Derbyshire

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Derbyshire
Near Hathersage, Peak District 8 (cropped, edited).jpg
Iron Gate, Derby - geograph.org.uk - 4912062 (cropped, edited).jpg
Masson Mill in Matlock Bath - geograph.org.uk - 2631130.jpg
Derbyshire UK locator map 2010.svg
Ceremonial Derbyshire within England
Derbyshire - British Isles.svg
Historic Derbyshire in the British Isles
Coordinates: 53°11′N1°37′W / 53.18°N 1.61°W / 53.18; -1.61
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Constituent country England
Region East Midlands
Established Ancient
Time zone UTC±00:00 (Greenwich Mean Time)
  Summer (DST) UTC+01:00 (British Summer Time)
Members of Parliament List of MPs
Police Derbyshire Constabulary
Ceremonial county
Lord Lieutenant Elizabeth Fothergill
High Sheriff Theresa Peltier
Area2,625 km2 (1,014 sq mi)
  Ranked 21st of 48
Population (2021)1,053,316
  Ranked 21st of 48
Density401/km2 (1,040/sq mi)
Ethnicity
  • 96.3% White
  • 1.5% Asian
  • 1.4% Mixed
  • 0.5% Black
  • 0.3% Other
[1]
The rugged moorland edge of the southern Pennines at Kinder Downfall KinderDownfall6435.JPG
The rugged moorland edge of the southern Pennines at Kinder Downfall

Derbyshire has a mixture of a rural economy in the west, with a former coal-mining economy in the north-east (Bolsover district), the Erewash Valley around Ilkeston and in the south around Swadlincote. The rural landscape varies from arable farmland in the flatlands to the south of Derby, to upland pasture and moorland in the high gritstone uplands of the southern Pennines.

Derbyshire is rich in natural mineral resources such as lead, iron, coal, and limestone, which have been exploited over a long period. Lead, for example, has been mined since Roman times. The limestone outcrops in the central area led to the establishment of large quarries to supply the industries of surrounding towns with lime for building and steelmaking, and latterly in the 20th-century cement manufacture. The Industrial Revolution also increased demand for building stone, and in the late 19th and early 20th-century, the arrival of the railways led to a large number of stone quarries being established. This industry has left its mark on the countryside, but is still a major industry: a lot of the stone is supplied as crushed stone for road building and concrete manufacture, and is moved by rail.

The ruins of the Magpie Mine near Sheldon Magpie mine.jpg
The ruins of the Magpie Mine near Sheldon

Derbyshire's relative remoteness in the late 18th century and an abundance of fast-flowing streams led to a proliferation of the use of hydropower at the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, following the mills pioneered by Richard Arkwright. Derbyshire has been said to be the home of the Industrial Revolution, and part of the Derwent Valley has been given World Heritage status in acknowledgement of this historic importance.

Nationally famous companies in Derbyshire include Rolls-Royce, one of the world's leading aerospace companies, based since before World War I in Derby, Thorntons just south of Alfreton and Toyota, who have one of the UK's largest car manufacturing plants at Burnaston. Ashbourne Water used to be bottled in Buxton by Nestlé Waters UK until 2006 and Buxton Water still is.

Derbyshire is one of only three counties permitted to make cheese that is labelled as Stilton cheese. The others are Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire. The smallest of six companies making this product is Hartington Creamery at Pikehall. As of March 2021, Hartington Stilton was marketing within the UK but also exporting to the US, EU and Canada. The company director told the BBC that they had "a surge in interest and consumer sales from the US". [32] [33]

Governance

Derbyshire parliamentary constituencies 2019 election result DerbyshireParliamentaryConstituency2019Results.svg
Derbyshire parliamentary constituencies 2019 election result

The county is divided into eleven constituencies for the election of members of parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons. As of December 2019, nine constituencies are represented by Conservative MPs, whilst the remaining two are represented by Labour MPs. [34]

The results of the 2019 United Kingdom general election in Derbyshire (including the city of Derby) are as follows:

Party Conser­vative Labour Liberal Democrats Brexit Green Others
Votes277,723 (52.3%)
184,295 (34.7%)
38,253 (7.2%)
14,487 (2.7%)
13,658 (2.6%)
2,711 (0.5%)
Seats won9
Increase2.svg3
2
Decrease2.svg3
0
Steady2.svg
0
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0
Steady2.svg
0
Steady2.svg
County Hall, Matlock Matlock - County Offices frontage.jpg
County Hall, Matlock

Derbyshire has a three-tier local government since the local government reorganisation in 1974. It has a county council based in Matlock and eight district councils and since 1997, a unitary authority area of the City of Derby. Derby remains part of Derbyshire only for ceremonial purposes.

Derbyshire has become fractionally smaller during government reorganisation over the years. The Sheffield suburbs Woodseats, Beauchief, Handsworth, Woodhouse, Norton, Mosborough, Totley, Bradway and Dore were previously parts of the county, but were lost to Sheffield between 1900 and 1933; Mosborough was transferred in 1967. However, Derbyshire gained part of the Longdendale valley and Tintwistle from Cheshire in 1974. The current area of the geographic/ceremonial county of Derbyshire is only 4.7 square kilometres less than it was over 100 years ago. [22] :1 [22] :20

At the third tier are the parish councils, which do not cover all areas. The eight district councils in Derbyshire and the unitary authority of Derby are shown in the map above.

These district councils are responsible for local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health, markets and fairs, refuse collection and recycling, cemeteries and crematoria, leisure services, parks, and tourism. [35] Education, social services, libraries, main roads, public transport, policing and fire services, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning are the responsibility of the County Council. [35]

One of many Victorian village schools in Derbyshire Turnditch. - geograph.org.uk - 177283.jpg
One of many Victorian village schools in Derbyshire

Although Derbyshire is in the East Midlands, some parts, such as High Peak (which incorporated former areas of Cheshire after boundary changes in 1974), are closer to the northern cities of Manchester and Sheffield and these receive services more affiliated with northern England; for example, the North West Ambulance Service, Granada Television and United Utilities.Outside the main city of Derby, the largest town in the county is Chesterfield.

Derbyshire is also part of multiple combined authorities. The Erewash, Amber Valley and Derby districts are part of the D2N2 partnership with neighbouring Nottinghamshire. The Derbyshire Dales, Bolsover, North East Derbyshire and Chesterfield districts are part of the South Yorkshire Mayoral Combined Authority (as non constituent members).

Education

The Derbyshire school system is comprehensive with no selective schools. The independent sector includes Repton School, Trent College and The Elms School.

Settlements

There are several towns in the county, with Derby the largest and most populous. At the time of the 2011 census, a population of 770,600 lived in the county with 248,752 (32%) living in Derby. The table below shows all towns with over 10,000 inhabitants.

RankTownPopulationBorough/DistrictNotes
1 Derby 248,752 (2011) [36] City of Derby
2 Chesterfield 103,788 (2011) [37] Chesterfield
3 Long Eaton 45,000 Erewash
4 Ilkeston 38,640 (2011) Erewash
5 Swadlincote 36,000 (2004) South Derbyshire
6 Belper 21,823 (2011) [38] Amber Valley Figure is for Belper civil parish, which includes Milford and Blackbrook
7 Dronfield 21,261 (2011) [39] North East Derbyshire Figure is for Dronfield civil parish, which includes Dronfield Woodhouse and Coal Aston
8 Buxton 20,836 (2001) High Peak
9 Ripley 20,807 (2011) [40] Amber Valley Figure is for Ripley civil parish, which includes Heage, Ambergate and Waingroves
10 Staveley 18,247 (2011) [41] Chesterfield Figure is for Staveley civil parish, which includes Mastin Moor, Duckmanton, Inkersall Green and Hollingwood
11 Glossop 17,576 (2011) [42] [43] [44] [45] [46] High Peak Figure is for the electoral wards of Howard Town, Old Glossop, Dinting, Simmondley and Whitfield.
12 Heanor 17,251 (2011) [47] Amber Valley Figure is for Heanor and Loscoe civil parish, which includes Loscoe but excludes Heanor Gate
13 Bolsover 11,673 (2011) [48] Bolsover Figure is for Old Bolsover civil parish, which includes Shuttlewood, Stanfree and Whaley, but excludes part of Hillstown.
14 Eckington 11,855 (2011) [49] North East Derbyshire Figure is for Eckington civil parish, which includes Renishaw, Spinkhill, Marsh Lane and Ridgeway.

Historic areas

Some settlements which were historically part of the county now fall under the counties of Greater Manchester, Leicestershire, South Yorkshire, and Staffordshire:

Cheshire/Greater Manchester Marple Bridge (historically part of Marple)
Leicestershire Measham
South Yorkshire Mosborough, Totley, Dore
Staffordshire Burton-upon-Trent (part)

Media

Because of the size of the county, southern parts of Derbyshire such as Derby, Matlock, Ashbourne and Bakewell are covered by BBC East Midlands and ITV Central in Nottingham, broadcast from Waltham. [50] Northeast Derbyshire, Chesterfield, the eastern High Peak (Hope Valley) and northern area of the Derbyshire Dales (Tideswell and Hathersage) are covered by ITV Yorkshire and BBC Yorkshire from Emley Moor, with their ITV News Calendar and Look North programmes, both from Leeds. [51] The western area of the High Peak (Buxton, Glossop, New Miils and Chapel-en-le-Frith) is covered by BBC North West from Winter Hill and ITV Granada, both based in Salford. [52] [53]

BBC Local Radio for the county is provided by BBC Radio Derby, BBC Radio Sheffield (covering Chesterfield and Bolsover) and BBC Radio Manchester (covering Glossop, New Miils and Chapel-en-le-Frith).

County-wide commercial radio stations are Capital Midlands, Gem, Greatest Hits Radio Midlands and Greatest Hits Radio Yorkshire (for Chesterfield, Matlock and Bakewell).

Sport

Derbyshire has one Football League team, Derby County, which plays in EFL League One, the third tier of English football. The next highest-placed team is Chesterfield, which participates in the National League, the fifth tier of English football. There are also many non-league teams playing throughout the county, most notably Alfreton Town, which plays in the National League North. [54] The county is currently home to the world's oldest football club, Sheffield F.C., which plays in Dronfield in north-east Derbyshire. [55] Glossop was the smallest town in the country to have a football team in the top tier of English football, Glossop North End. [56]

County Cricket Ground, in Derby Photo from Racecourse end.JPG
County Cricket Ground, in Derby

Derbyshire has a cricket team based at the County Cricket Ground. Derbyshire County Cricket Club currently plays in Division Two of the County Championship. There are also rugby league clubs based in the north of the county, the North Derbyshire Chargers and in Derby (Derby City RLFC). The county has numerous rugby union clubs, including Derby, Chesterfield Panthers, Matlock, Ilkeston, Ashbourne, Bakewell and Amber Valley.

The county is a popular area for a variety of recreational sports such as rock climbing, hill walking, hang gliding, caving, sailing on its many reservoirs, and cycling along the many miles of disused rail tracks that have been turned into cycle trails, such as the Monsal Trail and High Peak Trail.

The town of Ashbourne in Derbyshire is known for its Royal Shrovetide Football, described as a "medieval football game", played annually on Shrove Tuesday and Ash Wednesday.

Derbyshire is host to one of the only community Muggle quidditch teams in the country, known as Derby Union Quidditch Club. The Club recruits players from the age of 16 upwards from all over Derby, and has representatives from most local sixth forms and the University of Derby. The team has competed against both the Leeds Griffins and the Leicester Lovegoods in the past and is part of the vibrant UK quidditch scene. It is also an official International Quidditch Association team.

Local attractions

The 'twisted spire' on Chesterfield parish church Chesterfield Parish Church, St Mary and All Saints - geograph.org.uk - 4113645.jpg
The 'twisted spire' on Chesterfield parish church

The county of Derbyshire has many attractions for tourists and local people. It offers Peak District scenery such as Mam Tor and Kinder Scout, and more urban attractions such as Bakewell, Buxton and Derby. Such places include Bolsover Castle, Castleton, Chatsworth House, National Tramway Museum at Crich, Peak Rail steam railway, Midland Railway steam railway, Dovedale, Haddon Hall, the Heights of Abraham and Matlock Bath. [57]

In the north of the county, three large reservoirs, Howden, Derwent and Ladybower, were built in the early part of the 20th century to supply the rapidly growing populations of Sheffield, Derby and Leicester with drinking water. The moorland catchment area around these is part of the Peak District National Park and extensively used for leisure pursuits such as walking and cycling.

There are many properties and lands in the care of the National Trust that are open to the public, such as Calke Abbey, Hardwick Hall, High Peak Estate, Ilam Park, Kedleston Hall, Longshaw Estate near Hathersage, and Sudbury Hall on the Staffordshire border.

Notable gardens in Derbyshire include the formal ones in 17th–18th-century French style at Melbourne Hall south of Derby, the listed garden at Renishaw Hall near Eckington, Lea Rhododendron Gardens near Matlock, the Royal Horticultural Society recommended Bluebell Arboretum near Swadlincote, and the extensive gardens at Chatsworth House.

Ardotalia, also known as Melandra, or Melandra Castle, is an ancient Roman fort built in the north-west of the county. The ruins and foundations are open free of charge to the public.

County emblems

The flag of the historic county of Derbyshire Derbyshire flag.svg
The flag of the historic county of Derbyshire

As part of a 2002 marketing campaign, the plant conservation charity Plantlife chose the Jacob's-ladder as the county flower.

In September 2006, a proposal for a county flag was introduced, largely on the initiative of BBC Radio Derby. [58] It consists of a white-bordered dark green cross encompassing a golden Tudor rose (a historical symbol of the county) all set in a blue field. The blue field represents the many waters of the county, its rivers and reservoirs, while the cross is green to mark the great areas of countryside. The flag was subsequently registered with the Flag Institute in September 2008. [59]

In 2015, BBC Radio Derby commissioned a Derbyshire anthem entitled "Our Derbyshire", including lyrics suggested by its listeners. It received its first performance on 17 September 2015 at Derby Cathedral.

Demographics

Derbyshire Compared
UK Census 2011Derby [36] Derbyshire [60] East MidlandsEngland
Total population248,752769,6864,533,22253,012,456
Foreign born (outside Europe)9.3%1.4%6.4%9.3%
White80.2%97.5%89.3%85.5%
Asian12.6%1.1%6.4%7.7%
Black3.0%0.4%1.7%3.4%
Christian52.7%63.6%58.8%59.4%
Muslim7.6%0.3%3.1%5.0%
Hindu0.9%0.2%2.0%1.5%
No religion27.6%28.0%27.5%24.7%
Over 6515.1%18.6%17.1%16.3%
Unemployed5.2%3.9%4.2%4.4%

In 1801 the population was 147,481 [61] [62] According to the UK Census 2001 there were 956,301 people spread over the county's 254,615 hectares. [63] This was estimated to have risen to 990,400 in 2006. [64]

The county's population grew by 3.0 per cent from 1991 to 2001 which is around 21,100 people. This figure is higher than the national average of 2.65 per cent, but lower than the East Midlands average of 4.0 per cent. The county as a whole has an average population density of 2.9 people per hectare, making it less densely populated than England as a whole. [65] The density varies throughout the county, with the lowest being in the region of Derbyshire Dales at 0.88 per hectare, and the highest outside the main cities in the region of Erewash, which has 10.04 people per hectare. [66]

Population since 1801
Year18011851190119111921193119391951196119711981199120012011
Derbyshire
non-metropolitan county [61]
132,786223,414465,896542,697565,826590,470613,301637,645651,284666,013687,404717,935734,585769,686
Derby
unitary authority [62]
14,69548,506118,469132,188142,824154,316167,321181,423199,578219,558214,424225,296221,716248,752
Total
as a ceremonial county
147,481271,920584,365674,885708,650744,786780,622819,068850,862885,571901,828943,231956,3011,018,438

In Jane Austen's novel Pride and Prejudice , Pemberley, the country house of Fitzwilliam Darcy, is in Derbyshire. Chatsworth House in Derbyshire is named as one of the estates Elizabeth Bennet visits before arriving at Pemberley. In the 2005 film adaptation of the novel, Chatsworth House itself represents Pemberley. In one scene characters discuss visits to Matlock and Dovedale.

Sir Walter Scott's 1823 novel Peveril of the Peak is partly set in Derbyshire.

The events of Tom Stoppard's play Arcadia take place in the fictional country house of Sidley Park in Derbyshire.

Georgette Heyer's detective/romance novel The Toll-Gate is set in 1817 around a fictional toll-gate in Derbyshire.

The 1969 film Women in Love by Ken Russell had scenes filmed in and around Elvaston Castle, notably the Greco-Roman wrestling scene, which was filmed in the castle's Great Hall. [67]

The 1986 film Lady Jane by Trevor Nunn, starring Helena Bonham Carter and Cary Elwes, has scenes filmed at Haddon Hall.

The 1987 film The Princess Bride by Rob Reiner, starring Robin Wright and Cary Elwes, was partly filmed in Derbyshire. It included scenes at Haddon Hall and in the White Peak and Dark Peak.

The 1988 film The Lair of the White Worm by Ken Russell, starring Hugh Grant, was filmed in Derbyshire. The opening title sequence is of Thor's Cave in the Manifold valley.

The 2008 film The Duchess includes scenes filmed at Chatsworth House and at Kedleston Hall. [68]

The 1993–2002 TV series Peak Practice was set in Crich and Fritchley, except for the twelfth and final series, and originally starred Kevin Whately and Amanda Burton. [69] In 2003 an unrelated and less successful medical TV drama, Sweet Medicine , was mostly filmed in the historic market town of Wirksworth.

Other Derbyshire locations in which British TV scenes have been filmed include: [70]

See also

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Chesterfield, Derbyshire</span> Town in Derbyshire, England

Chesterfield is a market town in the Borough of Chesterfield, Derbyshire, England. It is 24 miles (39 km) north of Derby and 11 miles (18 km) south of Sheffield at the confluence of the River Rother and River Hipper. In 2011, the built-up-area subdivision had a population of 88,483, making it the second-largest settlement in Derbyshire, after Derby. The wider borough had a population of 103,801 in 2011. In 2011, the town had a population of 76,753.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Matlock, Derbyshire</span> County town of Derbyshire

Matlock is the county town of Derbyshire, England. It is in the south-eastern part of the Peak District, with the National Park directly to the west. The spa resort of Matlock Bath is immediately south of the town as well as Cromford lying further south still. The civil parish of Matlock Town had a population in the 2021 UK census of 10,000.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">High Peak, Derbyshire</span> Local government district in Derbyshire, England

High Peak is a local government district with borough status in Derbyshire, England, covering a high moorland plateau in the Dark Peak area of the Peak District National Park. The district stretches from Holme Moss in the north to Sterndale Moor in the south, and from Hague Bar in the west to Bamford in the east. The population of the borough taken at the 2011 Census was 90,892. The borough is unusual in having two administrative centres for its council, High Peak Borough Council; the offices are in Buxton and Glossop. Other towns include Chapel-en-le-Frith, Hadfield, New Mills and Whaley Bridge.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolsover</span> Town in Derbyshire, England

Bolsover is a market town and the administrative centre of the Bolsover District, Derbyshire, England. It is 18 miles (29 km) from Sheffield, 26 miles (42 km) from Nottingham and 27 miles (43 km) from Derby. It is the main town in the Bolsover district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derbyshire Dales</span> Non-metropolitan district in England

Derbyshire Dales is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. The district was created in 1974 as West Derbyshire; the name was changed to Derbyshire Dales in 1987. The council is based in the town of Matlock, and the district also includes the towns of Ashbourne, Bakewell, Darley Dale and Wirksworth, as well as numerous villages and extensive rural areas. Much of the district is within the Peak District National Park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">North East Derbyshire</span> Non-metropolitan district in England

North East Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. The council is based in the large village of Wingerworth. The district also includes the towns of Dronfield and Clay Cross as well as numerous villages and surrounding rural areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">South Derbyshire</span> Non-metropolitan district in England

South Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. The district covers the towns of Melbourne and Swadlincote as well as numerous villages and hamlets such as Hilton, Hatton, Etwall, Aston-on-Trent, Repton, Weston-on-Trent and Willington. About a third of the National Forest lies within the district.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bolsover District</span> Non-metropolitan district in England

Bolsover District is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. It is named after the town of Bolsover, which is near the geographic centre of the district, but the council is based in the large village of Clowne to the north. The district also includes the town of Shirebrook and several villages and surrounding rural areas.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">History of Derbyshire</span> History of the county of Derbyshire in England

The history of Derbyshire can be traced back to human settlement since the last Ice Age, over 10,000 years ago. The county of Derbyshire in England dates back to the 11th century.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derbyshire Constabulary</span> English territorial police force

Derbyshire Constabulary is the territorial police force responsible for policing the county of Derbyshire, England. The force covers an area of over 1,000 square miles (3,000 km2) with a population of just under one million.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Ashover</span> Village and civil parish in England

Ashover is a village and civil parish in the English county of Derbyshire. It is in the North East Derbyshire district of the county. The population of the civil parish taken at the 2011 Census was 1,905, increasing to 1,959 for the 2021 census. It sits in a valley, not far from the town of Matlock and the Peak District national park.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Clowne</span> Village in Derbyshire, England

Clowne is a village and civil parish in the Bolsover district of Derbyshire, England. The population was 7,590 at the 2011 Census. It lies 9 miles (14 km) north east of Chesterfield and 7 miles (11 km) south west of Worksop and is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Clune. The name is derived from the Celtic Clun for a river.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Derbyshire County Council</span>

Derbyshire County Council is the upper-tier local authority for the non-metropolitan county of Derbyshire in England. The council is based at County Hall in Matlock. Since 2017 the council has been under Conservative majority control.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Scarcliffe</span> Village in Derbyshire, England

Scarcliffe is a village and civil parish in the Bolsover district of Derbyshire, England. It is sometimes called Scarcliffe with Palterton. The population of the parish at the 2001 UK Census was 5,211, increasing to 5,288 at the 2011 Census.

The Hundreds of Derbyshire were the geographic divisions of the historic county of Derbyshire for administrative, military and judicial purposes. They were established in Derbyshire some time before the Norman conquest. In the Domesday Survey of 1086 AD the hundreds were called wapentakes. By 1273 the county was divided into 8 hundreds with some later combined, becoming 6 hundreds over the following centuries. The Local Government Act 1894 replaced hundreds with districts. Derbyshire is now divided into 8 administrative boroughs within the Derbyshire County Council area.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Borough of Chesterfield</span> Borough and non-metropolitan local government district Derbyshire, England

The Borough of Chesterfield is a non-metropolitan district with borough status in Derbyshire, England. It is named after the town of Chesterfield, its largest settlement, and also contains the town of Staveley and the large village of Brimington.

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Further reading