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In the administrative divisions of Haiti, the department (French: département , pronounced [depaʁt(ə)mɑ̃] ) is the first of four levels of government. Haiti is divided administratively into ten departments, which are further subdivided into 42 arrondissements, 145 communes, and 571 communal sections.
The administrative divisions of Haiti are concerned with the institutional and territorial organization of Haitian territory. There are many administrative divisions which may have political, electoral (districts), or administrative objectives.
French is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved from Gallo-Romance, the spoken Latin in Gaul, and more specifically in Northern Gaul. Its closest relatives are the other langues d'oïl—languages historically spoken in northern France and in southern Belgium, which French (Francien) has largely supplanted. French was also influenced by native Celtic languages of Northern Roman Gaul like Gallia Belgica and by the (Germanic) Frankish language of the post-Roman Frankish invaders. Today, owing to France's past overseas expansion, there are numerous French-based creole languages, most notably Haitian Creole. A French-speaking person or nation may be referred to as Francophone in both English and French.
A department is an administrative or political subdivision in many countries. Departments are the first-level subdivisions of 11 countries, nine in the Americas and two in Africa. An additional 10 countries use departments as second-level subdivisions, eight in Africa, and one each in the Americas and Europe.
In 2014, there was a proposal by the Chamber of Deputies to increase the number of departments from 10 to 14 —perhaps as high as 16.
The Chamber of Deputies is the lower house of Haiti's bicameral legislature, the National Assembly. The upper house of the National Assembly is the Senate of Haiti. The Chamber has 119 members who are elected by popular vote to four-year terms. There are no term limits for Deputies; they may be re-elected indefinitely.
Each departement has a departmental council (conseil départemental) compound of three members elected by the departmental assembly for a 4-year term. The departmental council is led by a president (président). The council is the executive organ of the department.
A term of office is the length of time a person serves in a particular elected office. In many jurisdictions there is a defined limit on how long terms of office may be before the officeholder must be subject to re-election. Some jurisdictions exercise term limits, setting a maximum number of terms an individual may hold in a particular office.
Each department has a departmental assembly who assists the council in its work. The departmental assembly is the deliberative organ of the department. The members of the departmental assembly are also elected for 4 years. The departmental assembly is led by a president.
Three Departments have roots in the former French colony of Saint-Domingue, namely: the Nord, Sud, and Ouest. In 1801, under Governor-General Toussaint Louverture, the "provinces," became known as departments.In 1821, Artibonite was created and in 1844, Nord-Ouest, both derived out of the Nord and Ouest departments. In 1962 during the reign of Duvalier, four new departments were created out of a territorial redistribution. These departments were: Centre, Grand'Anse, Nord-Ouest and Sud-Est. In 2003, a tenth department was created out of Grand'Anse, called Nippes.
Saint-Domingue was a French colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804, in what is now Haiti.
Nord is one of the ten departments of Haiti. It has an area of 2,114.91 km² and a population of 1,067,177 (2015). Its capital is Cap-Haïtien.
Sud is one of the ten departments of Haiti. It has an area of 2,653.60 square kilometres (1,024.56 sq mi) and a population of 774,976. Its capital is Les Cayes.
In the 1990s, before the creation of Nippes, the "10th Department" was a phrase commonly used in regards to the Haitian diaspora. As of the 21st century, it became known as the "11th".
Haiti has a sizable diaspora, present chiefly in the Dominican Republic, the United States, Canada, Cuba, the Bahamas, and France. They also live in other countries like Belgium, Jamaica, Turks and Caicos, Mexico, U.S. Virgin Islands, Brazil and Chile, among others.
Data based on 2015 estimates from the Haitian government.
The government of Haiti is a semi-presidential republic, a multiparty system wherein the President of Haiti is head of state elected directly by popular elections. The Prime Minister acts as head of government and is appointed by the President, chosen from the majority party in the National Assembly. Executive power is exercised by the President and Prime Minister who together constitute the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of the National Assembly of Haiti. The government is organized unitarily, thus the central government delegates powers to the departments without a constitutional need for consent. The current structure of Haiti's political system was set forth in the Constitution of March 29, 1987.
Nippes is one of the ten departments of Haiti. It is the most recent department, having been split from Grand'Anse in 2003. The capital of the department is Miragoâne.
An arrondissement is a level of administrative division in Haiti.
Anse-à-Galets is a commune and city in the La Gonâve Arrondissement, in the Ouest department on Gonâve Island in Haiti, located to the west-northwest of Port-au-Prince in the Gulf of Gonâve. It is the largest commune on the island and has 62,559 inhabitants.
Anse-à-Veau is a commune in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement, in the Nippes department of Haiti. The postal code is HT 7510.
Arnaud is a commune in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement, in the Nippes department of Haiti.
L'Asile is a commune in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement, in the Nippes department of Haiti. It has 30,240 inhabitants.
Petit-Trou-de-Nippes is a commune in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement, in the Nippes department of Haiti. It has 36,143 inhabitants.
Plaisance-du-Sud is a commune in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement, in the Nippes department of Haiti.
Anse-à-Foleur is a commune in the Saint-Louis-du-Nord Arrondissement, in the Nord-Ouest department of Haiti.
Jean-Rabel is a commune located west of the city of Port-de-Paix and east of the city of the Môle-Saint-Nicolas Arrondissement, in the Nord-Ouest department of Haiti. As of 2015, the estimated adult population was 148,416.
Anse-à-Veau is an arrondissement in the Nippes Department of Haiti. As of 2015, the population was 153,639 inhabitants. Postal codes in the Anse-à-Veau Arrondissement start with the number 75.
Port-de-Paix is an arrondissement in the Nord-Ouest department of Haiti. As of 2015, the population was 336,650 inhabitants. Postal codes in the Port-de-Paix Arrondissement start with the number 31.
Liancourt is a commune in the Saint-Marc Arrondissement, in the Artibonite department of Haiti. Once a communal section, a presidential decree on 22 July 2015 made it a commune.
Lapointe is a commune in the Port-de-Paix Arrondissement, in the Nord-Ouest department of Haiti. Once a communal section, a presidential decree on 22 July 2015 made it a commune.
Little is known about the early history of Haitian license plates. Keith Marvin thought that the earliest plates were from the early 1930s, but older plates have since been found and at least one plate from 1923 exists. Early plates were marked with Rd'H,, HA., RH, or Haïti at various times. The Haitian coat of arms appeared on the plates from 1998 to 2002, the country flag was shown on the 2002 - 2005 plates, and since 2006 the background has shown a map of the country.