Didache

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The Didache ( /ˈdɪdək, -ki/ ; Greek : Διδαχή,, translit.  Didakhé, lit.  'Teaching'), [1] also known as The Lord's Teaching Through the Twelve Apostles to the Nations (Διδαχὴ Κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν), is a brief anonymous early Christian treatise written in Koine Greek, dated by most modern scholars to the first century. [2] The first line of this treatise is "The teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles (or Nations) by the twelve apostles". [lower-alpha 1] The text, parts of which constitute the oldest extant written catechism, has three main sections dealing with Christian ethics, rituals such as baptism and Eucharist, and Church organization. The opening chapters describe the virtuous Way of Life and the wicked Way of Death. [3] The Lord's Prayer is included in full. [3] Baptism is by immersion, or by affusion if immersion is not practical. [3] Fasting is ordered for Wednesdays and Fridays. [3] Two primitive Eucharistic prayers are given. [3] Church organization was at an early stage of development. [3] Itinerant apostles and prophets are important, serving as "chief priests" and possibly celebrating the Eucharist. [3] Meanwhile, local bishops and deacons also have authority and seem to be taking the place of the itinerant ministry. [3]

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.

Literal translation, direct translation, or word-for-word translation is the rendering of text from one language to another one word at a time with or without conveying the sense of the original whole.

The Didache is considered the first example of the genre of Church Orders. [3] The Didache reveals how Jewish Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their practice for Gentile Christians. [4] The Didache is similar in several ways to the Gospel of Matthew, perhaps because both texts originated in similar communities. [5] The opening chapters, which also appear in other early Christian texts, are likely derived from an earlier Jewish source. [3]

Genre is any form or type of communication in any mode with socially-agreed-upon conventions developed over time. Genre is most popularly known as a category of literature, music, or other forms of art or entertainment, whether written or spoken, audio or visual, based on some set of stylistic criteria, yet genres can be aesthetic, rhetorical, communicative, or functional. Genres form by conventions that change over time as cultures invent new genres and discontinue the use of old ones. Often, works fit into multiple genres by way of borrowing and recombining these conventions. Stand-alone texts, works, or pieces of communication may have individual styles, but genres are amalgams of these texts based on agreed-upon or socially inferred conventions. Some genres may have rigid, strictly adhered-to guidelines, while others may show great flexibility.

Ancient Church Orders is a genre of early Christian literature, ranging from 1st to 5th century, which has the purpose of offering authoritative "apostolic" prescriptions on matters of moral conduct, liturgy and Church organization. These texts are extremely important in the study of early liturgy and served as the basis for much ancient ecclesiastical legislation.

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

The Didache is considered part of the group of second-generation Christian writings known as the Apostolic Fathers. The work was considered by some Church Fathers to be a part of the New Testament, [6] [7] [8] while being rejected by others as spurious or non-canonical, [9] [10] [11] In the end, it was not accepted into the New Testament canon. However, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church "broader canon" includes the Didascalia, a work which draws on the Didache.

The Apostolic Fathers were core Christian theologians among the Church Fathers who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles, or to have been significantly influenced by them. Their writings, though popular in Early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature which came to be part of the New Testament. Some of the writings found among the Apostolic Fathers appear to have been highly regarded as some of the writings which became the New Testament.

Church Fathers Group of ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers

The Church Fathers, Early Church Fathers, Christian Fathers, or Fathers of the Church were ancient and influential Christian theologians and writers. There is no definitive list. The era of these scholars who set the theological and scholarly foundations of Christianity largely ended by AD 700.

New Testament Second division of the Christian biblical canon

The New Testament is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first being the Old Testament. The New Testament discusses the teachings and person of Jesus, as well as events in first-century Christianity. Christians regard both the Old and New Testaments together as sacred scripture.

Lost for centuries, a Greek manuscript of the Didache was rediscovered in 1873 by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the Codex Hierosolymitanus. A Latin version of the first five chapters was discovered in 1900 by J. Schlecht. [12]

Koine Greek, also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the common supra-regional form of Greek spoken and written during the Hellenistic period, the Roman Empire, and the early Byzantine Empire, or late antiquity. It evolved from the spread of Greek following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC, and served as the lingua franca of much of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East during the following centuries. It was based mainly on Attic and related Ionic speech forms, with various admixtures brought about through dialect levelling with other varieties.

Philotheos Bryennios Greek bishop

Philotheos Bryennios was a Greek Orthodox metropolitan of Nicomedia, and the discoverer in 1873 of an important manuscript with copies of early Church documents.

Codex Hierosolymitanus is an 11th-century Greek manuscript, written by an otherwise unknown scribe named Leo, who dated it 1056. Its designation of "Jerusalem" recalls its resting place in Jerusalem, at the library of the monastery of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Date, composition and modern translations

The title of the Didache in the manuscript discovered in 1873 Didtitle.jpg
The title of the Didache in the manuscript discovered in 1873

Many English and American scholars once dated the text to the late 2nd century AD, [3] a view still held today, [13] but most scholars now assign the Didache to the first century. [14] [15] The document is a composite work, and the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls with its Manual of Discipline provided evidence of development over a considerable period of time, beginning as a Jewish catechetical work which was then developed into a church manual. [16] Two uncial fragments containing Greek text of the Didache (verses 1:3c–4a; 2:7–3:2) were found among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri (no. 1782) and are now in the collection of the Sackler Library in Oxford. [17] [18] [19] Apart from these fragments, the Greek text of the Didache has only survived in a single manuscript, the Codex Hierosolymitanus. Dating the document is thus made difficult both by the lack of hard evidence and its composite character. The Didache may have been compiled in its present form as late as 150, although a date closer to the end of the first century seems more probable to many. [20] It is an anonymous work, a pastoral manual that Aaron Milavec states "reveals more about how Jewish-Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their Judaism for gentiles than any other book in the Christian Scriptures." [4] The Two Ways section is likely based on an earlier Jewish source. [3] The community that produced the Didache could have been based in Syria, as it addressed the Gentiles but from a Judaic perspective, at some remove from Jerusalem, and shows no evidence of Pauline influence. [3] [21] Alan Garrow claims that its earliest layer may have originated in the decree issued by the Apostolic council of AD 49–50, that is by the Jerusalem assembly under James the Just. [22]

Dead Sea Scrolls Ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves near the Dead Sea

The Dead Sea Scrolls are ancient Jewish religious manuscripts found in the Qumran Caves in the Judaean Desert, near Ein Feshkha on the northern shore of the Dead Sea. Scholarly consensus dates these scrolls from the last three centuries BCE and the first century CE. The texts have great historical, religious, and linguistic significance because they include the second-oldest known surviving manuscripts of works later included in the Hebrew Bible canon, along with deuterocanonical and extra-biblical manuscripts which preserve evidence of the diversity of religious thought in late Second Temple Judaism. Almost all of the Dead Sea Scrolls collection is currently under the ownership of the Government of the State of Israel, and housed in the Shrine of the Book on the grounds of the Israel Museum.

Oxyrhynchus Papyri Manuscript fragments from 32BC–640AD found in an Egyptian rubbish dump

The Oxyrhynchus Papyri are a group of manuscripts discovered during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries by papyrologists Bernard Pyne Grenfell and Arthur Surridge Hunt at an ancient rubbish dump near Oxyrhynchus in Egypt.

Sackler Library library of the University of Oxford, England, UK

The Sackler Library holds a large portion of the classical, art historical, and archaeological works belonging to the University of Oxford, England.

The text was lost, but scholars knew of it through the writing of later church fathers, some of whom had drawn heavily on it. [23] In 1873 in Istanbul, metropolitan Philotheos Bryennios found a Greek copy of the Didache, written in 1056, and he published it in 1883. [23] Hitchcock and Brown produced the first English translation in March 1884. Adolf von Harnack produced the first German translation in 1884, and Paul Sabatier produced the first French translation and commentary in 1885. [24]

Adolf von Harnack Baltic German theologian and prominent church historian

Carl Gustav Adolf von Harnack was a Baltic German Lutheran theologian and prominent church historian. He produced many religious publications from 1873 to 1912. He was ennobled in 1914.

Charles Paul Marie Sabatier, was a French clergyman and historian who produced the first modern biography of St. Francis of Assisi. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize in Literature five times.

Early references

Philotheos Bryennios, who re-discovered the Didache Filoteos Bryennios.JPG
Philotheos Bryennios, who re-discovered the Didache

The Didache is mentioned by Eusebius (c. 324) as the Teachings of the Apostles along with the books recognized as non-canonical: [25]

Let there be placed among the spurious works the Acts of Paul , the so-called Shepherd and the Apocalypse of Peter , and besides these the Epistle of Barnabas , and what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, and also the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought proper; for as I wrote before, some reject it, and others place it in the canon.

Athanasius (367) and Rufinus (c. 380) list the Didache among apocrypha. (Rufinus gives the curious alternative title Judicium Petri, "Judgment of Peter".) It is rejected by Nicephorus (c. 810), Pseudo-Anastasius, and Pseudo-Athanasius in Synopsis and the 60 Books canon. It is accepted by the Apostolic Constitutions Canon 85, John of Damascus and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church. The Adversus Aleatores by an imitator of Cyprian quotes it by name. Unacknowledged citations are very common, if less certain. The section Two Ways shares the same language with the Epistle of Barnabas , chapters 18–20, sometimes word for word, sometimes added to, dislocated, or abridged, and Barnabas iv, 9 either derives from Didache, 16, 2–3, or vice versa. There can also be seen many similarities to the Epistles of both Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch . The Shepherd of Hermas seems to reflect it, and Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, [lower-alpha 2] and Origen of Alexandria also seem to use the work, and so in the West do Optatus and the "Gesta apud Zenophilum." [lower-alpha 3] The Didascalia Apostolorum are founded upon the Didache. The Apostolic Church-Ordinances has used a part, the Apostolic Constitutions have embodied the Didascalia. There are echoes in Justin Martyr, Tatian, Theophilus of Antioch, Cyprian, and Lactantius.

Contents

The Didache is a relatively short text with only some 2,300 words. The contents may be divided into four parts, which most scholars agree were combined from separate sources by a later redactor: the first is the Two Ways, the Way of Life and the Way of Death (chapters 1–6); the second part is a ritual dealing with baptism, fasting, and Communion (chapters 7–10); the third speaks of the ministry and how to treat apostles, prophets, bishops, and deacons (chapters 11–15); and the final section (chapter 16) is a prophecy of the Antichrist and the Second Coming. [3]

Title

The manuscript is commonly referred to as the Didache. This is short for the header found on the document and the title used by the Church Fathers, "The Lord's Teaching of the Twelve Apostles" [lower-alpha 4] which Jerome said was the same as the Gospel according to the Hebrews. A fuller title or subtitle is also found next in the manuscript, "The Teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles [lower-alpha 5] by the Twelve Apostles". [lower-alpha 6]

Description

Willy Rordorf considered the first five chapters as "essentially Jewish, but the Christian community was able to use it" by adding the "evangelical section". [29] "Lord" in the Didache is reserved usually for "Lord God", while Jesus is called "the servant" of the Father (9:2f.; 10:2f.). [30] Baptism was practiced "in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit." [31] Scholars generally agree that 9:5, which speaks of baptism "in the name of the Lord," represents an earlier tradition that was gradually replaced by a trinity of names." [32] A similarity with Acts 3 is noted by Aaron Milavec: both see Jesus as "the servant (pais) [33] of God". [34] The community is presented as "awaiting the kingdom from the Father as entirely a future event". [35]

The Two Ways

The first section (Chapters 1–6) begins: "There are two ways, one of life and one of death, and there is a great difference between these two ways." [36]

Apostolic Fathers, 2nd ed., Lightfoot-Harmer-Holmes, 1992, notes:

The Two Ways material appears to have been intended, in light of 7.1, as a summary of basic instruction about the Christian life to be taught to those who were preparing for baptism and church membership. In its present form it represents the Christianization of a common Jewish form of moral instruction. Similar material is found in a number of other Christian writings from the first through about the fifth centuries, including the Epistle of Barnabas, the Didascalia, the Apostolic Church Ordinances, the Summary of Doctrine, the Apostolic Constitutions, the Life of Schnudi, and On the Teaching of the Apostles (or Doctrina), some of which are dependent on the Didache. The interrelationships between these various documents, however, are quite complex and much remains to be worked out.

The closest parallels in the use of the Two Ways doctrine are found among the Essene Jews at the Dead Sea Scrolls community. The Qumran community included a Two Ways teaching in its founding Charter, The Community Rule.

Throughout the Two Ways there are many Old Testament quotes shared with the Gospels, and many theological similarities, but Jesus is never mentioned by name. The first chapter opens with the Shema ("you shall love God"), the Great Commandment ("your neighbor as yourself"), and the Golden Rule in the negative form. Then comes short extracts in common with the Sermon on the Mount, together with a curious passage on giving and receiving, which is also cited with variations in Shepherd of Hermas (Mand., ii, 4–6). The Latin omits 1:3–6 and 2:1, and these sections have no parallel in Epistle of Barnabas; therefore, they may be a later addition, suggesting Hermas and the present text of the Didache may have used a common source, or one may have relied on the other. Chapter 2 contains the commandments against murder, adultery, corrupting boys, sexual promiscuity, theft, magic, sorcery, abortion, infanticide, coveting, perjury, false testimony, speaking evil, holding grudges, being double-minded, not acting as you speak, greed, avarice, hypocrisy, maliciousness, arrogance, plotting evil against neighbors, hate, narcissism and expansions on these generally, with references to the words of Jesus. Chapter 3 attempts to explain how one vice leads to another: anger to murder, concupiscence to adultery, and so forth. The whole chapter is excluded in Barnabas. A number of precepts are added in chapter 4, which ends: "This is the Way of Life." Verse 13 states you must not forsake the Lord's commandments, neither adding nor subtracting (see also Deut 4:2,12:32). The Way of Death (chapter 5) is a list of vices to be avoided. Chapter 6 exhorts to the keeping in the Way of this Teaching:

See that no one causes you to err from this way of the teaching, since apart from God it teaches you. For if you are able to bear the entire yoke of the Lord, you will be perfect; but if you are not able to do this, do what you are able. And concerning food, bear what you are able; but against that which is sacrificed to idols be exceedingly careful; for it is the service of dead gods.

— Roberts

The Didache, like 1 Corinthians 10:21, does not give an absolute prohibition on eating meat which has been offered to idols, but merely advises to be careful. [37] Comparable to the Didache is the "let him eat herbs" of Paul of Tarsus as a hyperbolical expression like 1 Cor 8:13: "I will never eat flesh, lest I should scandalize my brother", thus giving no support to the notion of vegetarianism in the Early Church. John Chapman in the Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) states that the Didache is referring to Jewish meats. [12] The Latin version substitutes for chapter 6 a similar close, omitting all reference to meats and to idolothyta, and concluding with per Domini nostri Jesu Christi ... in saecula saeculorum, amen, "by our lord Jesus Christ ... for ever and ever, amen". This is the end of the translation. This suggests the translator lived at a day when idolatry had disappeared, and when the remainder of the Didache was out of date. He had no such reason for omitting chapter 1, 3–6, so that this was presumably not in his copy. [12]

Rituals

Baptism

The second part (chapters 7 to 10) begins with an instruction on baptism, the sacramental rite that admits someone into the Christian Church. [38] Baptism is to be conferred "in the Name of the Father, and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit" [31] with triple immersion in “living water” (that is, flowing water, probably in a stream). [39] If that is not practical, in cold or even warm water is acceptable. If the water is insufficient for immersion, it may be poured three times on the head (affusion). The baptized and the baptizer, and, if possible, anyone else attending the ritual should fast for one or two days beforehand.

The New Testament is rich in metaphors for baptism but offers few details about the practice itself, not even whether the candidates professed their faith in a formula. [40] The Didache is the oldest extra-biblical source for information about baptism, but it, too lacks these details. [40] The "Two Ways" section of the Didache is presumably the sort of ethical instruction that catechumens (students) received in preparation for baptism. [40]

Fasting

Chapter 8 suggests that fasts are not to be on the second day and on the fifth day "with the hypocrites", but on the fourth day and on the preparation day. Fasting Wednesday and Friday plus worshiping on the Lord's day constituted the Christian week. [41] Nor must Christians pray with their Judaic brethren, instead they shall say the Lord's Prayer three times a day. The text of the prayer is not identical to the version in the Gospel of Matthew, and it is given with the doxology "for Yours is the power and the glory forever." This doxology derives from 1 Chronicles 29:11–13; Bruce M. Metzger held that the early church added it to the Lord's Prayer, creating the current Matthew reading. [42]

Daily prayer

The Didache provides one of the few clues historians have in reconstructing the daily prayer practice among Christians before the 300s. [43] It instructs Christians to pray the "Our Father" three times [44] a day but does not specify times to pray. [43] Other early sources speak of two-fold, three-fold, and five-fold daily prayers. [43]

Eucharist

The Didache includes two primitive and unusual prayers for the Eucharist ("thanksgiving"), [3] which is the central act of Christian worship. [45] It is the earliest text to refer to this rite as the Eucharist. [45]

Chapter 9 begins:

Now concerning the Eucharist, give thanks this way. First, concerning the cup:
We thank thee, our Father, for the holy vine of David Thy servant, which Thou madest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant; to Thee be the glory for ever...

And concerning the broken bread:

We thank Thee, our Father, for the life and knowledge which Thou madest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant; to Thee be the glory for ever. Even as this broken bread was scattered over the hills, and was gathered together and became one, so let Thy Church be gathered together from the ends of the earth into Thy kingdom; for Thine is the glory and the power through Jesus Christ for ever.
But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, "Give not that which is holy to the dogs."

—Roberts

The Didache basically describes the same ritual as the one that took place in Corinth. [46] As with Paul's First Letter to the Corinthians, the Didache confirms that the Lord's supper was literally a meal, probably taking place in a "house church." [47] The order of cup and bread differs both from present-day Christian practice and from that in the New Testament accounts of the Last Supper, [48] of which, again unlike almost all present-day Eucharistic celebrations, the Didache makes no mention. Scholars once traced the Eucharistic prayers back to Jesus' words at the Last Supper, but contemporary scholars emphasize Jewish and gentile sources instead. [47]

Revelation 22:17 (KJV), to which the prayer in Didache 10 bears some similarity. Joseph Martin Kronheim - The Sunday at Home 1880 - Revelation 22-17.jpg
Revelation 22:17 (KJV), to which the prayer in Didache 10 bears some similarity.

Chapter 10 gives a thanksgiving after a meal. The contents of the meal are not indicated: chapter 9 does not exclude other elements as well that the cup and bread, which are the only ones it mentions, and chapter 10, whether it was originally a separate document or continues immediately the account in chapter 9, mentions no particular elements, not even wine and bread. Instead it speaks of the "spiritual food and drink and life eternal through Thy Servant" that it distinguishes from the "food and drink (given) to men for enjoyment that they might give thanks to (God)". After a doxology, as before, come the apocalyptic exclamations: "Let grace come, and let this world pass away. Hosanna to the God (Son) of David! If any one is holy, let him come; if any one is not so, let him repent. Maranatha. Amen". [49] The prayer is reminiscent of Revelation 22:17–20 and 1 Corinthians 16:22. [50]

These prayers make no reference to the redemptive death of Christ, or remembrance, as formulated by Paul the Apostle in 1 Corinthians 11:23–34, see also Atonement in Christianity. Didache 10 doesn't even use the word "Christ," which appears only one other time in the whole tract.

John Dominic Crossan endorses John W. Riggs' 1984 The Second Century article for the proposition that 'there are two quite separate eucharistic celebrations given in Didache 9–10, with the earlier one now put in second place." [51] The section beginning at 10.1 is a reworking of the Jewish birkat ha-mazon, a three-strophe prayer at the conclusion of a meal, which includes a blessing of God for sustaining the universe, a blessing of God who gives the gifts of food, earth, and covenant, and a prayer for the restoration of Jerusalem; the content is "Christianized", but the form remains Jewish. [52] It is similar to the Syrian Church eucharist rite of the Holy Qurbana of Addai and Mari, belonging to "a primordial era when the euchology of the Church had not yet inserted the Institution Narrative in the text of the Eucharistic Prayer." [53]

Church organization

The church organization reflected in the Didache seems to be underdeveloped. [3] Itinerant apostles and prophets are of great importance, serving as "chief priests" and possibly celebrating the Eucharist. [3] The text offers guidelines on how to differentiate a genuine prophet that deserves support from a false prophet who seeks to exploit the community's generosity. For example, a prophet who fails to act as he preaches is a false prophet (11:10). The local leadership consists of bishops and deacons, and they seem to be taking the place of the itinerant ministry. [3] Christians are enjoined to gather on Sunday [54] to break bread, but to confess their sins first as well as reconcile themselves with others if they have grievances (Chapter 14).

Matthew and the Didache

Significant similarities between the Didache and the Gospel of Matthew have been found [5] as these writings share words, phrases, and motifs. There is also an increasing reluctance of modern scholars to support the thesis that the Didache used Matthew. This close relationship between these two writings might suggest that both documents were created in the same historical and geographical setting. One argument that suggests a common environment is that the community of both the Didache and the gospel of Matthew was probably composed of Jewish Christians from the beginning. [5] Also, the Two Ways teaching (Did. 1–6) may have served as a pre-baptismal instruction within the community of the Didache and Matthew. Furthermore, the correspondence of the Trinitarian baptismal formula in the Didache and Matthew (Did. 7 and Matt 28:19) as well as the similar shape of the Lord's Prayer (Did. 8 and Matt 6:5–13) appear to reflect the use of similar oral traditions. Finally, both the community of the Didache (Did. 11–13) and Matthew (Matt 7:15–23; 10:5–15, 40–42; 24:11,24) were visited by itinerant apostles and prophets, some of whom were heterodox. [5]

See also

Notes

  1. Greek: Διδαχὴ κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν.
  2. Clement quotes the Didache as scripture. [26] [ page needed ]
  3. "Proceedings Before Zenophilus" is the second of sixteen appendices to Optatus' (Bishop of Milevis, Numidia) seven-book treatise Against the Donatists [27] by Optatus, c. 370.
  4. Greek: Διδαχὴ Κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων, Didachē Kiriou dia tōn dōdeka apostolōn.
  5. Some translations "Nations". [28]
  6. Greek: Διδαχὴ κυρίου διὰ τῶν δώδεκα ἀποστόλων τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, Didachē kyriou dia tōn dōdeka apostolōn tois ethnesin.

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The Canons of Hippolytus is a Christian text composed of 38 decrees ("canons") of the genre of the Church Orders. The work has been dated to between 336 and 340 A.D., though a slightly later date is sometimes proposed.

The Apostolic Constitutions or Constitutions of the Holy Apostles is a Christian collection of eight treatises which belongs to the Church Orders, a genre of early Christian literature, that offered authoritative "apostolic" prescriptions on moral conduct, liturgy and Church organization. The work can be dated from 375 to 380 AD. The provenance is usually regarded as Syria, probably Antioch. The author is unknown, even if since James Ussher it was considered to be the same author of the letters of Pseudo-Ignatius, perhaps the 4th-century Eunomian bishop Julian of Cilicia.

The Apostolic Tradition is an early Christian treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders. It has been described as of "incomparable importance as a source of information about church life and liturgy in the third century".

The Apostolic Church-Ordinance is an Orthodox Christian treatise which belongs to genre of the Church Orders. The work can be dated at the end of 3rd century CE. The provenience is usually regarded as Egypt, or perhaps Syria. The author is unknown.

Didascalia Apostolorum, or just Didascalia, is a Christian treatise which belongs to the genre of the Church Orders. It presents itself as being written by the Twelve Apostles at the time of the Council of Jerusalem; however, scholars agree that it was actually a composition of the 3rd century, perhaps around 230 AD.

Origin of the Eucharist

Church teaching places the origin of the Eucharist in the Last Supper of Jesus with his disciples, at which he is believed to have taken bread and given it to his disciples, telling them to eat of it, because it was his body, and to have taken a cup and given it to his disciples, telling them to drink of it because it was the cup of the covenant in his blood.

This is a glossary of terms used in Christianity.

Catholic theology is the understanding of Catholic doctrine or teachings, and results from the studies of theologians. It is based on canonical scripture, and sacred tradition, as interpreted authoritatively by the magisterium of the Catholic Church. This article serves as an introduction to various topics in Catholic theology, with links to where fuller coverage is found.

Christianity in the 1st century Christianity-related events during the 1st century

Christianity in the 1st century covers the formative history of Christianity, from the start of the ministry of Jesus to the death of the last of the Twelve Apostles. According to Christian tradition, the period from Jesus's death, resurrection, and the Great Commission is distinguished as the Apostolic Age.

Immersion baptism Method of baptism

Immersion baptism is a method of baptism that is distinguished from baptism by affusion (pouring) and by aspersion (sprinkling), sometimes without specifying whether the immersion is total or partial, but very commonly with the indication that the person baptized is immersed completely. The term is also, though less commonly, applied exclusively to modes of baptism that involve only partial immersion

Baptism has been part of Christianity from the start, as shown by the many mentions in the Acts of the Apostles and the Pauline epistles.

The Jesus' Name doctrine or the Oneness doctrine upholds that baptism is to be performed "in the name of Jesus Christ," rather than the Trinitarian formula "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost." It is most commonly associated with Oneness Christology and Oneness Pentecostalism, however, some Trinitarians also baptise in Jesus' name.

References

Citations

  1. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). "διδαχή". A Greek–English Lexicon . Revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  2. Cross, edited by F.L. (2005). The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd rev. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 482. ISBN   978-0192802903 . Retrieved 8 March 2016.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 ”Didache." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  4. 1 2 Milavec 2003, p.  vii.
  5. 1 2 3 4 H. van de Sandt (ed), Matthew and the Didache, (Assen: Royal van Gorcum; Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 2005).
  6. Rufinus, Commentary on Apostles Creed 37 (as Deuterocanonical) c. 380
  7. John of Damascus Exact Exposition of Orthodox Faith 4.17.
  8. The 81-book canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church
  9. Athanasius Festal Letter 39 (excludes them from the canon, but recommends them for reading) in 367
  10. 60 Books Canon.
  11. Nicephorus in Stichometria
  12. 1 2 3 Wikisource-logo.svg John Chapman (1913). "Didache"  . In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton Company.
  13. Slee, Michelle (2003). The church in Antioch in the first century AD : communion and conflict. London [u.a.]: T & T Clark International. p. 58. ISBN   978-0567083821.
  14. "Didache", Dictionary of the Christian Church, Oxford University Press, ISBN   978-0-19-280290-3 .
  15. O'Loughlin, Thomas (2011). The Didache: A window on the earliest Christians. SPCK . Retrieved 2 July 2015.
  16. Draper, ed. by Jonathan A. (1996). The Didache in modern research. Leiden [u.a.]: Brill. pp. 74, 75. ISBN   978-9004103757.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  17. Crossan, John Dominic (1 April 1999). Birth of Christianity. A&C Black. p. 364. ISBN   9780567086686.
  18. Reed, Jonathan (1995). "The Hebrew Epic and the Didache". In Jefford, Clayton N. (ed.). The Didache in Context: Essays on Its Text, History, and Transmission. BRILL. p. 213. ISBN   9004100458.
  19. "P.Oxy.XV 1782". POxy: Oxyrhynchus Online. University of Oxford. Retrieved 14 December 2017.
  20. Harmer, translated and edited by Michael W. Holmes; after the earlier version of J.B. Lightfoot and J.R. (2006). The Apostolic Fathers in English (3. ed.). Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic. p. 159. ISBN   978-0801031083.
  21. The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 38
  22. "BNTC2017". Alan Garrow Didache. Retrieved 17 December 2017.
  23. 1 2 “Didache.” Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
  24. Aaron Milavec in Jefford 1995 , pp. 140–41.
  25. Historia Ecclesiastica III, 25.
  26. Durant, Will (1972), Caesar and Christ, New York: Simon & Schuster.
  27. Vassall-Phillips, Rev. O. R., B.A. (1917). The Work of St. Optatus, Bishop of Milevis, Against The Donatists. London: Longmans, Green, And Co. pp. 346–381. Archived from the original on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  28. Strong, 1484, Blue letter Bible.
  29. Milavec 2003, p.  110.
  30. Milavec 2003, p.  271.
  31. 1 2 The Didache or Teaching of the Apostles, trans. and ed., J. B. Lightfoot, 7:2,5
  32. Milavec 2003, p. 271; the Didache verse ("But let no one eat or drink of this eucharistic thanksgiving, but they that have been baptized into the name of the Lord", The Didache or Teaching of the Apostles, trans. and ed., J. B. Lightfoot, 9:10) is erroneously indicated as 9:5.
  33. Luke, "3:13", Acts describes Jesus as παῖς: "a boy (as often beaten with impunity), or (by analogy) a girl, and (generally) a child; specifically a slave or servant (especially a minister to a king; and by eminence to God): – child, maid (-en), (man) servant, son, young man" Strong's G3817.
  34. Milavec 2003, p.  368.
  35. Milavec 2003, p. 368.
  36. Holmes, Apostolic Fathers
  37. Aaron Milavec The Didache: faith, hope, & life of the earliest Christian 2003 p252 citing Wendell Willis "It is interesting, nonetheless, that both Paul and the Didache take a flexible approach save when it comes to eating food sacrificed to idols. Paul makes use of the phrase "table of demons" ( 1 Cor 10:21)."
  38. "Baptism." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  39. The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 794
  40. 1 2 3 The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 36–38
  41. The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 62
  42. May, Herbert G. and Bruce M. Metzger. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. 1977. p. 1177.
  43. 1 2 3 The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 60
  44. Psalms 55.17 "Evening, and morning, and at noon, will I pray, and cry aloud: and He shall hear my voice"
  45. 1 2 "Eucharist." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  46. Valeriy A. Alikin. The earliest history of the Christian gathering. Brill, 2010. ISBN   978-90-04-18309-4. p. 110. "...practice of a particular community or group of communities.29 However, the Didache basically describes the same ritual as the one that took place in Corinth. This is probable for several reasons. In both cases, the meal was a community supper that took place on Sunday evening where the participants could eat their fill, rather than purely a symbolic ritual.30 Also in both cases the meal began with separate benedictions over the bread and wine (Mark 14:22–25 par.).."
  47. 1 2 The Oxford History of Christian Worship. Oxford University Press, US. 2005. ISBN   0195138864 p. 44–51
  48. 1 Corinthians 11:23–25, Mark 14:22–25, Matthew 26:26–29, Luke 22:14–20
  49. M. B. Riddle (trans.) (1886). "The Didache (Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. 7)". New Advent. Retrieved 9 August 2019.
  50. Revelation 22:17–20 reads, "The Spirit and the Bride say, 'Come,' And let the one who hears say, 'Come.' And let the one who is thirsty come; let the one who desires take the water of life without price. / I warn everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of this book: if anyone adds to them, God will add to him the plagues described in this book, and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God will take away his share in the tree of life and in the holy city, which are described in this book. / He who testifies to these things says, 'Surely I am coming soon.' Amen. Come, Lord Jesus!" ( English Standard Version ). 1 Corinthians 16:22 reads, "If anyone has no love for the Lord, let him be accursed. Our Lord, come! [Greek: Maranatha]" (ESV).
  51. Crossan, The Historical Jesus, p 361 (1991)
  52. The Didache: Its Jewish Sources and Its Place in Early Judaism and Christianity by Hubertus Waltherus Maria van de Sandt, David Flusser pp 311–2; Metaphors of Sacrifice in the Liturgies of the Early Church Archived 19 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine by Stephanie Perdew; Jüdische Wurzel by Franz D. Hubmann
  53. Sarhad Yawsip Jammo, The Anaphora of Addai and Mari: A Study of Structure and Historical Background
  54. on Sabbath not Sanday, see Didache 14 and 8

Sources