly used term in the media and academia, the followers of the movement often prefer to be known by the title of Ahle Sunnat wa Jama'at, or as Sunnis, a reference to their perception as forming an international majority movement.

In Pakistan

An estimated 15–20 percent of Pakistan's Sunni Muslims consider themselves Deobandi. [16] According to Heritage Online, nearly 65% of the total seminaries (Madrasah) in Pakistan are run by Deobandis, whereas 25% are run by Barelvis, 6% by Ahl-i Hadith and 3% by various Shia organizations. The Deobandi movement in Pakistan was a major recipient of funding from Saudi Arabia from the early 1980s up until the early 2000s, whereafter this funding was diverted to the rival Ahl al-Hadith movement. [17] Having seen Deoband as a counterbalance to Iranian influence in the region, Saudi funding is now strictly reserved for the Ahl al-Hadith. [17] Many Deobandi schools in Pakistan teach Wahhabi principles. [18]

Ahl-i Hadith

Ahl-i Hadith or Ahl-e-Hadith is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century from the teachings of Syed Nazeer Husain and Siddiq Hasan Khan. Adherents of Ahl-i Hadith profess to hold the same views as the early Ahl al-Hadith movement. They regard the Quran, sunnah, and hadith as the sole sources of religious authority and oppose everything introduced in Islam after the earliest times. In particular, they reject taqlid and favor ijtihad based on the scriptures.

Ahl al-Hadith was an Islamic school of thought that first emerged during the 2nd/3rd Islamic centuries of the Islamic era as a movement of hadith scholars who considered the Quran and authentic hadith to be the only authority in matters of law and creed. Its adherents have also been referred to as traditionalists and sometimes traditionists.

In the United Kingdom

In the 1970s, Deobandis opened the first British-based Muslim religious seminaries (Dar ul-Ulooms), educating Imams and religious scholars. [19] Deobandis "have been quietly meeting the religious and spiritual needs of a significant proportion of British Muslims, and are perhaps the most influential British Muslim group." [19]

According to a 2007 "investigation" by The Times , about 600 of Britain's nearly 1,500 mosques were under the control of "a hardline sect", whose leading preacher loathed Western values, called on Muslims to "shed blood" for Allah and preached contempt for Jews, Christians and Hindus. The same investigative report further said that 17 of the country's 26 Islamic seminaries follow the ultra-conservative Deobandi teachings which The Times said had given birth to the Taliban. According to The Times almost 80% of all domestically trained Ulema were being trained in these hardline seminaries. [20] An opinion column in The Guardian described this "investigation" as "a toxic mixture of fact, exaggeration and outright nonsense." [21]

In 2014 it was reported that 45 per cent of Britain’s mosques and nearly all the UK-based training of Islamic scholars are controlled by the Deobandi, the largest single Islamic group. [22]

Beliefs

The Deobandi movement sees itself as a scholastic tradition, situated within Sunni Islam. It grew out of the Islamic scholastic tradition of Medieval Transoxania and Mughal India, and it considers its visionary forefather to be Shah Waliullah Dehlawi (1703-1762), the celebrated Indian Islamic scholar.

Fiqh (Islamic law)

Deobandis are strong proponents of the doctrine of Taqlid . In other words, they believe that a Muslim must adhere to one of the four schools (madhhabs) of Sunni Islamic Law and generally discourage inter-school eclecticism. [23] They themselves are predominantly followers of the Hanafi school. [24] [25] Students at madrasas affiliated with the Deobandi movement study the classic books of Hanafi Law such as Nur al-Idah, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, Sharh al-Wiqayah, and Kanz al-Daqa’iq, culminating their study of the madhhab with the Hidayah of al-Marghinani. [26]

With regard to views on Taqlid, one of their main opposing reformist groups are the Ahl-i-Hadith, also known as the Ghair Muqallid , the nonconformists, because they eschewed taqlid in favor of the direct use of Quran and Hadith. [27] They often accuse those who adhere to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of blind imitation, and frequently demand scriptural evidence for every argument and legal ruling. [28] Almost since the very beginnings of the movement, Deobandi scholars have generated a copious amount of scholarly output in an attempt to defend their adherence to a madhhab in general. In particular, Deobandis have penned much literature in defense of their argument that the Hanafi madhhab is in complete accordance with the Quran and Hadith. [29]

In response to this need to defend their madhhab in the light of scripture, Deobandis became particularly distinguished for their unprecedented salience to the study of Hadith in their madrasas. Their madrasa curriculum incorporates a feature unique among the global arena of Islamic scholarship, the Daura-e Hadis, the capstone year of a student's advanced madrasa training, in which all six canonical collections of the Sunni Hadith (the Sihah Sittah) are reviewed. [30] In a Deobandi madrasa, the position of Shaykh al-Hadith, or the resident professor of Sahih Bukhari, is held in much reverence.

Theology

In tenets of faith, the Deobandis follow the Maturidi school of Islamic theology. [24] [31] [32] Their schools teach a short text on beliefs by the Maturidi scholar Nasafi. [33]

Sufism

Deoband's curriculum combined the study of Islamic scriptures (Qur'an, Hadith and Law) with rational subjects (logic, philosophy and science). At the same time it was Sufi in orientation and affiliated with the Chisti order. Its Sufism however, was closely integrated with Hadith scholarship and the proper legal practice of Islam. [6]

According to Qari Muhammad Tayyib the 8th rector or Mohtamim of the Darul Uloom Deoband who died in 1983 "the Ulema of Deoband ... in conduct ... are Sufis, ... in Sulook they are Chisti [a Sufi order] .... They are initiates of the Chistiyyah, Naqshbandiya, Qadriyah and Suhrawardiyya Sufi orders.” [32] [34] [35] [36]

The founders of the Deobandi movement, Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and Muhammad Qasim Nanotvi, studied Sufism at the feet of Haji Imdadullah Muhajir Makki. [37]

Darul Uloom Deoband's conservativism and fundamentalist theology has latterly led to a de facto fusion of its teachings with wahabism in Pakistan, which "has all but shattered the mystical Sufi presence" there. [10] :34 Recently Arshad Madani, an influential leader of Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind rejected Sufism and said, "Sufism is no sect of Islam. It is not found in the Quran or Hadith. .... So what is Sufism in itself? Sufism is nothing." [38]

Dawah (proselytizing) movements

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind

Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind is one of the leading Islamic organizations in India. It was founded in British India in 1919 by Abdul Mohasim Sajjad, Qazi Hussain Ahmed, Ahmed Saeed Dehlvi, and Mufti Muhammad Naeem Ludhianvi and the most importantly Mufti Kifayatullah who was elected the first president of Jamiat and remained in this post for 20 years. [39] The Jamiat has propounded a theological basis for its nationalistic philosophy. Their thesis is that Muslims and non-Muslims have entered upon a mutual contract in India since independence, to establish a secular state. The Constitution of India represents this contract.[ citation needed ]

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam

Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (JUI) is a Deobandi organization, part of the Deobandi movement. [40] The JUI formed when members broke from the Jamiat Ulema-e-Hind in 1945 after that organization backed the Indian National Congress against the Muslim League's lobby for a separate Pakistan. [41] The first president of the JUI was Shabbir Ahmad Usmani.

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam

Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam (Urdu : مجلس احرارلأسلام), also known in short as Ahrar, was a conservative Deobandi political party in the Indian subcontinent during the British Raj (prior to the independence of Pakistan) founded December 29, 1929 at Lahore. Chaudhry Afzal Haq, Syed Ata Ullah Shah Bukhari, Habib-ur-Rehman Ludhianvi, Mazhar Ali Azhar, Zafar Ali Khan and Dawood Ghaznavi were the founders of the party. [42] The Ahrar was composed of Indian Muslims disillusioned by the Khilafat Movement, which cleaved closer to the Congress Party. [43] [ page needed ] The party was associated with opposition to Muhammad Ali Jinnah and establishment of an independent Pakistan as well as Criticism of the Kadiani Community. [44] After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Majlis-e-Ahrar divided in two parts. Now, Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-Islam is working for the sake of Muhammad[ vague ], nifaaz Hakomat-e-illahiyya and Khidmat-e-Khalq. In Pakistan, Ahrar secretariat is in Lahore and in India it is based in Ludhiana.

Tablighi Jamaat

Tablighi Jamaat, a non political Muslim missionary organisation, began as an offshoot of the Deobandi movement. [45] Its inception is believed to be a response to Hindu reform movements, which were considered a threat to vulnerable and non-practicing Muslims. It gradually expanded from a local to a national organisation, and finally to a transnational movement with followers in over 150 countries. Although its beginnings were from the Deobandi movement, no particular interpretation of Islam has been endorsed since the beginning of the movement. [46]

Associated political organizations

Associated militant organizations

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi

Lashkar-e-Jhangvi (LJ) (Army of Jhangvi) is a militant organization. Formed in 1996, it has operated in Pakistan since Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP). Riaz Basra broke away from the SSP over differences with his seniors. [47] The group is considered a terrorist group by Pakistan and the United States, [48] and continues to be involved in attacks on Shi'a civilians and protectors of them. [49] [50] Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is predominantly Punjabi. [51] The group has been labelled by intelligence officials in Pakistan as a major security threat. [52]

Taliban

The Taliban ("students"), alternative spelling Taleban, [53] is an Islamic fundamentalist political movement in Afghanistan. It spread into Afghanistan and formed a government, ruling as the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan from September 1996 until December 2001, with Kandahar as the capital. While in power, it enforced its strict interpretation of Sharia law. [54] While many leading Muslims and Islamic scholars have been highly critical of the Taliban's interpretations of Islamic law, [55] the Darul Uloom Deoband has consistently supported the Taliban in Afghanistan, including their 2001 destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan, [10] :34 and the majority of the Taliban's leaders were influenced by Deobandi fundamentalism. [56] Pashtunwali, the Pashtun tribal code, also played a significant role in the Taliban's legislation. [57] The Taliban were condemned internationally for their brutal treatment of women. [58] [59]

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan

Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (the TTP), alternatively referred to as the Pakistani Taliban, is an umbrella organization of various Islamist militant groups based in the northwestern Federally Administered Tribal Areas along the Afghan border in Pakistan. In December 2007 about 13 groups united under the leadership of Baitullah Mehsud to form the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. [60] [61] Among the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan's stated objectives are resistance against the Pakistani state, enforcement of their interpretation of sharia and a plan to unite against NATO-led forces in Afghanistan. [60] [61] [62]

The TTP is not directly affiliated with the Afghan Taliban movement led by Mullah Omar, with both groups differing greatly in their histories, strategic goals and interests although they both share a primarily Deobandi interpretation of Islam and are predominantly Pashtun. [62] [63]

Sipah-e-Sahaba

Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan (SSP) is a banned Pakistani militant organization, and a formerly registered Pakistani political party. Established in the early 1980s in Jhang by the militant leader Haq Nawaz Jhangvi, its stated goal is primarily to deter major Shiite influence in Pakistan in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. [64] [65] The organization was banned by President Pervez Musharraf in 2002 as being a terrorist group under the Anti-Terrorism Act of 1997. [64] [65] In October 2000 Masood Azhar, another militant leader, and founder of Jaish-e-Mohammed (JeM), was quoted as saying that "Sipah-e-Sahaba stands shoulder to shoulder with Jaish-e-Muhammad in Jehad." [66] A leaked U.S. diplomatic cable described JeM as "another SSP breakaway Deobandi organization." [67]

Notable institutions

India

Pakistan

Bangladesh

United Kingdom

South Africa

United States and Canada

Iran

Scholars

Founding figures

Patrons

Other associated scholars

Contemporary Deobandis

See also

Related Research Articles

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  28. Khan, Fareeha (2008). Traditionalist Approaches to Shari'ah Reform: Mawlana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi's Fatwa on Women's Right to Divorce(Doctoral Dissertation -- University of Michigan)|format= requires |url= (help). p. 59. Polemicists from among the Ahl-i Hadith were especially being targeted in Thanawi's explanation, since they accused those who adhered to the rulings of one scholar or legal school of "blind imitation." It was the practice of the Ahl-i Hadith to demand and provide proofs for every argument and legal ruling.
  29. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 24. The Deobandi sensitivity to the Ahl-i Hadith challenge is indicated by the polemics they engaged in with the Ahl-i Hadith and by the large commentaries on classical works of hadith written specifically to refute them
  30. Zaman, Muhammad Qasim (2002). The Ulama in Contemporary Islam: Custodians of Change. Princeton University Press. p. 39. ...gave a new and, in the Indian context, unprecedented salience to the study of hadith in their madrasas. Hadith had, of course, been studied in precolonial Indian madrasas, but the Deobandis instituted the practice of studying (or, more exactly, “reviewing”) all six of the Sunni canonical collections of hadith in the course of a single year; this practice has come to serve in Indian and Pakistani madrasas as the capstone of a student’s advanced madrasa
  31. David Emmanuel Singh, Islamization in Modern South Asia: Deobandi Reform and the Gujjar Response, p 167.
  32. 1 2 ibnummabd on February 19, 2009 at 6:04 pm (19 February 2009). "About". Deoband.org. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
  33. Martin van Bruinessen, Stefano Allievi, Producing Islamic Knowledge: Transmission and Dissemination in Western Europe, p 100. ISBN   1136932860
  34. Fatawa Rahimiyyah (Eng. Trans.), vol.1, p.58.
  35. The Deobandis are followers of Sufism| ahya.org
  36. Traversing the path of Suluk| January 26, 2012
  37. Brannon Ingram (University of North Carolina), Sufis, Scholars and Scapegoats: Rashid Ahmad Gangohi and the Deobandi Critique of Sufism, p 479. (https://www.academia.edu/282790/Sufis_Scholars_and_Scapegoats_Rashid_A%E1%B8%A5mad_Gangohi_D._1905_and_the_Deobandi_Critique_of_Sufism)
  38. http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/modi-govt-trying-to-divide-muslims-says-arshad-madani/1/624728.html
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  41. John Pike. "Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam / Assembly of Islamic Clergy". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
  42. Ahmad, Syed N. Origins of Muslim consciousness in India: a world-system perspective . New York u.a: Greenwood Press, 1991. p. 175
  43. Christophe Jaffrelot. A history of Pakistan and its origins . Anthem Press, 2004. ISBN   1-84331-149-6, ISBN   978-1-84331-149-2
  44. Bahadur, Kalim (1998). Democracy in Pakistan: crises and conflicts. Har Anand Publications. p. 176.
  45. Volpi, Frederic (2001). Political Islam: a Critical Reader. Routledge. ISBN   9781134722075. OCLC   862611173.[ page needed ]
  46. Burton, Fred; Stewart, Scott. "Tablighi Jamaat: An Indirect Line to Terrorism". Stratfor. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
  47. Roul, Animesh (2 June 2005). "Lashkar-e-Jhangvi: Sectarian Violence in Pakistan and Ties to International Terrorism". Terrorism Monitor. Jamestown Foundation. 3 (11). Archived from the original on 3 September 2014. Retrieved 27 July 2010.
  48. "Pakistani group joins US terror list". BBC News South Asia. 30 January 2003. Retrieved 30 January 2003.
  49. Ahmad, Tufail (21 March 2012). "Using Twitter, YouTube, Facebook and Other Internet Tools, Pakistani Terrorist Group Lashkar-e-Jhangvi Incites Violence against Shi'ite Muslims and Engenders Antisemitism". The Middle East Media Research Insititue, memri.org. Retrieved 22 March 2012.
  50. "Pakistani Shi'ites call off protests after Quetta bombing arrests". Reuters. 19 February 2013.
  51. "Pakistan Shias killed in Gilgit sectarian attack". BBC News. 16 August 2012. Retrieved 11 December 2012. A predominantly Punjabi group, Lashkar-e-Jhangvi is linked with the 2002 murder of US reporter Daniel Pearl and other militant attacks, particularly in the southern city of Karachi.
  52. "Iran condemns terrorist attacks in Pakistan". Tehran Times. 17 February 2013. Archived from the original on 4 September 2014. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  53. "Analysis: Who are the Taleban?". BBC News. 2000-12-20.
  54. Abrams, Dennis (2007). Hamid Karzai. Infobase Publishing. p. 14. ISBN   978-0-7910-9267-5. As soon as it took power though, the Taliban imposed its strict interpretation of Islamic law on the country
  55. Skain, Rosemarie (2002). The women of Afghanistan under the Taliban. McFarland. p. 41. ISBN   978-0-7864-1090-3.
  56. Maley, William (2001). Fundamentalism Reborn? Afghanistan and the Taliban. C Hurst & Co. p. 14. ISBN   978-1-85065-360-8.
  57. Shaffer, Brenda (2006). The limits of culture: Islam and foreign policy (illustrated ed.). MIT Press. p. 277. ISBN   978-0-262-69321-9. The Taliban's mindset is, however, equally if not more deaned by Pashtunwali
  58. James Gerstenzan; Lisa Getter (November 18, 2001). "Laura Bush Addresses State of Afghan Women". Los Angeles Times . Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  59. "Women's Rights in the Taliban and Post-Taliban Eras". A Woman Among Warlords. PBS. September 11, 2007. Retrieved 14 September 2012.
  60. 1 2 Bajoria, Jayshree (6 February 2008). "Pakistan's New Generation of Terrorists". Council on Foreign Relations. Archived from the original on 14 May 2009. Retrieved 30 March 2009.
  61. 1 2 Abbas, Hassan (January 2008). "A Profile of Tehrik-I-Taliban Pakistan" (PDF). CTC Sentinel. West Point, NY: Combating Terrorism Center. 1 (2): 1–4. Retrieved 8 November 2008.
  62. 1 2 Carlotta Gall, Ismail Khan, Pir Zubair Shah and Taimoor Shah (26 March 2009). "Pakistani and Afghan Taliban Unify in Face of U.S. Influx". New York Times. Retrieved 27 March 2009.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  63. Shane, Scott (2009-10-22). "Insurgents Share a Name, but Pursue Different Goals". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
  64. 1 2 B. Raman, "Musharraf's Ban: An Analysis", South Asia Analysis Group , Paper no. 395, 18 January 2002
  65. 1 2 "Pakistan: The Sipah-e-Sahaba (SSP), including its activities and status", Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada, 26 July 2005
  66. "Sipah-e-Sahaba Pakistan".
  67. "2009: Southern Punjab extremism battle between haves and have-nots". Dawn.com. Dawn Media Group. 2011-05-22. Retrieved 25 May 2011.
  68. Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world....The need for leadership and imams increased alongside the increasing number of Mosques and in 1975 the first madrasa was established in a village called Holcombe situated near Bury – known as Dār al-‘Ulūm Bury or Bury Madrasa.
  69. Mahmood, Hamid (2012). The Dars-e-Nizami and the Transnational Traditionalist Madaris in Britain (PDF). pp. 7, 17. Retrieved 9 November 2013. In the UK the Dār al-‘Ulūm al-‘Arabiyyah al-Islāmiyyah (Bury madrasa) and Jāmi’at ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury madrasa) are considered the ‘Oxbridge’ of the traditional madrasa world...The second madrasa to be established was that of the Tablīghī Jamā’at called ‘Jāmi’at Ta’līm al-Islām (Dewsbury Madrasa) in Dewsbury in 1981
  70. "Home". Jamemasjid.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  71. "Home". Jameah.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-03-12.
  72. Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. opportunities for studies were created locally when in 1971 the first Darul-Ulum was established in Newcastle, Kwazulu Natal. This Darul-Ulum was based on the Darsi-Nizami course from Deoband, India.
  73. (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 91, 101. ISBN   978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia...Mawlana Ishaq following Hamid (sic) Akhtar from Karachi (see below) adheres to the Chishtiyya Sabiriyya Imdadiyya Ashrafiyya lineage, that puts special emphasis on the legacy of Muhammad Ashraf Ali Thanwi (1863-1943).CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  74. Mohamed, Yasien (2002). "Islamic Education in South Africa" (PDF). ISIM Newsletter. 9: 30. Retrieved 11 December 2013. Less indigenous to South Africa and more in keeping with the Deobandi spirit is the Azaadville seminary, near Johannesburg, which teaches all subjects in Urdu.
  75. 1 2 (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN   978-3-8309-2554-5. It became clear through field research by the author that Deobandi schools in several countries increasingly rely on graduates from Azaadville and Lenasia. The two schools and their graduates are functioning as network multiplicators between Deobandi schools worldwide.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  76. 1 2 (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN   978-3-8309-2554-5. For the Tablighi Jama’at, the two schools are important switchboards for their preaching activities in South Africa, in Africa proper and around the world.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  77. (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. p. 101. ISBN   978-3-8309-2554-5. Especially for teaching the Deobandi curriculum of the degree course to become a religious scholar (‘Alim) in the English-speaking world, books from Azaadville have become increasingly useful.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  78. (Eds.), Abdulkader Tayob ... Muslim schools and education in Europe and South Africa (PDF). Münster ; München [u.a.]: Waxmann. pp. 85, 101. ISBN   978-3-8309-2554-5. The Islamic schools in Lenasia and Azaadville in South Africa represent prominent examples of schools that provide religious education in a format which is firmly rooted in traditions and interpretations of Islam originating outside South Africa. Established by the Muslim minority community of the country, the schools follow the Deobandi interpretation of Islam from South Asia.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  79. 1 2 S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 110.
  80. Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 35–37. He began teaching the basic subjects and was regularly promoted until he became the head-teacher and the Shaykh al-Hadith. He served the Darul Uloom until 1914 (1333)...The Shaykh was very active politically as well. A movement known as Reshmi Roomal was formed in India to remove the British. He played a major role in advancing this movement.
  81. Abu Ghuddah, Abd al-Fattah (1997). تراجم ستة من فقهاء العالم الإِسلامي في القرن الرابع عشر وآشارهم الفقهية (in Arabic). Beirut: Dar al-Basha'ir al-Islamiyyah. p. 15. وكان أكبرُ كبارِها وشيخُ شيوخِها الشيخَ محمود حَسَن الدِّيْوْبَنْدي الملقَّبَ بشيخ العالَم، والمعروفَ بشيخ الهند، وكان في الحديث الشريفِ مُسنِدَ الوقتِ ورُحلةَ الأقطار الهندية. (Trans. And the greatest of its [Dar al-Ulum Deoband's] great ones, and the shaykh of its shaykhs was Shaykh Mahmud Hasan al-Deobandi, who is entitled (al-mulaqqab) Shaykh al-'Aalam, and popularly known (al-ma'ruf bi) as Shaykh al-Hind. In regards to the noble Hadith, he was the authority of his time (musnid al-waqt), whom students traveled from all parts of India [to study with].
  82. Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 215–216. After Shaykh al-Hind's demise, he was unanimously acknowledged as his successor. ..He was the President of the Jamiat Al-Ulama-Hind for about twenty years...He taught Sahih Al-Bukhari for about thirty years. During his deanship, the strength of the students academically impred...About 4483 students graduated and obtained a continuous chain of transmission (sanad) in Hadith during his period.
  83. Metcalf, Barbara Daly (1992). Perfecting women : Maulana Ashraf ọAlī Thanawi's Bihishti zewar : a partial translation with commentary. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 3–4. ISBN   0-520-08093-9. The Bihishti Zewar was written by Maulana Ashraf 'Ali Thanawi (1864-1943), a leader of the Deobandi reform movement that crystallized in north India in the late nineteenth century...Maulana Thanawi was an extraordinary successful exponent of reform.
  84. Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 68–70. This great Hafiz of Hadith, excellent Hanafi jurist, legist, historian, linguist, poet, researcher and critic, Muhammad Anwar Shah Kashmiri...He went to the biggest Islamic University inIndia, the Darul Uloom al-Islamiyah in Deoband...He contributed greatly to the Hanafi Madhab...He wrote many books, approximately 40...Many renowned and erudite scholars praised him and acknowledged his brilliance...Many accomplished scholars benefited from his vast knowledge.
  85. Reetz, Dietrich (2004). "Keeping Busy on the Path of Allah: The Self-Organisation (Intizam) of the Tablighi Jama'at". Oriente Moderno. 84 (1): 295–305. In recent years, the Islamic missionary movement of the Tablighi Jama'at has attracted increasing attention, not only in South Asia, but around the globe...The Tablighi movement came into being in 1926 when Muhammad Ilyas (1885-1944) started preaching correct religious practices and observance of rituals...Starting with Ilyas' personal association with the Dar al-Ulum of Deoband, the movement has been supported by religious scholars, 'ulama', propagating the purist teachings of this seminary located in the north Indian state of Uttar Pradesh.
  86. Bashir, Aamir (2013). Shari'at and Tariqat: A Study of the Deobandi Understanding and Practice of Tasawwuf (PDF). Dar al-Sa'adah Publications. p. 117. Muhammad Zakariyya can be termed as the "Reviver of Deobandi tasawwuf." He is the last in the long line of prominent scholar Sufis who epitomized Deobandi characteristics.
  87. Ahmed, Shoayb (2006). Muslim Scholars of the 20th Century. Al-Kawthar Publications. pp. 167–170. He completed his formal education [from Deoband] in 1907 (1325) with specialization in Hadith. Thereafter he taught for some time at the Dar al-Uloom Deoband...He supported the resolution for the independence of Pakistan and assisted Muhammad Ali Jinnah...He was given the task of hoisting the flag of Pakistan...Due to his tremendous effort, the first constitution of Pakistan was based on the Quraan and Sunnah...Fath Al-Mulhim bi Sharh Sahih Muslim. Even though he passed away before being able to complete the book it was accepted and praised by many renowned scholars. These include Shaykh Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and Shaykh Anwar Shah Kashmiri.
  88. Usmani, Muhammad Taqi (December 2011). "Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi': The Grand Mufti Of Pakistan". Deoband.org. Translated by Rahman, Zameelur. Retrieved 6 November 2013. The scholar of great learning, Shaykh Mufti Muhammad Shafi‘ (Allah Almighty have mercy on him), is counted amongst the leading ‘ulama of India and Pakistan...He completed his studies in the year 1325 H, and because he was from the advanced students in the period of his studies, the teachers of the Dar al-‘Ulum selected him to become a teacher there...the teachers appointed him as the head of the Fatwa Department at Dar al-‘Ulum...Ma‘arif al-Qur’an. This is a valuable exegesis of the Noble Qur’an which Shaykh [Muhammad Shafi‘] compiled in the Urdu language in 8 large volumes.
  89. "Mufti Taqi Usmani". Albalagh. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  90. S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 89. Leading scholar for the Deobandis...Usmani is very important as a figurehead in the Deobandi movement
  91. Rahman, Azizur-. (Translated by Muhammad Shameem), ed. Introducing Darul-'Uloom Karachi (PDF). Public Information Department: Darul Uloom Karachi. p. 21.
  92. S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 69. Leader of the Pakistan chapter of the Tablighi Jamaat [...] Hajji Abd al-Wahhab is a prominent Pakistani scholar with a significant following in South Asia and the United Kingdom...Abd al-Wahhab's work[...] stems from the prominent Islamic institution Darul Uloom Deoband, in India, where the latter studied before establishing a following in Pakistan.
  93. S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 114.
  94. Islamic Academy of Manchester The Islamic Academy of Manchester
  95. Kamran, Mohammad (3 December 2003). "SC Shariat Bench to hear appeal on presidential remissions today". Daily Times. Pakistan. Archived from the original on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
  96. S. Abdallah Schleifer, ed. (2012). The Muslim 500: The World's 500 Most Influential Muslims. Amman: The Royal Islamic Strategic Studies Centre. p. 134. He has been very effective in influencing all types of the communities ranging from businessmen and landlords to ministers and sports celebrities.

Further reading