Dieppe

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Dieppe
Dieppe vue centre.JPG
A view of the centre of Dieppe
Blason Dieppe.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Dieppe
Dieppe
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Dieppe
Normandie region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dieppe
Coordinates: 49°55′N1°05′E / 49.92°N 1.08°E / 49.92; 1.08 Coordinates: 49°55′N1°05′E / 49.92°N 1.08°E / 49.92; 1.08
Country France
Region Normandy
Department Seine-Maritime
Arrondissement Dieppe
Canton Dieppe-1 and 2
Intercommunality CA Région Dieppoise
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Nicolas Langlois (PCF)
Area
1
11.67 km2 (4.51 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [1]
28,561
  Density2,400/km2 (6,300/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
76217 /76200
Elevation5–70 m (16–230 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Dieppe (French pronunciation:  [djɛp] ; Norman: Dgieppe) is a coastal community in the Arrondissement of Dieppe in the Seine-Maritime department in the Normandy region of northern France. The population stood at 29,080 in 2017.

Contents

A port on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Arques river, famous for its scallops, and with a regular ferry service to Newhaven in England, Dieppe also has a popular pebbled beach, a 15th-century castle and the churches of Saint-Jacques and Saint-Remi. The mouth of the river Scie lies at Hautot-sur-Mer, directly to the west of Dieppe.

The inhabitants of the town of Dieppe are called Dieppois (m) and Dieppoise (f) in French.

Geography

Dieppe belongs to the Pays de Caux, lying along the Alabaster Coast in the region of Normandy. It is located on the Channel coast, north of Rouen at the mouth of the river Arques and lies east of the mouth of the river Scie.

Climate

Climate data for Dieppe (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.4
(61.5)
19.4
(66.9)
23.8
(74.8)
27.6
(81.7)
31.9
(89.4)
34.2
(93.6)
40.1
(104.2)
36.1
(97.0)
32.4
(90.3)
27.4
(81.3)
21.0
(69.8)
16.9
(62.4)
40.1
(104.2)
Average high °C (°F)7.5
(45.5)
7.9
(46.2)
10.3
(50.5)
12.3
(54.1)
15.4
(59.7)
17.9
(64.2)
20.1
(68.2)
20.7
(69.3)
18.9
(66.0)
15.6
(60.1)
11.1
(52.0)
7.9
(46.2)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F)2.8
(37.0)
2.6
(36.7)
4.5
(40.1)
5.8
(42.4)
9.0
(48.2)
11.8
(53.2)
13.9
(57.0)
14.0
(57.2)
11.9
(53.4)
9.4
(48.9)
6.0
(42.8)
3.4
(38.1)
8.0
(46.4)
Record low °C (°F)−16.4
(2.5)
−16.6
(2.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−3
(27)
0.0
(32.0)
1.8
(35.2)
5.8
(42.4)
4.6
(40.3)
1.2
(34.2)
−3.3
(26.1)
−8
(18)
−11
(12)
−16.6
(2.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)65.8
(2.59)
51.5
(2.03)
56.7
(2.23)
56.6
(2.23)
60.6
(2.39)
58.6
(2.31)
54.7
(2.15)
57.0
(2.24)
69.9
(2.75)
89.8
(3.54)
89.2
(3.51)
87.8
(3.46)
798.2
(31.43)
Average precipitation days12.310.111.310.110.19.38.88.710.312.413.613.4130.5
Average snowy days2.12.41.50.40.00.00.00.00.00.00.51.48.3
Average relative humidity (%)85848282838483828283858583.3
Source 1: Météo France [2] [3]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990) [4]

Toponymy

Mentioned as Deppae in 1015–1029, Dieppa in 1030, then in the 12th century: Deppa, Deupa and Diopa. [5]

From Dutch diep > deep, or Old English deop or Old Norse djupr, same meaning. The same adjective can be recognized in other place-names like Dieppedalle (f. e. Saint-Vaast-Dieppedalle) and Dipdal in Normandy, which is the same as Deepdale in Great Britain.

The stream running through Dieppe was called Tella in Merovingian and Carolingian documents, before being called Dieppe in the 10th century. The name has stuck to the town, although the name of the stream changed again, to Béthune. [6]

The name was used by exiled Huguenot families, including the ancestors of American actor Johnny Depp.

History

Panoramic view of Dieppe (taken from a hill close to the castle Chateau de Dieppe) France.Dieppe.City.Panorama.July2011.jpg
Panoramic view of Dieppe (taken from a hill close to the castle Château de Dieppe)

First recorded as a small fishing settlement in 1030, Dieppe was an important prize fought over during the Hundred Years' War. Dieppe housed the most advanced French school of cartography in the 16th century. Two of France's best navigators, Michel le Vasseur and his brother Thomas le Vasseur, lived in Dieppe when they were recruited to join the expedition of René Goulaine de Laudonnière which departed Le Havre for Florida on April 20, 1564. The expedition resulted in the construction of Fort Caroline, the first French colony in the New World. [7] Another expedition two years before where Goulaine de Laudonnière was under command of Jean Ribault, a local Huguenot captain, had resulted in the foundation of Charlesfort, now in South Carolina. Dieppe was the premier port of the kingdom in the 17th century. Also, it is important to know that after King Edward VI died, putting an end to a Protestant country in England on July 6th 1553, Knox left England to evade the Catholic-fist of Mary I. Firstly, (under the permission of his friends), he went back to his home country of Scotland, and then after he stayed in Dieppe for a few months, continuing on his tracks he stayed in Geneva meeting one of his influences of John Calvin. On July 23, 1632, 300 colonists heading to New France departed from Dieppe. At the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, Dieppe lost 3,000 of its Huguenot citizens, who fled abroad.

Dieppe was an important target in wartime; the town was largely destroyed by an Anglo-Dutch naval bombardment in 1694. It was rebuilt after 1696 in a typical French classical style by Ventabren, an architect, who gave it its unique feature for a sea port. It was popularised as a seaside resort following the 1824 visit of the widowed Duchess of Berry, daughter-in-law of Charles X. She encouraged the building of the recently renovated municipal theatre, the Petit-Théâtre (1825), associated particularly with Camille Saint-Saëns.

During the later 19th century, Dieppe became popular with English artists as a beach resort. Prominent literary figures such as Arthur Symons loved to keep up with the latest fads of avant-garde France here, and during "the season" sometimes stayed for weeks on end.

Second World War

Dieppe Dawn 19 August 1942 memorial stained glass Royal Military College of Canada Dieppe Dawn 19 August 1942 stained glass Currie Hall.JPG
Dieppe Dawn 19 August 1942 memorial stained glass Royal Military College of Canada

Dieppe was occupied by German naval and army forces after the fall of France in 1940. In order to allow a better defence of the coast against a possible Allied landing, the Germans destroyed the mauresque casino that was located near the beach area. The destruction of the casino had only begun at the time of the Dieppe Raid.

The Dieppe Raid in the Second World War was a costly battle for the Allies. On August 19, 1942, Allied soldiers, mainly drawn from the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, landed at Dieppe in the hope of occupying the town for a short time, gaining intelligence and drawing the Luftwaffe into open battle. The Allies suffered more than 1,400 deaths, 907 Canadian, and 1,946 Canadian soldiers were captured – more prisoners than the army lost in the 11 months of the 1944–45 NW Europe campaign. [8] However, no major objectives were achieved. More recent research suggests the raid was a massive cover for an intelligence operation to capture German code machine components. [9]

French soldiers from the region, captured in the fighting of 1940, were returned to the area after the Dieppe Raid as a reward by the German occupation authorities, who felt that the conduct of the French civilians in Dieppe had been correct and had not hindered the defence of the port during the battle.

The port remained garrisoned by German forces until the conclusion of the Battle of Normandy. When the First Canadian Army approached at the end of August, the garrison withdrew, not desiring to enter into battle for the port.

Dieppe was liberated on September 1, 1944, by soldiers from the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division. On September 3, the entire division paused for reorganization, and a victory parade was held; contingents representing all major units of the 2nd Division marched 10 abreast behind the massed pipes and drums of the division's highland regiments. A memorial service was held in the nearby Canadian military cemetery to honour those killed in the Dieppe Raid. [10]

Post-war

Dieppe, a city in New Brunswick, Canada, received its present name in 1946, in honour of the commemoration of the 913 Canadian soldiers killed in the Dieppe Raid. The majority of its inhabitants are of Acadian descent. [11]

Notable people

Abraham Duquesne Buste de Duquesne expose au Musee de la Marine.jpg
Abraham Duquesne
Albert Reville Albert Reville (1826-1906).jpg
Albert Réville

Heraldry

Arms of Dieppe Blason Dieppe.svg
Arms of Dieppe
The arms of Dieppe are blazoned:
Per pale azure and gules, a 3-masted ship sails furled argent.

Historical images of Dieppe

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 25,000    
1800 20,000−3.14%
1806 18,248−1.52%
1821 16,664−0.60%
1831 16,016−0.40%
1836 16,820+0.98%
1841 16,443−0.45%
1846 16,844+0.48%
1851 17,669+0.96%
1856 19,231+1.71%
1861 20,187+0.98%
1866 19,946−0.24%
1872 19,002−0.80%
1876 20,333+1.71%
1881 22,003+1.59%
1886 23,050+0.93%
1891 22,771−0.24%
1896 22,439−0.29%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 22,839+0.35%
1906 23,629+0.68%
1911 23,973+0.29%
1921 24,402+0.18%
1926 24,945+0.44%
1931 25,117+0.14%
1936 25,560+0.35%
1946 21,770−1.59%
1954 26,427+2.45%
1962 30,013+1.60%
1968 30,016+0.00%
1975 39,466+3.99%
1982 35,957−1.32%
1990 35,894−0.02%
1999 34,653−0.39%
2007 33,375−0.47%
2012 30,632−1.70%
2017 29,080−1.03%
Source: EHESS [12] and INSEE (1968-2017) [13]

Sights

The castle, Château de Dieppe, which survived the 1694 bombardment, is now a museum and exhibition space, with a strong maritime collection. A rich collection of 17th- and 18th-century ivory carvings, including lacy folding fans, for which Dieppe was known, and the furnishings and papers of Camille Saint-Saëns. The castle's interior courtyard is picturesque.

At the Square du Canada, near the castle in a park at the western end of the Esplanade, there is a monument erected by the town commemorating the long relationship between Dieppe and Canada. The events recorded begin with the early 16th century, and culminate with the Dieppe Raid and the liberation of Dieppe by Canadians on September 1, 1944. The base of the monument is inscribed with the words "nous nous souvenons" ("we remember"). Above the monument, the Canadian Maple Leaf flag is flown side-by-side with that of France.

The Notre-Dame-de-Bon-Secours Chapel of Dieppe stands on the coast.

Some of the Canadian soldiers who were killed are buried in the Dieppe Canadian War Cemetery, in the commune of Saint-Aubin-sur-Scie south-west of Dieppe.

Transport

The town has a railway station, operated by SNCF, with frequent departure for Rouen-Rive-Droite. SNCF operates also buses to Gisors-Embranchement through Serqueux.

Dieppe has a ferry port with direct services to the English town of Newhaven, situated at the mouth of the River Ouse in East Sussex. The twice-daily service to the Port of Newhaven is operated by DFDS Seaways, under a concession subsidised by the French government. Services are normally operated using the MS Côte D'Albâtre. [14]

Current services

Former services

Administration

The current mayor of Dieppe is Nicolas Langlois. Member of the French Communist Party, he was elected in 2017, and re-elected in 2020.

International relations

Dieppe is twinned with

See also

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References

Notes

  1. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. "Données climatiques de la station de Dieppe" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  3. "Climat Haute-Normandie" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  4. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Dieppe (76) – altitude 33m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved January 7, 2016.
  5. François de Beaurepaire, Les noms des communes et anciennes paroisses de la Seine-Maritime, éditions Picard 1979. p. 67.
  6. Beaurepaire 67
  7. "Narrative of Le Moyne – TheNewWorld.us". TheNewWorld.us. Retrieved 2011-10-09.
  8. "Dieppe Raid" from The Canadian Encyclopedia.
  9. Stacey C.P., Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War , Volume III The Victory Campaign
  10. fr:Dieppe (Nouveau-Brunswick)
  11. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Dieppe, EHESS. (in French)
  12. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  13. "Onboard Facilities - Newhaven to Dieppe Ferries - DFDS". www.dfdsseaways.co.uk.

Bibliography

  • "Dieppe", A Handbook for Travellers in France (8th ed.), London: John Murray, 1861, OL   24627024M
  • "Dieppe", Northern France (3rd ed.), Leipsic: Karl Baedeker, 1899, OCLC   2229516, OL   24872324M
  • Cowsill, Miles; Hendy, John (1994). Newhaven-Dieppe: the car ferry era. Kilgetty, Pembrokeshire: Ferry Publications. ISBN   1871947200.