Diego de Almagro
Almagro, Crown of Castile
|Died||July 8, 1538 (aged 62–63)|
Cuzco, New Castile, Spanish Empire
|Children|| Diego de Almagro II (son)|
Isabel de Almagro (daughter)
|Father||Juan de Montenegro|
|Known for|| Exploration of the Kuna |
Conquest of Peru
Discovery of Chile
|Battles/wars||Conquest of Peru|
Diego de Almagro (Spanish: [ˈdjeɣo ðe alˈmaɣɾo] ; c. 1475 – July 8, 1538), also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish conquistador known for his exploits in western South America. He participated with Francisco Pizarro in the Spanish conquest of Peru. While subduing the Inca Empire he laid the foundation for Quito and Trujillo as Spanish cities in present-day Ecuador and Peru respectively. From Peru Almagro led the first Spanish military expedition to central Chile. Back in Peru, a longstanding conflict with Pizarro over the control of the former Inca capital of Cuzco erupted into a civil war between the two bands of conquistadores. In the battle of Las Salinas in 1538 Almagro was defeated by the Pizarro brothers and months later he was executed.
The origins of Diego de Almagro remain obscure. He was born in 1475 in the village of Almagro, in Ciudad Real, where he took the surname for being the illegitimate son of Juan de Montenegro and Elvira Gutiérrez. In order to save the honor of the mother, her relatives took her infant and moved him to the nearby town of Bolaños de Calatrava, being raised in this town and in Aldea del Rey, run by Sancha López del Peral.
When he turned four he returned to Almagro, being under the tutelage of an uncle named Hernán Gutiérrez until he was fifteen years old, when due to his uncle's hardness he ran away from home. He went to the home of his mother, who was now living with her new husband, to tell her what had happened and that he was going to travel the world, asking for some bread to help her live in her misery. His mother, anguished, gave him a piece of bread and some coins and said: "Take, son, and do not give me more pressure, and go, and God help in your adventure."
He went to Seville and after probably stealing to survive the boy becomes a "criado" or servant and raised by Don Luis de Polanco, one of the four mayors of the Catholic Monarchs and later his counselor, and who was mayor of that city. While performing his duties as a servant, Almagro stabbed another servant for certain differences, leaving him with injuries so serious that they motivated that a trial against him be promoted.
Being wanted for justice, Don Luis de Polanco, making use of his influence, got Don Pedro Arias de Avila to allow him to embark in one of the ships that would go to the New World from the port of Sanlucar de Barrameda. The Casa de Contratacion demanded that the men who crossed the Indies carry their own weapons, clothes, and farming tools, which Don Polanco provided to his servant.
Diego de Almagro arrived in the New World on June 30, 1514, under the expedition that Ferdinand II of Aragon had sent under the guidance of Pedrarias Dávila. The expedition had landed in the city of Santa María la Antigua del Darién, Panama, where many other future conquistadors had already arrived, among them Francisco Pizarro.
There are not many details of Almagro's activities during this period, but it is known that he accompanied various sailors who departed from the city of Darien between 1514 and 1515. De Almagro eventually returned and settled in Darien, where he was granted an encomienda. He built a house and made a living from agriculture.
De Almagro undertook his first conquest on November 1515, commanding 260 men as he founded Villa del Acla, named after the Indian place. Due to illness he had to leave behind this mission to the licenciate Gaspar de Espinosa.
Espinosa decided to undertake a new expedition, which departed in December 1515 with 200 men, including De Almagro and Francisco Pizarro, who for the first time was designated as a captain. During this expedition, which lasted 14 months, De Almagro, Pizarro and Hernando de Luque became close friends.
Also during this time De Almagro established a friendship with Vasco Núñez de Balboa, who was in charge of Acla. De Almagro wanted to have a ship built with the remaining materials of the Espinosa expedition, to be finished on the coast of the "Great South Sea", as the Pacific Ocean was first called by the Spanish. Current historians do not believe that De Almagro was expected to participate in Balboa's expedition and probably returned to Darien.
De Almagro took part in the various expeditions that took place in the Gulf of Panama, taking part again in Espinosa's parties. Espinosa was supported by using Balboa's ships. De Almagro was recorded as a witness on the lists of natives whom Espinosa ordered to be carried. De Almagro remained as an early settler in the newly founded city of Panama. For four years he stayed there, working at the management of his properties and those of Pizarro. He took Ana Martínez, an indigenous woman, as a common-law wife. In this period, his first son, el "Mozo", was born to them.
By 1524 an association of conquest regarding South America was formalized among Almagro, Pizarro and Luque. 24 By the beginning of August 1524, they had received the requisite permission to discover and conquer lands further south. De Almagro would remain in Panama to recruit men and gather supplies for the expeditions led by Pizarro. :92–102:
After several expeditions to South America, Pizarro secured his stay in Peru with the Capitulation on 6 July 1529. 133 During Pizarro's continued exploration of Incan territory, he and his men succeeded in defeating the Inca army under Emperor Atahualpa during the Battle of Cajamarca in 1532. De Almagro joined Pizarro soon afterward, bringing more men and arms. :219–222,233:
After Peru fell to the Spanish, both Pizarro and De Almagro initially worked together in the founding of new cities to consolidate their dominions. As such, Pizarro dispatched De Almagro to pursue Quizquiz, fleeing to the Inca Empire's northern city of Quito. Their fellow conquistador Sebastián de Belalcázar, who had gone forth without Pizarro's approval, had already reached Quito and witnessed the destruction of the city by Inca general Rumiñawi. The Inca warrior had ordered the city to be burned and its gold to be buried at an undisclosed location where the Spanish could never find it. The arrival of Pedro de Alvarado from Guatemala, in search of Inca gold further complicated the situation for Almagro and Belalcázar. Alvarado's presence, however, did not last long as he left South America in exchange for monetary compensation from Pizarro. 223–227:
In an attempt to claim Quito ahead of Belalcázar, in August 1534 De Almagro founded a city on the shores of Laguna de Colta (Colta Lake) in the foothills of Chimborazo, some 55 kilometres (34 mi) south of present-day Quito, and named it "Santiago de Quito." Four months later would come the foundation of the Peruvian city of Trujillo, which Almagro named as "Villa Trujillo de Nueva Castilla" (the Village of Trujillo in New Castille) in honor of Francisco Pizarro's birthplace, Trujillo in Extremadura, Spain. These events were the height of the Pizarro-Almagro friendship, which historians describe as one of the last events in which their friendship soon faded and entered a period of turmoil for the control of the Incan capital of Cuzco.
After splitting the treasure of Inca emperor Atahualpa, both Pizarro and Almagro left towards Cuzco and took the city in 1533. However, De Almagro's friendship with Pizarro showed signs of deterioration in 1526 when Pizarro, in the name of the rest of the conquistadors, called forth the "Capitulacion de Toledo" law in which King Charles I of Spain had laid out his authorization for the conquest of Peru and the awards every conquistador would receive from it. Long before, however, each conquistador had promised to equally split the benefits. Pizarro managed to have a larger stake and awards for himself. Despite this, De Almagro still obtained an important fortune for his services, and the King awarded him in November 1532 the noble title of "Don" and he was assigned a personal coat of arms.
Although by this time Diego de Almagro had already acquired sufficient wealth in the conquest of Peru and was living a luxurious life in Cuzco, the prospect of conquering the lands further south was very attractive to him. Given that the dispute with Pizarro over Cuzco had kept intensifying, Almagro spent a great deal of time and money equipping a company of 500 men for a new exploration south of Peru.
By 1534 the Spanish crown had determined to split the region in two parallel lines, forming the governorship of "Nueva Castilla" (from the 1° to the 14° latitude, close to Pisco), and that of "Nueva Toledo" (from the 14° to the 25° latitude, in Taltal, Chile), assigning the first to Francisco Pizarro and the second to Diego de Almagro. The crown had previously assigned Almagro the governorship of Cuzco, and as such De Almagro was heading there when Charles V divided the territory between Nueva Castilla and Nuevo Toledo. This might have been the reason why Almagro did not immediately confront Pizarro for Cuzco, and promptly decided to embark on his new quest for the discovery of the riches of Chile.
Charles V had given Diego a grant extending two hundred leagues south of Francisco Pizarro's. Francisco and Diego concluded a new contract on 12 June 1535, in which they agreed to share future discoveries equally. Diego raised an expedition for Chile, expecting it "would lead to even greater riches than they had found in Peru." 230,233–234 Almagro prepared the way by sending ahead three of his Spanish soldiers, the religious chief of the Inca empire, Willaq Umu, and Paullo Topa, brother of Manco Inca Yupanqui. De Almagro sent Juan de Saavedra forward with one hundred and fifty men, and soon followed them with additional forces. :230,233–234 Saavedra established on January 23, 1535 the first Spanish settlement in Bolivia near the Inca regional capital of Paria.:
Almagro left Cuzco on July 3, 1535 with his supporters and stopped at Moina until the 20th of that month. Meanwhile, Francisco Pizarro's brother, Juan Pizarro, had arrested Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui, further complicating De Almagro's plans as it heavily increased the dissatisfaction of the Indians submitted to Spanish rule. Not having formally been appointed governor of any territories in the Capitulation of Toledo in 1528, however, forcing him to declare himself adelantado (governor) of Nueva Toledo, or southern Peru and present-day Chile. Some sources suggest Almagro received such a requirement in 1534 by the Spanish king and was officially declared governor of New Toledo.
Once he left Moina, De Almagro followed the Inca trail followed by 750 Spaniards deciding to join him in quest for the gold lost in the ransom of Atahualpa, which had mainly benefited the Pizarro brothers and their supporters. After crossing the Bolivian mountain range and traveling past Lake Titicaca, Almagro arrived on the shores of the Desaguadero River and finally set up camp in Tupiza. From there, the expedition stopped at Chicoana and then turned to the southeast to cross the Andes mountains.
The expedition turned out to be a difficult and exhausting endeavor. The hardest phase was the crossing of the Andean cordilleras: the cold, hunger and tiredness meant the death of various Spanish and natives, but mainly slaves who were not accustomed to such rigorous climate. 252–253:
Upon this point, De Almagro determined everything was a failure. He ordered a small group under Rodrigo Orgonez on a reconnaissance of the country to the south. 253:
By luck, these men found the Valley of Copiapó, where Gonzalo Calvo Barrientos, a Spanish soldier whom Pizarro had expelled from Peru for stealing objects the Inca had offered for his ransom, had already established a friendship with the local natives. There, in the valley of the river Copiapó, Almagro took official possession of Chile and claimed it in the name of King Charles V.
De Almagro promptly initiated the exploration of the new territory, starting up the valley the Aconcagua River, where he was well received by the natives. However, the intrigues of his interpreter, Felipillo, who had previously helped Pizarro in dealing with Atahualpa , almost thwarted De Almagro's efforts. Felipillo had secretly urged the local natives to attack the Spanish, but they desisted, not understanding the dangers that they posed. De Almagro directed Gómez de Alvarado along with 100 horsemen and 100 foot to continue the exploration, which ended in the confluence of the Ñuble and Itata rivers. The Battle of Reinohuelén between the Spanish and Mapuche indigenous peoples forced the explorers to return to the north.
De Almagro's own reconnaissance of the land and the bad news of Gómez de Alvarado's encounter with the fierce Mapuche, along with the bitter cold winter that settled ferociously upon them, only served to confirm that everything had failed. He never found gold or the cities which Incan scouts had told him lay ahead, only communities of the indigenous population who lived from subsistence agriculture. Local tribes put up fierce resistance to the Spanish forces. The exploration of the territories of Nueva Toledo, which lasted 2 years, was marked by a complete failure for De Almagro. Despite this, at first he thought staying and founding a city would serve well for his honor. The initial optimism that led Almagro to bring his son he had with the indigenous Panamanian Ana Martínez to Chile had faded.
Some historians have suggested that, but for the urging of his senior explorers, De Almagro would probably have stayed permanently in Chile. He was urged to return to Peru and this time take definitive possession of Cuzco, so as to consolidate an inheritance for his son. Dismayed with his experience in the south, Almagro made plans of return to Peru. He never officially founded a city in the territory of what is now Chile. 254:
The withdrawal of the Spanish from valleys of Chile was violent: Almagro authorized his soldiers to ransack the natives' properties, leaving their soil desolate. In addition, the Spanish soldiers took natives captive to serve as slaves. The locals were captured, tied together, and forced to carry the heavy loads belonging to the conquistadors.
After the exhausting crossing of the Atacama Desert, mainly due to the harsh weather conditions, Almagro finally reached Cuzco, Peru, in 1537. 254 According to some authors, it was during this time that the Spanish term "roto" (torn), used by Peruvians to refer to Chileans, was first coined. De Almagro's disappointed troops returned to Cuzco with their "torn clothes" due to the extensive and laborious passage on foot by the Atacama Desert.:
After his return, De Almagro was surprised to learn of the Inca Manco's rebellion. Diego de Almagro sent an embassy to the Inca, but they mistrusted all of the Spaniards by this time. Hernando Pizarro's men formed an uneasy truce with De Almagro's men, surveying to determine the boundaries of their leaders' royal grants. They needed to determine in which portion the city of Cuzco was located. However, De Almagro's troops quickly took the city and imprisoned the Pizarro brothers, Hernando and Gonzalo, on the night of 8 April 1537. 254–256:
After occupying Cuzco, De Almagro confronted an army sent by Francisco Pizarro to liberate his brothers. Alonso de Alvarado commanded it and was defeated during the Battle of Abancay on July 12, 1537. 257 He and some of his men were imprisoned. Later, Gonzalo Pizarro and De Alvarado escaped prison. Subsequent negotiations between Francisco Pizarro and De Almagro concluded with the liberation of Hernando, the third Pizarro brother, in return for conceding control and administration of Cuzco to De Almagro. Pizarro never intended to give up the city permanently, but was buying time to organize an army strong enough to defeat Almagro's troops. :260–262:
During this time De Almagro fell ill, and Pizarro and his brothers grabbed the opportunity to defeat him and his followers. The Almagristas were defeated at Las Salinas in April 1538, with Orgóñez being killed on the field of battle. De Almagro fled to Cuzco, still in the hands of his loyal supporters, but found only temporary refuge; the forces of the Pizarro brothers entered the city without resistance. Once captured, Almagro was humiliated by Hernando Pizarro and his requests to appeal to the King were ignored.
When Diego de Almagro begged for his life, Hernando responded: 262–268:
"-he was surprised to see Almagro demean himself in a manner so unbecoming a brave cavalier, that his fate was no worse than had befallen many a soldier before him; and that, since God had given him the grace to be a Christian, he should employ his remaining moments in making up his account with Heaven!"
Almagro was condemned to death and executed by garrote in his dungeon, and then decapitated, on July 8, 1538. His corpse was taken to the public Plaza Mayor of Cuzco, where a herald proclaimed his crimes. Hernán Ponce de León took his body and buried him in the church of Our Lady of Mercy in Cuzco. 269:
Diego de Almagro II (1520–1542), known as El Mozo (The Lad), son of Diego de Almagro I, whose mother was an Indian girl of Panama, became the foil of the conspirators who had put Pizarro to the sword. Pizarro was murdered on June 26, 1541; the conspirators promptly proclaimed the lad De Almagro Governor of Peru. From various causes, all of the conspirators either died or were killed except for one, who was executed after the lad Almagro gave an order. The lad De Almagro fought the desperate battle of Chupas on September 16, 1542, escaped to Cuzco, but was arrested, immediately condemned to death, and executed in the great square of the city.
Francisco Pizarro González was a Spanish conquistador, best known for his expeditions that led to the Spanish conquest of Peru.
Gonzalo Pizarro y Alonso was a Spanish conquistador and younger paternal half-brother of Francisco Pizarro, the conqueror of the Inca Empire. Bastard son of Captain Gonzalo Pizarro y Rodríguez de Aguilar (senior) (1446–1522) who as colonel of infantry served in the Italian campaigns under Gonzalo Fernández de Córdoba, and in Navarre, with some distinction, and María Alonso, from Trujillo. He was the half brother of Francisco and Hernándo Pizarro and the full brother of Juan Pizarro.
The Spanish conquest of Peru was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. After years of preliminary exploration and military skirmishes, 168 Spanish soldiers under conquistador Francisco Pizarro, his brothers, and their native allies captured the Sapa Inca Atahualpa in the 1532 Battle of Cajamarca. It was the first step in a long campaign that took decades of fighting but ended in Spanish victory in 1572 and colonization of the region as the Viceroyalty of Peru. The conquest of the Inca Empire, led to spin-off campaigns into present-day Chile and Colombia, as well as expeditions towards the Amazon Basin.
Manco Inca Yupanqui was the founder and monarch of the independent Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba, although he was originally a puppet Inca Emperor installed by the Spaniards. He was also known as "Manco II" and "Manco Cápac II". He was one of the sons of Huayna Capac and a younger brother of Huascar.
Vicente de Valverde y Alvarez de Toledo, O.P., or Vincent de Valle Viridi was a Spanish Dominican friar who was involved in the Conquest of the Americas, later becoming the Bishop of Cuzco. He became the first resident bishop in South America. He was born in Oropesa, Spain, about 1495 and most sources claim he died on Puná Island, now part of Ecuador, in 1541, at the hands of the indigenous peoples.
Juan Pizarro y Alonso was a Spanish conquistador who accompanied his brothers Francisco, Gonzalo and Hernando Pizarro for the conquest of Peru in 1532.
The Battle of Las Salinas was a military conflict and decisive confrontation between the forces of Hernando and Gonzalo Pizarro against those of rival conquistador Diego de Almagro, on April 26, 1538, during the Conquest of Peru. Both camps claimed to represent the authority of the Spanish Crown; Pizarro's forces controlled the province of Nueva Castilla, and those of Almagro, Nueva Toledo.
Hernando Pizarro y de Vargas was a Spanish conquistador and one of the Pizarro brothers who ruled over Peru.
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Sayri Túpac was an Inca ruler in Peru. He was a son of siblings Manco Inca Yupanqui and Cura Ocllo. After the murder of his mother in 1539 and his father in 1544, both by the Spaniard conquerors, he became the ruler of the Neo-Inca State in Vilcabamba. He ruled until 1560.
Alonso de Alvarado Montaya González de Cevallos y Miranda (1508–1555) was a Spanish conquistador and knight of the Order of Santiago.
Francisco Xerez or Francisco de Jerez was a Spanish explorer-turned-historian, the personal secretary of conquistador Francisco Pizarro. He participated in the conquest of Peru during the first two unsuccessful expeditions led by Pizarro, Diego de Almagro and Hernando de Luque in 1524. Xerez did not stay and join The thirteen of the fame in the Isle of Gallo (1526).
Felipillo was a native Amerindian interpreter who accompanied Spanish conquistadors Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro on their various expeditions to Peru during their conquest of the Inca Empire. His real name is not known.
Diego de Almagro II called El Mozo, was the son of Spanish conquistador Diego de Almagro and a native Panamanian Indian.
The Siege of Cusco was the siege of the city of Cusco by the army of Sapa Inca Manco Inca Yupanqui against a garrison of Spanish conquistadors and Indian auxiliaries led by Hernando Pizarro in the hope to restore the Inca Empire (1438–1533). The siege lasted ten months and was ultimately unsuccessful.
The Battle of Ollantaytambo took place in January 1537, between the forces of Inca emperor Manco Inca and a Spanish expedition led by Hernando Pizarro during the Spanish conquest of Peru. A former ally of the Spaniards, Manco Inca rebelled in May 1536, and besieged a Spanish garrison in the city of Cusco. To end the stand-off, the besieged mounted a raid against the emperor's headquarters in the town of Ollantaytambo. The expedition, commanded by Hernando Pizarro, included 100 Spaniards and some 30,000 Indian auxiliaries against an Inca army more than 30,000 strong.
Pedro de Candia was a Greek explorer and cartographer the son of a Venetian family at the service of the Kingdom of Spain, an officer of the Royal Spanish Navy that under the Spanish Crown became a Conquistador, Grandee of Spain, Commander of the Royal Spanish Fleet of the Southern Sea, Colonial Ordinance of Cusco, and then Mayor of Lima between 1534 and 1535. Specialized in the use of firearms and artillery, he was one of the earliers explorers of Panama and the Pacific coastline of Colombia, and finally participated in the conquest of Peru. He was killed in the Battle of Chupas, (Peru), on 16 September 1542, by Diego de Almagro II.
The Battle of Abancay was a battle that took place during the Spanish conquest of Peru. Alonso de Alvarado, sent by Francisco Pizarro to relieve the siege of Cusco, was camped at Jauja with five hundred men. He guarded the bridge and a ford on the Rio de Abancay, awaiting Almagro's men. However, the soldier Alvarado placed in command of the ford, Pedro de Lerma, deserted, allowing Almagro to capture Alvarado's force almost intact.
Gaspar de Espinosa y Luna was an explorer, conquistador and Spanish politician. He participated in the expedition of Pedrarias Davila to Darién and was appointed mayor of Nuestra Señora de la Antigua. He initiated proceedings against Vasco Núñez de Balboa and conquered part of current Costa Rica. After living some time in Spain, he returned to America to join Francisco Pizarro and Almagro in the conquest of the Inca Empire.
The Neo-Inca State, also known as the Neo-Inca state of Vilcabamba, was the Inca state established in 1537 at Vilcabamba by Manco Inca Yupanqui. It is considered a rump state of the Inca Empire (1438–1533), which collapsed after the Spanish conquest in the mid-1500s. The Neo-Inca State lasted until 1572, when the last Inca stronghold was conquered, and the last ruler, Túpac Amaru, was captured and executed, thus ending the political authority of the Inca state.
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