Deputy Prime Minister of Sweden

Last updated
Deputy to the Prime Minister of Sweden
Statsministerns ställföreträdare
Lilla riksvapnet - Riksarkivet Sverige.png
Lesser coat of arms of Sweden
Morgan Johansson.jpg
Incumbent
Morgan Johansson

since 10 September 2019
AppointerThe Prime Minister
Term length No fixed term,
Serves at the pleasure of the Prime Minister
Inaugural holder Gunnar Sträng
FormationJanuary 1, 1975
Website Government of Sweden

The Swedish constitution allows the Prime Minister to appoint one of the Ministers in the cabinet as deputy prime minister (Swedish : statsministerns ställföreträdare, sometimes unofficially known as vice statsminister), in case the Prime Minister for some reason is prevented from performing his or her duties. If a Deputy Prime Minister has not been appointed, the Minister in the cabinet who has served the longest time (and if there are several with equal experience the one who is oldest) takes over as head of government (these are marked in italic in the table below).

Contents

A Deputy Prime Minister can only serve as Prime Minister in a temporary function, as the resignation of a Prime Minister automatically includes the entire cabinet, and the Instrument of Government requires the Speaker of the Riksdag to dismiss the cabinet in the case of the death of the Prime Minister.

History

Origins of the office

Historically, under the 1809 Instrument of Government the Minister for Foreign Affairs (the "second excellency" and to date the only formal "minister" save for the Prime Minister, the other cabinet members' formal title being Councillor of State for... etc) was to function as acting Prime Minister should the Prime Minister not be able not to perform his duties. With the enactment of the 1974 Instrument of Government and the inauguration of Thorbjörn Fälldin's three-party cabinet in 1976, Per Ahlmark was formally sworn in as the first to hold the office of Deputy Prime Minister.

Palme assassination

In 1986 Deputy Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson became acting Prime Minister for the transitional cabinet from March 1 to March 12, upon the assassination of Olof Palme, the only time the death of the Prime Minister has caused the Deputy Prime Minister to temporarily assume the office. Carlsson subsequently received the task of forming a new cabinet from the Speaker of the Riksdag. The cabinet was approved by the Riksdag on March 12, 1986, effectively reappointing most cabinet members in their previous offices.

Role in coalition governments

The role and position of a Deputy Prime Minister may vary. In the five last coalition cabinets, Fälldin III, Bildt and Reinfeldt I and II, and Löfven, the Deputy Prime Minister was the head of the second-largest coalition partner (Liberals in Fälldin III, Bildt and Reinfeldt II, Centre in Reinfeldt I, Green in Löfven). In the governments Fälldin I and II, however, the Deputy Prime Ministership belonged to the Liberal Party despite the fact that it was the smallest of the three members. The reason for this might be ascribed to an unwillingness on behalf of the Centre and Liberals to give this position to the Moderates, due to ideological differences. In all of these governments, however, the Deputy Prime Minister also had a regular Cabinet portfolio.

In July 2015, the office of the Deputy Prime Minister was the subject of some political debate. Following a brief illness of the social democratic Prime Minister, Stefan Löfven, the Prime Minister's office revealed that the Deputy Prime Minister Åsa Romson of the Green Party, although named Vice statsminister ("Vice Prime Minister") when the cabinet took office in October 2014, was in fact not expected to temporarily assume the duties of the Prime Minister as Statsministerns ställföreträdare ("Deputy of the Prime Minister") as stated in the Instrument of Government, instead yielding to the most senior minister of the cabinet. Effectively this made the social democratic then-Foreign Minister Margot Wallström the actual deputy of the Prime Minister, due to seniority rather than appointment. It also rendered the title of Vice statsminister an honorary title, for the most senior member of the party functioning as junior partner in the governing coalition, rather than an actual function. [1]

Role in one-party governments

The situation is different in the one-party governments that have existed since the position of Deputy Prime Minister was introduced in 1976, namely the Liberal Ullsten government and the Social Democratic governments Palme II, Carlsson I-III and Persson. While Mona Sahlin might well have been described as something of a "successor-in-waiting" (even if she ultimately did not succeed Ingvar Carlsson to the Premiership), the other Deputy Prime Ministers have tended to be older and experienced politicians who have often been in charge of coordinating the work of the Government and may also have been in charge of some policy areas of their own which were not substantial enough to warrant a full-time Cabinet position, such as Bo Ringholm, who was Minister of Sport concurrently with being Deputy Prime Minister.

According to 10 § Chapter 6 of the Instrument of Government, the Prime Minister may appoint a deputy who assumes the duties of the Prime Minister in case the latter is for some reason prevented from performing their duties. If such a deputy has not been appointed or if the appointed deputy is prevented from performing their duties, the minister who has served for the longest period of time assumes the office. If two or more ministers have served for an equal amount of time, seniority decides. [2]

List of officeholders

Color key

  Independent     Social Democratic     Moderate     Centre     Left     Liberals     Christian Democrats     Green     Sweden Democrats   

Deputy Prime MinisterPositionTook officeLeft officeDurationPartyPrime Minister
1
Per Ahlmark.jpg
Per Ahlmark
(1939–2018)
Minister for Employment 8 October 19767 March 19781 year, 150 days Liberal People's Thorbjörn Fälldin  (C)
2
Ola Ullsten.JPG
Ola Ullsten
(1931–2018)
Minister for Employment,
Minister for International
Development Cooperation
7 March 197818 October 1978225 days Liberal People's Thorbjörn Fälldin  (C)
No image.png
Sven Romanus
(1906–2005)
Acting
Minister for Justice 18 October 197812 October 1979359 days Independent Ola Ullsten  (FP)
Ingemar Mundebo.JPG
Ingemar Mundebo
(1930–2018)
Acting
Minister for Justice 12 October 19791 August 1980294 days Liberal People's Thorbjörn Fälldin  (C)
(2)
Ola Ullsten.JPG
Ola Ullsten
(1931–2018)
Minister for Foreign Affairs 1 August 19808 October 19822 years, 68 days Liberal People's Thorbjörn Fälldin  (C)
3
Ingvar Carlsson pa Idrottsgalan 2013.jpg
Ingvar Carlsson
(born 1934)
Minister for the Environment 8 October 198228 February 19863 years, 143 days Social Democratic Olof Palme  (S)
No image.png
Svante Lundkvist
(1919–1991)
Acting
Minister for Agriculture 28 February 19869 October 1986223 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
Kjell-Olof Feldt.JPG
Kjell-Olof Feldt
(born 1931)
Acting
Minister for Finance 9 October 198616 February 19903 years, 130 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
No image.png
Lena Hjelm-Wallén
(born 1943)
Acting
Minister for International
Development Cooperation
16 February 199027 February 199011 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
4
No image.png
Odd Engström
(1941–1998)
27 February 19904 October 19911 year, 219 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
5
Bengt Westerberg2.jpg
Bengt Westerberg
(born 1943)
Minister for Health and Social Affairs 4 October 19917 October 19943 years, 3 days Liberal People's Carl Bildt  (M)
6
Mona Sahlin-02.jpg
Mona Sahlin
(born 1957)
Minister for Gender Equality 7 October 199416 November 19951 year, 40 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
7
No image.png
Lena Hjelm-Wallén
(born 1943)
Minister for Foreign Affairs
(1994–1998)
16 November 199521 October 20026 years, 339 days Social Democratic Ingvar Carlsson  (S)
(1995 – 1996)
Göran Persson  (S)
(1996 – 2002)
8
MargaretaWinberg, June 12, 2013.jpg
Margareta Winberg
(born 1943)
Minister for Gender Equality 21 October 200231 October 20031 year, 10 days Social Democratic Göran Persson  (S)
Marita Ulvskog 2009.jpg
Marita Ulvskog
(born 1951)
Acting
Minister for Culture and Sports 31 October 20031 June 2004214 days Social Democratic Göran Persson  (S)
9
Lars Engqvist 1992.jpg
Lars Engqvist
(born 1945)
Minister for Health and Social Affairs 1 June 20041 October 2004122 days Social Democratic Göran Persson  (S)
Laila Freivalds.jpg
Laila Freivalds
(born 1942)
Acting
Minister for Foreign Affairs 1 October 20041 November 200431 days Social Democratic Göran Persson  (S)
10
Bosse ringholm sep2006.jpg
Bo Ringholm
(born 1942)
Minister for European Union Affairs 1 November 20046 October 20061 year, 339 days Social Democratic Göran Persson  (S)
11
Energi- och naringsminister Maud Olofsson. Sverige.jpg
Maud Olofsson
(born 1955)
Minister for Enterprise and Energy 6 October 20065 October 20103 years, 364 days Centre Fredrik Reinfeldt  (M)
12
Jan Bjorklund 0c225 3310 (cropped).jpg
Jan Björklund
(born 1962)
Minister for Education 5 October 20103 October 20143 years, 363 days Liberal People's Fredrik Reinfeldt  (M)
13
Margot Wahlstrom Sveriges EU-kommissionar.jpg
Margot Wallström
(born 1954)
Acting
Minister for Foreign Affairs 3 October 201410 September 20194 years, 342 days Social Democratic Stefan Löfven  (S)
Asa Romson.1c447 3181.jpg
Åsa Romson (Honorary title)
(born 1972)
Minister for the Environment 3 October 201425 May 20161 year, 235 days Green Stefan Löfven  (S)
Isabella Lovin.jpg
Isabella Lövin (Honorary title)
(born 1963)
Minister for International Development Cooperation
Minister for the Climate
25 May 20165 February 20214 years, 256 days Green Stefan Löfven  (S)
Per Bolund.jpg
Per Bolund (Honorary title)
(born 1971)
Minister for the Environment
Minister for the Climate
5 February 2021Incumbent146 days Green Stefan Löfven  (S)
14
Morgan Johansson.jpg
Morgan Johansson
(born 1970)
Acting
Minister for Justice 10 September 2019Incumbent1 year, 294 days Social Democratic Stefan Löfven  (S)

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    The politics of Sweden take place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. Executive power is exercised by the government, led by the Prime Minister of Sweden. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament, elected within a multi-party system. The Judiciary is independent, appointed by the government and employed until retirement. Sweden is formally a monarchy with a king holding symbolic power.

    Ingvar Carlsson Swedish politician

    Gösta Ingvar Carlsson is a Swedish politician who twice served as Prime Minister of Sweden, first from 1986 to 1991 and again from 1994 to 1996. He was leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party from 1986 to 1996. He is best known for leading Sweden into the European Union.

    Riksdag Legislative body of Sweden

    The Riksdag is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden. Since 1971, the Riksdag has been a unicameral legislature with 349 members, elected proportionally and serving, from 1994 onwards, on fixed four-year terms.

    Prime Minister of Sweden Head of government of Sweden

    The Prime Minister is the head of government in Sweden. Before the creation of the office of a Prime Minister in 1876, Sweden did not have a head of government separate from its head of state, namely the King, in whom the executive authority was vested. Louis Gerhard De Geer, the architect behind the new bicameral Riksdag of 1866 that replaced the centuries-old Riksdag of the Estates, became the first officeholder in 1876.

    Speaker of the Riksdag

    The Speaker of the Riksdag is the presiding officer of the national unicameral legislature in Sweden.

    Ulf Kristersson Swedish politician

    Ulf Hjalmar Ed Kristersson is a Swedish politician who has served as Leader of the Opposition and Leader of the Moderate Party since 2017. He has been a Member of the Riksdag (MP) for Södermanland County since 2014 and previously from 1991 to 2000 for Stockholm County. He previously served as Minister for Social Security from 2010 to 2014 and Chairman of the Moderate Youth League from 1988 to 1992.

    Sweden–United States relations Diplomatic relations between the Kingdom of Sweden and the United States of America

    Swedish–American relations reach back to the days of the American Revolutionary War. The Kingdom of Sweden was the first country not formally engaged in the conflict to recognize the United States of America before the Treaty of Paris. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce was signed subsequently in 1783 between Benjamin Franklin and Swedish representative Gustaf Philip Creutz.

    History of Sweden (1991–present)

    After a period of rapid growth and unprecedented prosperity during the late 1980s, by 1990 the Swedish economy overheated, and after a controversial bill freezing salaries and banning strikes failed in the Riksdag, the social democratic government led by Prime Minister Ingvar Carlsson resigned in February 1990. At this time the respected Finance Minister Kjell-Olof Feldt left the government in protest over what he saw as irresponsible economic policies. Carlsson soon formed a new government, but by the time of the general election in September 1991 the economy was in free fall, and with rapidly rising unemployment, the social democrats received the smallest share of votes in sixty years (37.7%), resulting in the loss of office to the opposition, a centre-right coalition led by Carl Bildt.

    The Swedish constitution of 1974 allows the Prime Minister of Sweden to appoint one of the Ministers in the cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister, in case the Prime Minister for some reason is prevented from performing his or her duties. However, if a Deputy Prime Minister has not been appointed, the Minister in the cabinet who has served the longest time takes over as head of government. Note that the person acting as Prime Minister does not do so on a permanent basis: if a Prime Minister dies, resigns or loses a vote of confidence in the Riksdag, the Speaker of the Riksdag will then confer with the parties of the Riksdag and propose a new Prime Minister, who must be tolerated by a majority of the Riksdag. A Prime Minister who has resigned or lost a vote of confidence will remain the head of a government ad interim until the new Prime Minister assumes office. The only case where the governmental line of succession becomes relevant is when the Prime Minister dies or when the Prime Minister is on leave or for any other reason incapable of serving, but still remains in office. This might be compared to the presidential line of succession in the United States, where the person next in line assumes the Presidency throughout the remainder of the term if the President dies, resigns or is impeached.

    2018 Swedish general election

    General elections were held in Sweden on Sunday 9 September 2018 to elect the 349 members of the Riksdag. Regional and municipal elections were also held on the same day. The incumbent minority government, consisting of the Social Democrats and the Greens and supported by the Left Party, won 144 seats, one seat more than the four-party Alliance coalition, with the Sweden Democrats winning the remaining 62 seats. The Social Democrats' vote share fell to 28.3 percent, its lowest level of support since 1911, although the main opposition, the Moderates, lost even more support. The Sweden Democrats made gains, though less than anticipated. Regardless, the party became the largest in two constituencies in southern region Scania and topped the polls in 21 out of 33 Scanian municipalities and in 31 out of 290 municipalities overall. The voter turnout of 87.18% was the highest in 33 years and 1.38 percentage points higher than the 2014 elections. A record 26 out of 29 constituencies returned a hung parliament. 46% of seats were won by women. The number has since increased to 47.2%.

    2014 Swedish general election

    General elections were held in Sweden on 14 September 2014 to elect all 349 seats in the Riksdag, alongside elections for the 21 county councils, and 290 municipal assemblies.

    Stefan Löfven Prime Minister of Sweden since 2014

    Kjell Stefan Löfven is a Swedish politician serving as the prime minister of Sweden since 2014 and leader of the Swedish Social Democratic Party since 2012. As of 28 June 2021, Löfven is the interim Prime Minister having tendered the government's resignation as part of the process of trying to form a new cabinet.

    The second cabinet of Ingvar Carlsson was the cabinet and Government of Sweden from 27 February 1990 to 4 October 1991.

    The cabinet of Ola Ullsten was the cabinet and Government of Sweden from 18 October 1978 to 12 October 1979.

    Löfven I Cabinet

    The first cabinet of Stefan Löfven was the cabinet of Sweden between 2014 and 2018. It was a coalition government, consisting of two parties: the Social Democrats and the Green Party. The cabinet was installed on 3 October 2014, following the 2014 general election. It lost a vote of no confidence following the 2018 election, but remained in office as a caretaker government. Löfven was reelected as Prime Minister in January 2019, thus forming the second cabinet of Stefan Löfven.

    2022 Swedish general election 2022 election for the Swedish parliament

    General elections will be held in Sweden on 11 September 2022 to elect the 349 members of the Riksdag. They in turn will elect the Prime Minister of Sweden. Under the constitution, regional and municipal elections will also be held on the same day.

    In the 2018 Swedish general election, no political group or party won an outright majority, resulting in a hung parliament. On 9 September, the Red-Greens, led by Stefan Löfven's Social Democrats (S), emerged as the main political force in the Riksdag, while the centre-right Alliance led by Ulf Kristersson's Moderate Party only got one seat less. The right-wing populist party Sweden Democrats, led by Jimmie Åkesson, came third. As a result, protracted negotiations were required before a new government could be formed. On 18 January 2019, Löfven was re-elected as prime minister.

    Löfven II Cabinet

    The second cabinet of Stefan Löfven is the present Government of Sweden. It is a coalition, consisting of two parties: the Social Democrats and the Green Party. The cabinet was installed on 21 January 2019, following the 2018 general election.

    A government crisis started on 21 June 2021 in Sweden after the Riksdag ousted Prime Minister Stefan Löfven with a no-confidence vote. This was the first time in Swedish history a Prime Minister was ousted by a no-confidence vote. In 2014 after winning the general elections, Löfven's government budget was rejected by the Riksdag causing a government crisis that lasted for nearly an entire month. The 2021 government crisis is the second government crisis with a Löfven cabinet.

    References

    1. "Green leader wouldn't replace PM in crisis". The Local. 18 July 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
    2. Riksdagsförvaltningen. "Kungörelse (1974:152) om beslutad ny regeringsform Svensk författningssamling 1974:1974:152 t.o.m. SFS 2018:1903 - Riksdagen". www.riksdagen.se (in Swedish). Retrieved 2021-01-13.