Deventer

Last updated
Deventer
Deventer Lebuiniskerk.JPG
Deventer skyline with the St. Lebuinus Church shown in the centre
Deventer vlag.svg
Flag
Deventer wapen.svg
Coat of arms
Map - NL - Municipality code 0150 (2009).svg
Location in Overijssel
Coordinates: 52°15′N6°9′E / 52.250°N 6.150°E / 52.250; 6.150 Coordinates: 52°15′N6°9′E / 52.250°N 6.150°E / 52.250; 6.150
Country Netherlands
Province Flag of Overijssel.svg  Overijssel
Government
[1]
  Body Municipal council
   Mayor Ron König (D66)
Area
[2]
  Total134.33 km2 (51.87 sq mi)
  Land131.23 km2 (50.67 sq mi)
  Water3.10 km2 (1.20 sq mi)
Elevation
[3]
9 m (30 ft)
Population
 (August 2017) [4]
  Total99,577
  Density759/km2 (1,970/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Deventenaar
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+2 (CEST)
Postcode
7400–7438
Area code 0570
Website www.deventer.nl

Deventer (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈdeːvəntər] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Sallaans: Daeventer) is a city and municipality in the Salland region of the province of Overijssel, Netherlands. In 2017, Deventer had a population of 99,577. The city is largely situated on the east bank of the river IJssel, but also has a small part of its territory on the west bank. In 2005 the municipality of Bathmen (with a population of about 5,000 people) was merged with Deventer as part of a national effort to reduce bureaucracy in the country.

Sallaans is a collective term for the Dutch Low Saxon dialects of the region Salland, in the eastern Netherlands. A common term used by native speakers for their dialect, which is also used by Low Saxon speakers from other regions for their respective dialects, is plat or simply dialect. Yet another common usage is to refer to the language by the name of the local variety, where for instance Dal(f)sens would be the name for the Sallaans variety spoken in the village of Dalfsen. Sallands is more influenced by the Hollandic dialects than Twents or Achterhoeks. This influence is known as the Hollandse expansie. For example, the word 'house' is hoes in Twente but huus in Salland. The Hollandic dialects of the 17th century still had uu sounds in their vocabulary, and these uu sounds came into Sallands.

Salland area

Salland is a historical dominion in the west and north of the present Dutch province of Overijssel. Nowadays Salland is usually used to indicate a region corresponding to the part of the former dominion more or less to the west of Twente.

Provinces of the Netherlands first-level administrative division in the Netherlands

There are currently twelve provinces of the Netherlands, representing the administrative layer between the national government and the local municipalities, with responsibility for matters of subnational or regional importance.

Contents

History

Foundation and development in the Middle Ages

Deventer was probably founded around AD 768 by the English missionary Lebuinus, who built a wooden church on the east bank of the river IJssel. In January 772 the sack and burning of this church by a Saxon expedition was the cause for the first punitive war waged by Charlemagne to the Saxons, in which, in retribution, the Irminsul (the Saxon sacred tree, probably near modern Paderborn) was destroyed. This was not the first human settlement at the location; between 1981 and 2006, remains of a Bronze Age settlement (dated to c.400 AD) were excavated at Colmschate, 4 km east of the current city

Kingdom of England Historic sovereign kingdom on the British Isles (927–1649; 1660–1707)

The Kingdom of England was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from 927, when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.

Missionary member of a religious group sent into an area to do evangelism

A missionary is a member of a religious group sent into an area to promote their faith or perform ministries of service, such as education, literacy, social justice, health care, and economic development. The word "mission" originates from 1598 when the Jesuits sent members abroad, derived from the Latin missionem, meaning "act of sending" or mittere, meaning "to send". The word was used in light of its biblical usage; in the Latin translation of the Bible, Christ uses the word when sending the disciples to preach The gospel in his name. The term is most commonly used for Christian missions, but can be used for any creed or ideology.

Lebuinus Apostle of the Frisians

Lebuinus is the Apostle of the Frisians and patron of Deventer.

The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to circa 1200 Bergkerk Deventer vanuit Bergstraat.jpg
The towers of the St. Nicholas Church date back to circa 1200

The village of Deventer, already important because of a trading road crossing the river IJssel, was looted and burnt down by the Vikings in 882. It was immediately rebuilt and fortified with an earthen wall (in the street Stenen Wal remains of this wall have been excavated and restored).

IJssel branch of the Rhine

The river IJssel, sometimes called Gelderse IJssel to avoid confusion with the Hollandse IJssel, is the branch of the Rhine in the Dutch provinces of Gelderland and Overijssel. The Romans knew the river as Isala. The IJssel flows from Westervoort, east of the city of Arnhem, until it discharges into the IJsselmeer. The River IJssel is one of the three major distributary branches into which the Rhine divides shortly after crossing the German-Dutch border.

Vikings Norse explorers, warriors, merchants, and pirates

Vikings were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who during the late 8th to late 11th centuries, raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of Europe, and explored westwards to Iceland, Greenland, and Vinland. The term is also commonly extended in modern English and other vernaculars to the inhabitants of Norse home communities during what has become known as the Viking Age. This period of Nordic military, mercantile and demographic expansion constitutes an important element in the early medieval history of Scandinavia, Estonia, the British Isles, France, Kievan Rus' and Sicily.

Deventer received city rights in 956, after which fortifications were built or replaced by stone walls around the city for defense. Between 1000 and 1500, Deventer grew to be a flourishing trade city because of its harbour on the river IJssel, which was capable of accommodating large ships. The city eventually joined the Hanseatic League.

City rights are a feature of the medieval history of the Low Countries. A liege lord, usually a count, duke or similar member of the high nobility, granted to a town or village he owned certain town privileges that places without city rights did not have.

Hanseatic League Confederation in Northern Europe

The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s, the league came to dominate Baltic maritime trade for three centuries along the coasts of Northern Europe. Hansa territories stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages, and diminished slowly after 1450.

One of the commodities it traded in, dried haddock and cod from Norway, gave the citizens the nickname they carry to this day: "Deventer Stokvis" In the 15th century, Deventer had a common mint, where coins for the three IJssel cities Deventer, Zwolle, and Kampen were made.

Stockfish

Stockfish is unsalted fish, especially cod, dried by cold air and wind on wooden racks on the foreshore. The drying of food is the world's oldest known preservation method, and dried fish has a storage life of several years. The method is cheap and effective in suitable climates; the work can be done by the fisherman and family, and the resulting product is easily transported to market.

Zwolle City and municipality in Overijssel, Netherlands

Zwolle is a city and municipality in the northeastern Netherlands serving as Overijssel's capital. With a population of 125,806, it is the second-largest municipality of the province after Enschede.

Deventer is the birthplace of Geert Groote and home to his Brethren of the Common Life, a school of religious thought that influenced Thomas a Kempis and Erasmus in later times. Together with Haarlem it was among the first cities to have printing presses, dating back to as early as 1477. From around 1300, it also housed a Latin School, which became internationally renowned, and remained in service in changing forms until 1971. Its most well-known was the scholar Desiderius Erasmus, who was born in 1466 and attended the school from 1475 to 1484.

Geert Groote Dutch Renaissance humanist and mystic

Gerard Groote, otherwise Gerrit or Gerhard Groet, in Latin Gerardus Magnus, was a Dutch Roman Catholic deacon, who was a popular preacher and the founder of the Brethren of the Common Life. He was a key figure in the Devotio Moderna movement.

The Brethren of the Common Life was a Roman Catholic pietist religious community founded in the Netherlands in the 14th century by Gerard Groote, formerly a successful and worldly educator who had had a religious experience and preached a life of simple devotion to Jesus Christ. Without taking up irrevocable vows, the Brethren banded together in communities, giving up their worldly goods to live chaste and strictly regulated lives in common houses, devoting every waking hour to attending divine service, reading and preaching of sermons, labouring productively, and taking meals in common that were accompanied by the reading aloud of Scripture: "judged from the ascetic discipline and intention of this life, it had few features which distinguished it from life in a monastery", observes Hans Baron.

Erasmus Dutch Renaissance humanist, Catholic priest, and theologian

Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, known as Erasmus or Erasmus of Rotterdam, was a Dutch Christian humanist who is widely considered to have been the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance. Originally trained as a Catholic priest, Erasmus was an important figure in classical scholarship who wrote in a pure Latin style. Among humanists he enjoyed the sobriquet "Prince of the Humanists", and has been called "the crowning glory of the Christian humanists". Using humanist techniques for working on texts, he prepared important new Latin and Greek editions of the New Testament, which raised questions that would be influential in the Protestant Reformation and Catholic Counter-Reformation. He also wrote On Free Will,In Praise of Folly, Handbook of a Christian Knight, On Civility in Children, Copia: Foundations of the Abundant Style, Julius Exclusus, and many other works.

16th–18th centuries

Deventer in circa 1550 Deventer 1550.jpg
Deventer in circa 1550
1652 map of Deventer by Willem and Joan Blaeu Blaeu 1652 - Deventer.jpg
1652 map of Deventer by Willem and Joan Blaeu

Between 1500 and 1800, the volume of water flowing through the IJssel decreased, decreasing the importance of Deventer's harbour. The competition with trade centres in Holland, as well as the religious war between 1568 and 1648, brought a decline in the city's economy.

In the 18th century, the iron industry came to Deventer. East of the town, so-called "oer", riversand containing iron, was found as early as 900. From this material, ore was produced and brought to town. The main road of the villages Okkenbroek, Lettele and Schalkhaar is still named Oerdijk (Ore Dyke).

Modern times

In the 19th century, Deventer became an industrial town. Bicycles (Burgers), carpets (Koninklijke Deventer Tapijtfabriek), tins and cans for food and drinks (Thomassen & Drijver), cigars (Horst & Maas en Bijdendijk & Ten Hove), foundry and heavy machinery (Nering Bögel), and textiles (Ankersmit) [5] were produced until the mid to late 20th century. Some of these industries are still thriving today, such as beds and accessories (Auping) and publishing (Wolters Kluwer, now headquartered in Alphen aan den Rijn)

The city's trade and industry is still of some importance. The city is host to a factory producing central heating systems, as well as Wolters Kluwer, a global information services and publishing company.

The Deventer honey cake (Bussink Deventer Koek), produced in Deventer for over 500 years, is still manufactured locally and sold all over the Netherlands and beyond.

World War II

Shooting a scene from A Bridge Too Far on location in Deventer, 1977 Shooting of a scene from A bridge too far.jpg
Shooting a scene from A Bridge Too Far on location in Deventer, 1977

Deventer has seen few military engagements throughout its long history, although it was a garrison city of the Dutch cavalry. The industrial area and harbour were bombed heavily during World War II. The city centre has been largely spared, thus offering a view that has remained largely unchanged for the past few centuries.[ original research? ]

The female Jewish poet and writer Etty Hillesum lived in Deventer during the war before being deported to Auschwitz.

In Schalkhaar, a village only 2 km northeast of the city centre, barracks were used by the German occupying forces to train Nazi policemen. The compound is now a centre for asylum seekers.

Deventer has been somewhat popular with the film industry. During the production of the 1977 film A Bridge Too Far , all of the scenes taking place in nearby Arnhem were filmed in Deventer - as Arnhem itself had lost its historic centre.

Geography

Dutch Topographic map of Deventer (city), June 2014 Deventer-plaats-OpenTopo.jpg
Dutch Topographic map of Deventer (city), June 2014

Associated hamlets at second level

The population centres in the municipality are:

Culture

Sights

Sports

Deventer is the home of professional Football club Go Ahead Eagles, who are housed in stadium De Adelaarshorst. De Adelaarshorst is situated in a 1930s neighbourhood and one of the oldest stadiums still in use today.[ citation needed ] The club was founded in 1902 as Be Quick, although the name was soon changed to Go Ahead at the request of the Dutch Football Association. The suffix Eagles was added in 1971, following a suggestion from the then coach, Barry Hughes. Go Ahead Eagles has been the club of Marc Overmars, Paul Bosvelt, and Bert van Marwijk, whilst providing Henk ten Cate and Leo Beenhakker with their first experience of management.

The 1992 founded skating rink De Scheg, which is semi-indoor since 2011, is in the top 10 of fastest skating tracks of the Netherlands.[ citation needed ] It has been the training accommodation of skaters including Olympic champion Mark Tuitert and the retired former world champion sprint Erben Wennemars.

Deventer also houses a number of watersports clubs, due to its situation on the banks of the river IJssel.

Events and festivals

Government

International relations

Deventer is twinned with four cities:

Transport

Deventer has 2 railway stations - for destinations see

Notable residents

Related Research Articles

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Go Ahead Eagles association football club

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Weigh house public building in which goods are weighed

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Diepenveen Place in Overijssel, Netherlands

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Ouderkerk aan den IJssel village in South Holland, Netherlands

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Deventer railway station Dutch railway station in Overijssel

Deventer is a railway station in Deventer, Netherlands. The station was opened on 5 August 1865 and is on the Apeldoorn–Deventer railway, Deventer–Almelo railway and the Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway. The train services are operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen.

Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway railway line

The Arnhem–Leeuwarden railway is a railway line in the Netherlands running from Arnhem to Leeuwarden, passing through Deventer, Zwolle and Heerenveen. It is also called the Staatslijn A in Dutch. The part between Arnhem and Zwolle is sometimes called the IJssellijn.

IJssel Line

The IJssel Line was the Dutch portion of the NATO Cold War line of defence for Western Europe during the 1950s and 1960s. It consisted of anti-aircraft and four-barrel machine gun bunkers, command and hospital bunkers, and many Ram and Sherman tank bunkers encased in concrete, leaving the turrets exposed. These elements were placed along the IJssel river.

St Nicholas Church, Deventer

The Mountain Church or Saint Nicholas Church is a former place of worship in Deventer, Overijssel. This Romanesque basilica was built around 1209 and consecrated to Saint Nicholas. Centuries later it received some Late Gothic alterations. In 1580 the Dutch Reformed Church took the temple and renamed it the Mountain Church.

References

  1. "Burgemeester ir. A.P. Heidema" [Mayor ir. A.P. Heidema] (in Dutch). Gemeente Deventer. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  2. "Kerncijfers wijken en buurten" [Key figures for neighbourhoods]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 2 July 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  3. "Postcodetool for 7411KT". Actueel Hoogtebestand Nederland (in Dutch). Het Waterschapshuis. Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  4. "Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand" [Population growth; regions per month]. CBS Statline (in Dutch). CBS. 27 October 2017. Retrieved 27 October 2017.
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vZ9UNQK_Jqs
  6. "Algemene informatie". www.deventerboekenmarkt.nl. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  7. "Dickens Festijn weer goed voor 125.000 bezoekers". www.destentor.nl. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  8. 1 2 "Twin Cities of Tartu". ©2007 City of Tartu. Retrieved 2009-01-04.