Dick Tiger

Last updated
Dick Tiger
Dick Tiger vs Nino Benvenuti 1969.jpg
Dick Tiger (left) with Nino Benvenuti in 1969
Statistics
Real nameRichard Ihetu
Weight(s)
Height5 ft 8 in (1.73 m)
Reach71 in (180 cm)
Born(1929-08-14)August 14, 1929
Amaigbo, Nigeria
DiedDecember 14, 1971(1971-12-14) (aged 42)
Aba, Nigeria
Stance Orthodox
Boxing record
Total fights82
Wins60
Wins by KO27
Losses19
Draws3

Dick Tiger (born Richard Ihetu; August 14, 1929 December 14, 1971) was a Nigerian-born professional boxer who held the World Middleweight and World Light Heavyweight Championships. [1]

Professional boxing sport

Professional boxing, or prizefighting, is regulated, sanctioned boxing. Professional boxing bouts are fought for a purse that is divided between the boxers as determined by contract. Most professional bouts are supervised by a regulatory authority to guarantee the fighters' safety. Most high-profile bouts obtain the endorsement of a sanctioning body, which awards championship belts, establishes rules, and assigns its own judges and referee.

Contents

Tiger emigrated to Liverpool, England to pursue his boxing career and later to the United States. Tiger was an ethnic Igbo and served as a Lieutenant in the Biafran army during the Nigerian Civil War, primarily training soldiers in hand to hand combat. [2]

Liverpool City and metropolitan borough in England

Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough in North West England, with an estimated population of 491,500. Its metropolitan area is the fifth-largest in the UK, with a population of 2.24 million in 2011. The local authority is Liverpool City Council, the most populous local government district in the metropolitan county of Merseyside and the largest in the Liverpool City Region.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million sq mi (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.93 million sq mi (10.2 million km2). With a population of more than 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. Most of the country is located contiguously in North America between Canada and Mexico. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Igbo people Ethnic group in south eastern Nigeria

The Igbo people are an ethnic group native to the present-day south-central and southeastern Nigeria. There has been much speculation about the origins of the Igbo people, as it is unknown how exactly the group came to form. Geographically, the Igbo homeland is divided into two unequal sections by the Niger River – an eastern and a western section. The Igbo people are one of the largest ethnic groups in Africa.

Tiger was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1991. The Ring magazine named him Fighter of the Year in 1962 and 1965, while the Boxing Writers Association of America (BWAA) named him Fighter of the Year in 1962 and 1966. In 2002, Tiger was voted by The Ring magazine as the 31st greatest fighter of the last 80 years. [3]

International Boxing Hall of Fame

The modern International Boxing Hall of Fame (IBHOF), located in Canastota, New York, United States, honors boxers, trainers and other contributors to the sport worldwide. Inductees are selected by members of the Boxing Writers Association of America. The IBHOF started as a 1990 initiative by Ed Brophy to honor Canastota's world boxing champions, Carmen Basilio and Basilio's nephew, Billy Backus; the village of Canastota inaugurated the new museum, which showcases boxing's rich history.

<i>The Ring</i> (magazine) Boxing magazine

The Ring is an American boxing magazine that was first published in 1922 as a boxing and wrestling magazine. As the sporting legitimacy of professional wrestling came more into question, The Ring shifted to becoming exclusively a boxing oriented publication. The magazine is currently owned by Oscar De La Hoya's Golden Boy Enterprises, which acquired it in 2007. Ring publishes boxers annual ratings since 1924.

The Ring magazine was established in 1922 and has named a Fighter of the Year since 1928, which this list covers. The award, selected by the magazine editors, is based on a boxer's performance in the ring.

Professional career

Tiger became a two-time undisputed world middleweight champion and helped keep boxing alive during the 1950s boxing industry recession. Tiger won the world middleweight title when he beat Gene Fullmer in 1962 and the light heavyweight title in 1966 when he dethroned José Torres of Puerto Rico. [4] [5]

Boxing combat sport

Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined amount of time in a boxing ring.

Gene Fullmer American boxer

Lawrence Gene Fullmer was an American professional boxer and World Middleweight champion.

José Torres Puerto Rican boxer

José ("Chegüi") Torres was a Puerto Rican professional boxer. As an amateur boxer, he won a silver medal in the junior middleweight division at the 1956 Olympic Games in Melbourne. In 1965, he defeated Willie Pastrano to win the WBC, WBA and lineal light heavyweight championships. Torres trained with the legendary boxing trainer Cus D'Amato. In 1997, he was inducted into the International Boxing Hall of Fame.

Prior to these accomplishments, however, Tiger seemed condemned to poor management and a resulting lack of exposure. In 1957, using Liverpool as his fighting base, Dick Tiger was fighting on undercards for small purses, when by fortune, facing off against popular favorite Terry Downes at Shoreditch Town Hall, he walked away with a TKO after six heats. [6] New management saw to it certain "errors in his style" were corrected, and in another year, Tiger had taken 17 of 19 fights and won the British Middleweight title. In 1959, handled by the independent Jersey Jones, Tiger came to America, to face adversity in a whole, new way. Jersey Jones, resisting the influences of Madison Square Garden, brokered deals for Tiger by himself, which in the short run, cost them both. In an independent promotion at Edmonton, Alberta, Tiger's Empire belt was lost in a more-than questionable 15 round nod to local challenger Wilf Greaves. The decision as rendered, had first been called a draw; appalled, Jones demanded a recount of the cards, which boomeranged, showing the fight, dominated by Tiger, as a win for Greaves. Tiger, sincere and honorable in his dealings, often found this virtuous approach not reciprocated, particularly in North America. [7]

Terry Downes, BEM was a British middleweight boxer, occasional film actor, and businessman. He was nicknamed the "Paddington Express" for his aggressive fighting style.

Madison Square Garden Multi-purpose indoor arena in New York City, New York, United States

Madison Square Garden, colloquially known as The Garden or in initials as MSG, is a multi-purpose indoor arena in New York City. Located in Midtown Manhattan between 7th and 8th Avenues from 31st to 33rd Streets, it is situated atop Pennsylvania Station. It is the fourth venue to bear the name "Madison Square Garden"; the first two were located on Madison Square, on East 26th Street and Madison Avenue, with the third Madison Square Garden (1925) further uptown at Eighth Avenue and 50th Street.

Wilf Greaves is a Canadian amateur light middleweight and professional light middle/middle/light heavyweight boxer of the 1950s and '60s who as an amateur won the gold medal at light middleweight in the Boxing at the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, and as a professional won the Canada middleweight title, and British Commonwealth middleweight title, his professional fighting weight varied from 152 lb, i.e. light middleweight to 164 lb, i.e. light heavyweight. Wilf Greaves was managed by Jacob Mintz.

A. J. Liebling, impressed in witnessing Tiger's 1962 [8] performance versus Henry Hank of Detroit, described the fighter's appearance thus, "... a chest like an old-fashioned black office safe, dropping away to a slender waist, big thighs, and slender legs; he boxed classically, his arms tight against his sides at the beginning of a punch, his savagely methodical blows moving in short arcs and straight lines."

A. J. Liebling American journalist

Abbott Joseph "A. J." Liebling was an American journalist who was closely associated with The New Yorker from 1935 until his death.

Such a description was similarly evoked, albeit in simpler terms, by Tiger's contemporaries. Gene Fullmer: "Tiger was a rough guy....I went to Nigeria to fight him, and, of course, I don't know what happened over there....He beat me. He beat me bad. My mother and father could have been judge and referee, and I couldn't have won a round..." [9] Joey Giardello: "I thank Dick Tiger because Dick Tiger was a man and Dick Tiger gave (a title shot) to me. He didn't have to give it to me. He could have give it to somebody else." [10] An additional comment from Giardello, in the form of a sarcastic bon mot, showed contemporary respect for Tiger as a fellow battler. The pair fought four times in all, the last two of these in swapping the middleweight title. Every fight went the distance, meaning that in terms of time, Dick Tiger and Joey Giardello contended face to face for two and a half hours. Prior to one of these latter encounters, when asked by the press if Giardello, a classic boxer, planned to trade punches with Tiger, Giardello squelched this with, "I wouldn't trade stamps with him." [11]

Numerous accounts of Tiger as both man and fighting man, describe a solid, decent, un-nuanced person. Unsurprisingly, a very Western gimmick, the literal "power of the press", or perhaps of Madison Avenue, appears lost on him. Contender Joey Archer, a scientific middleweight of uncommon speed, launched a small space ad campaign directed at Tiger. The ads, using copy such as "I'm a middleweight, and I've licked every man I ever fought, including you", were employed to create a sensation and perhaps a groundswell toward securing Archer a title fight. Tiger had already signed to fight Emile Griffith, and an Archer ad admonished, "The Middleweight Champion should meet the best middleweight (not a welterweight)." Archer carried his cause to talk shows, even to the New York Daily News, was photographed taunting an angry, caged tiger at the Bronx Zoo. Whether this bombast registered in any negative way, or even impacted Dick Tiger's pride, history never discovered after Emile Griffith won Tiger's middleweight belt from him, making Tiger a non-player in the drama. Joey Archer shifted his attentions and, from 1966, Tiger campaigned as a full light heavyweight. [12]

After decisioning Jose Torres to win title honors, Tiger then defended his crown against Torres and Montanan Roger Rouse, before coming up short against veteran Bob Foster of Washington, DC. The left hook Foster used to dethrone Tiger in an instant, was rated among "The 10 Deadliest Punches of the Last 25 Years" in 1975. [13] The power in the one-punch K.O. made such an impact upon Garden promoters, it was felt that a rematch would do poor business. This attitude forced Tiger to contend for the right to regain his crown, and saw him matched against up-and-comer Frankie DePaula, who was coming off five consecutive knockouts. The fight to qualify against Foster was, for its first four rounds, a war which saw both men go down twice, and was selected by Ring magazine as "Fight of the Year". Though Dick Tiger took the decision, having proved his mettle, ill treatment on the American side seemed to cling, as Frankie DePaula, the man he had defeated, was inexplicably given the chance at Bob Foster. [14]

Retirement and death

After retiring from boxing, Tiger worked as a guard at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. One day, he felt a strong pain in his back. Tested by doctors, he was diagnosed with liver cancer.

He had been banned by the Nigerian government in his country because of his involvement in the Biafran movement; however, the ban was lifted immediately after news about his condition arrived in Nigeria. He died of liver cancer on 14 December 1971, aged 42.[ where? ] [15] [16]

Professional boxing record

Professional record summary
82 fights60 wins19 losses
By knockout272
By decision3317
Draws3
ResultRecordOpponentTypeRound, timeDateLocationNotes
Loss60-19-3 Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg Emile Griffith UD101970-07-15 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win60-18-3 Flag of the United States.svg Andy KendallUD101969-11-14 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win59-18-3 Flag of Italy.svg Nino Benvenuti UD101969-05-26 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win58-18-3 Flag of the United States.svg Frank DePaula UD101968-10-25 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York The Ring magazine's "Fight of the Year" (1968)
Loss57-18-3 Flag of the United States.svg Bob Foster KO4 (15), 2:051968-05-24 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New YorkLost WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal light heavyweight titles
Win57-17-3 Flag of the United States.svg Roger RouseTKO12 (15), 0:121967-11-17 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Center, Las VegasRetained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal light heavyweight titles
Win56-17-3 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg José Torres SD151967-05-16 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New YorkRetained WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal light heavyweight titles
Win55-17-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Abraham TomicaTKO5 (10)1967-02-05 Flag of Nigeria.svg Mile One Park, Port Harcourt
Win54-17-3 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg José Torres UD151966-12-16 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New YorkWon WBA, WBC, The Ring, and lineal light heavyweight titles
Loss53-17-3 Flag of the United States Virgin Islands.svg Emile Griffith UD151966-04-25 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New YorkLost WBA, WBC, The Ring & Lineal Middleweight titles
Win53-16-3 Flag of Germany.svg Peter MuellerKO3 (10), 0:571966-02-18 Flag of Germany.svg Westfalenhalle, Dortmund
Win52-16-3 Flag of the United States.svg Joey Giardello UD151965-10-21 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New YorkWon WBA, WBC, The Ring & Lineal Middleweight titles
Win51-16-3 Flag of the United States.svg Rubin Carter UD101965-05-20 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win50-16-3 Flag of Argentina.svg Juan Carlos RiveroTKO6 (10)1965-03-12 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Loss49-16-3 Flag of the United States.svg Joey Archer SD101964-10-16 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win49-15-3 Flag of the United States.svg Don Fullmer UD101964-09-11 Flag of the United States.svg Arena, Cleveland
Win48-15-3 Flag of Puerto Rico.svg Jose Monon GonzalezTKO6 (10)1964-07-31 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Loss47-15-3 Flag of the United States.svg Joey Giardello PTS151963-12-07 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Hall, Atlantic CityLost WBA, WBC, The Ring & Lineal Middleweight titles
Win47-14-3 Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer RTD7 (15), 3:001963-08-10 Flag of Nigeria.svg Liberty Stadium, IbadanRetained WBA & The Ring , won Lineal, WBC Middleweight titles
Draw46-14-3 Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer PTS151963-02-23 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Center, Las VegasRetained WBA, for Lineal Middleweight titles
Win46-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg Gene Fullmer UD151962-10-23 Flag of the United States.svg Candlestick Park, San FranciscoWon vacant WBA Middleweight title
Win45-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg Henry HankUD101962-03-31 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win44-14-2 Flag of Cuba.svg Florentino Fernández TKO6 (10)1962-01-20 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Center, Miami Beach
Win43-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg William PickettUD101961-12-16 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win42-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg Hank CaseySD101961-05-15 Flag of the United States.svg Municipal Auditorium, New Orleans
Win41-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg Spider WebbKO6 (10), 2:411961-04-15 Flag of the United States.svg St. Nicholas Arena, New York
Win40-14-2 Flag of the United States.svg Gene ArmstrongTKO9 (10), 1:211961-02-18 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win39-14-2 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Wilf Greaves TKO9 (15), 1:201960-11-30 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Edmonton Gardens, EdmontonWon Commonwealth (British Empire) Middleweight title
Loss38-14-2 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Wilf Greaves SD151960-06-22 Flag of Canada (Pantone).svg Edmonton Gardens, EdmontonLost Commonwealth (British Empire) Middleweight title
Win38-13-2 Flag of Argentina.svg Víctor Zalazar MD101960-04-01 Flag of the United States.svg Arena, Boston
Win37-13-2 Flag of the United States.svg Gene ArmstrongUD101960-02-24 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago
Win36-13-2 Flag of the United States.svg Holly MimsMD101959-12-30 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago
Loss35-13-2 Flag of the United States.svg Joey Giardello UD101959-11-04 Flag of the United States.svg Arena, Cleveland
Win35-12-2 Flag of the United States.svg Joey Giardello UD101959-09-30 Flag of the United States.svg Chicago Stadium, Chicago
Win34-12-2 Flag of the United States.svg Gene ArmstrongPTS101959-09-02 Flag of the United States.svg Convention Hall, Camden
Loss33-12-2 Flag of the United States.svg Rory CalhounSD101959-07-17 Flag of the United States.svg War Memorial Auditorium, Syracuse
Draw33-12-2 Flag of the United States.svg Rory CalhounPTS101959-06-05 Flag of the United States.svg Madison Square Garden, New York
Win33-12-1 Flag of the United States.svg Randy SandyPTS101959-05-12 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Empire Pool, Wembley
Loss32-11-1 Flag of the United States.svg Randy SandyPTS101959-05-12 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Win32-10-1 Flag of Trinidad and Tobago.svg Yolande Pompey PTS101958-10-14 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Empire Pool, Wembley
Loss31-10-1 Flag of the United States.svg Spider WebbPTS101958-06-24 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Earls Court Empress Hall, Kensington
Win31-9-1 Flag of England.svg Billy EllawayKO2 (8)1958-05-01 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Win30-9-1 Flag of England.svg Pat McAteerKO9 (15)1958-03-27 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, LiverpoolWon Commonwealth (British Empire) Middleweight title
Win29-9-1 Flag of England.svg Johnny ReadKO6 (8)1958-02-25 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Harringay Arena, Harringay
Win28-9-1 Flag of England.svg Jimmy LynasKO7 (8)1958-02-03 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg King's Hall, Belle Vue, Manchester
Win27-9-1 Flag of France.svg Jean RuelletPTS81958-01-13 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg City Hall, Hull
Win26-9-1 Flag of Ireland.svg Paddy DelargyKO6 (10)1957-11-28 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Embassy Sportsdrome, Birmingham
Draw25-9-1 Flag of England.svg Pat McAteerPTS101957-11-11 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Sophia Gardens Pavilion, Cardiff
Win25-9 Flag of France.svg Jean Claude PoissonPTS101957-10-21 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Sophia Gardens Pavilion, Cardiff
Win24-9 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Phil Edwards PTS101957-09-09 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Sophia Gardens Pavilion, Cardiff
Win23-9 Flag of England.svg Alan DeanPTS81957-07-25 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Loss22-9 Flag of Scotland.svg Willie ArmstrongPTS81957-07-15 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Engineer's Club, West Hartlepool
Win22-8 Flag of France.svg Marius DoriTKO7 (8)1957-06-04 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Harringay Arena, Harringay
Win21-8 Flag of England.svg Terry Downes TKO5 (8)1957-05-14 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Town Hall, ShoreditchCut eye stoppage. Matchup of future world champions.
Win20-8 Flag of England.svg Johnny ReadTKO2 (8)1957-04-29 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg National Sporting Club, Piccadilly
Win19-8 Flag of England.svg Alan DeanPTS81956-11-09 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tower Circus, Blackpool
Loss18-8 Flag of England.svg Alan DeanPTS61956-10-18 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Win18-7 Flag of England.svg Jimmy LynasPTS81956-07-02 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tower Circus, Blackpool
Win17-7 Flag of England.svg Wally ScottTKO4 (8)1956-05-28 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Engineer's Club, West Hartlepool
Win16-7 Flag of England.svg Alan DeanPTS81956-05-10 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Win15-7 Flag of Wales (1959-present).svg Dennis RowleyKO1 (8)1956-05-03 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Loss14-7 Flag of England.svg George RoePTS81956-03-22 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Loss14-6 Flag of England.svg Jimmy LynasPTS81956-03-01 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tower Circus, Blackpool
Loss14-5 Flag of England.svg Gerry McNallyPTS81956-01-27 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg Tower Circus, Blackpool
Loss14-4 Flag of England.svg Alan DeanPTS61955-12-08 Flag of the United Kingdom.svg The Stadium, Liverpool
Win14-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Bolaji JohnsonPTS81955-08-31 Flag of Nigeria.svg Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos
Win13-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg John AmaKO21955-05-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lagos
Win12-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Raheem FagbemiPTS81955-01-31 Flag of Nigeria.svg Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos
Win11-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Koko KidKO61955-01-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Amaigbo
Win10-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Peter OkptraKO81954-11-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lagos
Win9-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Super Human PowerPTS81954-07-18 Flag of Nigeria.svg Rex Cinema Hall, Aba
Win8-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Mighty JoePTS61954-06-12 Flag of Nigeria.svg Rex Cinema Hall, Aba
Win7-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Robert NwanneKO21954-02-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lagos
Loss6-3 Flag of Nigeria.svg Tommy WestPTS61954-01-29 Flag of Nigeria.svg Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos
Loss6-2 Flag of Nigeria.svg Tommy WestRTD71953-05-20 Flag of Nigeria.svg African Tennis Club, Lagos
Win6-1 Flag of Nigeria.svg Simon EmePTS81953-02-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lagos
Win5-1 Flag of Nigeria.svg Blackie PowerPTS61953-01-30 Flag of Nigeria.svg Glover Memorial Hall, Lagos
Win4-1 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lion RingTKO61953-01-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Lagos
Loss3-1 Flag of Nigeria.svg Tommy WestPTS101952-12-13 Flag of Nigeria.svg Rex Cinema Hall, Lagos
Win3-0 Flag of Nigeria.svg Easy DynamiteKO11952-10-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Port Harcourt
Win2-0 Flag of Nigeria.svg Koko KidPTS81952-09-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Port Harcourt
Win1-0 Flag of Nigeria.svg Simon EmeKO21952-01-01 Flag of Nigeria.svg Aba

Fiction

TV

See also

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References

  1. "The Lineal Boxing World Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  2. Rogak, Larry (2005). You Don't Know Dick!: An Onomastic Reference Compendium. iUniverse. p. 80. ISBN   0-595-35433-5.
  3. Andrew Eisele. "Ring Magazine's 80 Best Fighters of the Last 80 Years". About.com Sports.
  4. "The Lineal Middleweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia.
  5. "The Lineal Light Heavyweight Champions". The Cyber Boxing Zone Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  6. Carpenter, Harry (1975). Boxing: A Pictorial History. Chicago, IL: Henry Regnery Company. p. 123. ISBN   0-8092-8349-2.
  7. Sugar, Bert (1984). The 100 Greatest Boxers of All Time. New York, NY: Bonanza Books. pp. 138–139. ISBN   0-517-67246-4.
  8. Liebling, A.J. (1990). A Neutral Corner. San Francisco, CA: North Point Press. pp. 191–192. ISBN   0-86547-450-8.
  9. Heller, Peter (1973). In This Corner! (Dell PB original ed.). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, Inc. pp. 353–354.
  10. Heller, Peter (1973). In This Corner! (Dell PB original ed.). New York, NY: Simon and Schuster, Inc. p. 403.
  11. Liebman, Glenn (1996). Boxing Shorts. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books, Inc. p. 176. ISBN   0-8092-3216-2.
  12. Dundee, Angelo (2008). My View From The Corner. New York, NY: McGraw Hill. pp. 85–86. ISBN   978-0-07-147739-0.
  13. staff writer, no by-line. "The 10 Deadliest Punches of the Last Quarter Century!". Big Book of Boxing (July, 1975): 25, 54.
  14. Collins, Nigel (1990). Boxing Babylon. New York, NY: Carol Publishing Group. p. 78. ISBN   0-8065-1183-4.
  15. Dick Tiger dies of liver cancer, google.com; accessed November 6, 2016.
  16. "Dick tiger 42, Nigerian boxer who won world titles dead".

Further reading

Achievements
Inaugural Champion WBA middleweight champion
October 23, 1962 - December 7, 1963
Succeeded by
Joey Giardello
WBC middleweight champion
August 10, 1963 - December 7, 1963
Vacant
Title last held by
Paul Pender
The Ring middleweight champion
May 7, 1963 - December 7, 1963
Lineal middleweight champion
August 10, 1963 - December 7, 1963
Inaugural Champion Undisputed middleweight champion
August 10, 1963 - December 7, 1963
Preceded by
Joey Giardello
WBA middleweight champion
October 21, 1965 - April 25, 1966
Succeeded by
Emile Griffith
WBC middleweight champion
October 21, 1965 - April 25, 1966
The Ring Middleweight Champion
October 21, 1965 - April 25, 1966
Lineal middleweight champion
October 21, 1965 - April 25, 1966
Undisputed middleweight champion
October 21, 1965 - April 25, 1966
Preceded by
José Torres
WBA light heavyweight champion
December 16, 1966 - May 24, 1968
Succeeded by
Bob Foster
WBC light heavyweight champion
December 16, 1966 - May 24, 1968
The Ring light heavyweight champion
December 16, 1966 - May 24, 1968
Lineal light heavyweight champion
December 16, 1966 - May 24, 1968
Undisputed light heavyweight champion
December 16, 1966 - May 24, 1968