This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page . (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The Diet of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosansko-hercegovački saboror Sabor Bosne i Hercegovine ) was a representative assembly with competence over the Austro-Hungarian Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina. The parliament established in 1910 had a certain legislative authority, however, its resolutions were subject to approval by the Austrian and Hungarian government. It ceased its operation in July 1914 and was legally abolished in 1915.
A representative assembly is a political institution in which a number of persons representing the population or privileged orders within the population of a state come together to debate, negotiate with the executive and legislate. Examples in English-speaking countries are the United States Congress and the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Bosnia and Herzegovina fell under Austro-Hungarian rule in 1878, when the Congress of Berlin approved the occupation of the Bosnia Vilayet, which officially remained part of the Ottoman Empire. Three decades later, in 1908, Austria-Hungary provoked the Bosnian crisis by formally annexing the occupied zone, establishing the Condominium of Bosnia and Herzegovina under the joint control of Austria and Hungary.
Cisleithania was a common yet unofficial denotation of the northern and western part of Austria-Hungary, the Dual Monarchy created in the Compromise of 1867—as distinguished from Transleithania, i.e. the Hungarian Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen east of ("beyond") the Leitha River.
Upon the Austro-Hungarian occupation of Ottoman Bosnia and Herzegovina in the wake of the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the Bosniak, Croat and Serb people of the country were given the chance to surrender peacefully, and accept new government without a fight. To the surprise of the Vienna government, this proposal was strongly rejected by partisan resistance. Nevertheless, the reinforced troops of the 13th Austro-Hungarian Army corps led by Lieutenant General Josip Filipović could not be stopped. As Foreign Minister Gyula Andrássy had assured the Sublime Porte of a "temporary" occupation, the lands of Bosnia and Hercegovina de facto were administered by Austria-Hungary, but de jure remained part of the Ottoman Empire.
The Ottoman Empire, historically known to its inhabitants and the Eastern world as Rome (Rûm), and known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. Although initially the dynasty was of Turkic origin, it was thoroughly Persianised in terms of language, culture, literature and habits. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, and with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror.
The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the representatives of six great powers of the time, the Ottoman Empire and four Balkan states. It aimed at determining the territories of the states in the Balkan peninsula following the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 and came to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Berlin, which replaced the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano, signed three months earlier between Russia and the Ottoman Empire.
A partisan is a member of an irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation by some kind of insurgent activity. The term can apply to the field element of resistance movements, examples of which are the civilians who collaborated with or opposed Nazi German, Fascist Italian, Chetniks Serbian and Ustashe Croatian rule in several countries during World War II. The term is often used to refer to the specifically to the Soviet-supported civilian forces who, led by local Communist parties, opposed the occupation of Eastern European countries by the Nazi and Nazi-allied powers during the Second World War.
The occupational period (1878–1908) was divided into a period of martial governance, which ended in 1882 when the period of civil governance started. In 1908 Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria, on the occasion of the 60th anniversary of his rule, in response to the Young Turks movement ordered the official annexation, sparking the Bosnian crisis which lasted until 1909. The Austro-Hungarian government could laboriously stem Ottoman and Serbian outrage with the support of the German Empire.
Franz Joseph I or Francis Joseph I was Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, King of Bohemia, and monarch of many other states of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, from 2 December 1848 to his death. From 1 May 1850 to 24 August 1866 he was also President of the German Confederation. He was the longest-reigning Emperor of Austria and King of Hungary, as well as the third-longest-reigning monarch of any country in European history, after Louis XIV of France and Johann II of Liechtenstein.
Young Turks was a political reform movement in the early 20th century that consisted of Ottoman exiles, students, civil servants, and army officers. They favoured the replacement of the Ottoman Empire's absolute monarchy with a constitutional government. Later, their leaders led a rebellion against the absolute rule of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution. With this revolution, the Young Turks helped to establish the Second Constitutional Era in 1908, ushering in an era of multi-party democracy for the first time in the country's history.
The Kingdom of Serbia was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
In the post-annexation period on February 17, 1910 Emperor Franz Joseph decreed a Bosnian-Herzegovinian constitution.It was regulated by six main laws:
A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation or other type of entity, and commonly determine how that entity is to be governed.
Regardless of all the restraints on Bosnian autonomy, the Constitution and its laws introduced three new institutions into the political sphere of this country:
In developmental psychology and moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, uncoerced decision. Autonomous organizations or institutions are independent or self-governing. Autonomy can also be defined from a human resources perspective, where it denotes a level of discretion granted to an employee in his or her work. In such cases, autonomy is known to generally increase job satisfaction. Autonomy is a term that is also widely used in the field of medicine — personal autonomy is greatly recognized and valued in health care.
It was necessary to guarantee the basic civil rights and to regulate public assembly since these rights are the foundations of parliamentary life.
In 1909, after the settling of the annexation crisis the new government started the preparation for establishment of the Bosnian constitution. To pacify the public of Bosnia, on February 8, 1909 the new government called for the election survey that was introduced by Baron Benko. He presented the main principles of the future constitution, among which were the Bosnian Diet, its authority and its members.
The first principle of the Diet was in the Emperor's letter which was the part of the annexation agreement and which described the ways of constituting the future council. The constitution was intended to guarantee basic human rights, and thus its authority did not include the common affairs of Austria-Hungary, such as diplomatic, martial, monopolistic, and the Emperor's missions. This put the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina in subordinate relation to both Austria and Hungary, administrated by the common k.u.k. Ministry of Finance. However, the authority of the Diet did include all judicial and executive power in the country itself. The legislative power belonged to the Emperor who was the only one to approve new laws.
Nikola Stojanović, a member of the Bosnian Serb National Organization (SNO), spoke with Baron Benko. He said that he and his fellow party members could not participate in the survey since they were invited as individuals, not as representatives of their political party, which Baron Benko justified by saying that SNO was not formally recognized by the new government, a claim that Stojanović rejected. What the members of SNO wanted was the autonomy of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and they rejected the new constitutional reforms. Since their requests remained unfulfilled, all the party members restrained from the politics. Stojanović's speech was printed in Zagreb by his own request to avoid possible accusations that such requests never existed.
The members of MNO (Muslimanska Narodna Organizacija): Firdus, Karabeg, and Miralem, firmly rejected participation in the survey and thus did not participate in the first meeting on constitutional survey. The members of all parties except MNO, SNO, and the Social Democratic Party of Bosnia and Herzegovina, participated in the constitutional survey. The representatives of the Catholics was the HNZ, Štadler clerk party, the representatives of the Muslims was the MNS, and the representatives of the Orthodox were SNSS,[ citation needed ] and its leader Lazar Dimitrijević. The survey showed unified opinion of all its members, especially on economic growth of native population. All the members criticized the regulations on tariffs and railroads, and they requested that Bosnian Diet have the authority over customs, indirect taxes and monopoly.
When the survey ended on May 4, 1909, MNO published pamphlets called "Our Constitutional Regime" where it stated the stand of their party on the new constitution. They wanted representative members of all political parties to discuss the new Constitution. The main condition for this meeting posed by MSN was allowing for public elections, agreements and political activism. Their main concern was the foundation of full parliamentary and legal autonomy of Bosnia and Herzegovina. MNO declared their will to keep in communication with the Serbs since they also demanded the governing of the country by a national council (parliament) to consist of 31 Orthodox members, 24 Muslim members and 16 Catholic members; and not by the Zagreb Sabor council consisting of 116 Catholic members, 69 Orthodox members and 24 Muslim members. Due to the liberalism in the pamphlets the editors of Musvata that published them were fined 1,500 krone. After declaring the annexation by Gligorije Jeftanović, the fight for autonomy ended and the Bosnian-Serbian alliance quickly fell apart.
When annexation was declared and the MNO moved to the opposition, the MNS saw the opportunity to impose themselves as political representatives of the Bosnian people. They were very interested in the promised constitution and thus they suggested annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina to Croatia, which they saw as an opportunity to solve their constitutional problems. Moreover, they asked for protection of language rights of native Bosniaks over that of colonizing powers, especially from German.
The representatives of MNS gave their proposal on the constitution to Baron Benko at the first survey meeting. This proposal included:
The process of forming a constitution was very slow. Only after a year and a half of work, when the constitution was almost ready, did the MNO declare annexation and loyalty to the governing Habsburg-Lorraine dynasty. However, they requested an increase in the number of Muslim representatives on the Diet, following the same principle as that of the Catholics and Orthodox. They also wanted a greater role in the choosing process. The last demand was an increase in number of intellectuals in the membership. These requests were denied.
The constitution and laws following it were approbated by Emperor Franz Joseph on November 17, 1910. The ceremony was held and attended by all members of government, higher government representatives, religious representatives, and many other notable people. The acclamation was read by Marjan Varešanin, who briefly announced the new changes in the country and read the Emperor's decree on establishing the new Constitution.
The Bosnian Council started its work on February 20, 1910. It consisted of members belonging to different social, confessional, and regional groups. The Bosnian Council, unlike other representative institutions in the monarchy, did not have an established domestic tradition. According to Council's order the members belonged to three groups, differing by religion. Within these groups there was another grouping according to the social status of members:
The national government suggested electing one delegate per 25,000 citizens. The 1895 census showed a population of 1,568,092 citizens, of whom 548,632 were Muslims, 627,246 Orthodox and 334,142 Catholics. According to the data the Council had 72 delegates, 16 of whom were Catholics, 24 Muslims, 31 Orthodox and only one Jew. All male citizens of Bosnia and Herzegovina who were over the age of 24 and lived in Bosnia and Herzegovina for more than a year had the active right to vote. Women also had the active right to vote if they paid a land tax of 140 kronen or more. A passive right to vote belonged to all males older than 30 years of age who enjoyed citizen's rights.
In reality the situation was different. It was highly dependent on group and confession. An equal balance was established for all three religious groups, which was one of the main principles of Austro-Hungarian government in Bosnia and Herzegovina.
A delegate's mandate lasted for five years, and the voters had no right of repeal. The president and vice-president were chosen by the tzar who tried to balance their confessional choice in circular order. Besides the elected members the following members were always introduced:
This structure was to ensure the conservative Council. Moreover, the Constitutional article 35 stated that the Council cannot speak with other representatives or make any sort of announcements; the Council's meeting cannot have any outsider delegates, and the Council itself can send delegates to the tzar only after requesting and getting approval.
According to the Constitution, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a unique region with a unique position in the monarchy, thus it was represented as a unique administrative unit - corpus separatum - called a condominium. This legal subjectivity was partly reflected by the Bosnian Council but direct participation on the level with Austria and Hungary was never allowed. National Council was the institution aiming to ensure a better legal and political position of Bosnia within the monarchy. But regardless of all restrictions, Bosnian Council was centre stage of the entire civilian and political life of the country.
The national government held the first council elections on May 18-May 28, 1910. The MNO and MSS negotiated the creation of a collaboration and sharing the possible mandates. MNO suggested giving six mandates to MSS; this they rejected. After the elections, all 31 Orthodox mandates were given to the SNO, and all 24 Muslim mandates were given to the MNO. The HNZ received 14 out of 16 Catholic places, and the other four went to HKZ led by Archbishop Josip Štadler.
A large number of voters took part. In village regions 83% of Muslims and 85% of Orthodox, though only 61% of Catholics exercised their vote. Neither MSS nor the Democrats who voted for Osman Đikić got any seats. The MNO party was so powerful that peasants refused to listen to Đikić's or Smail-aga Ćemalović's speeches.
In the beginning the Council, from 1910 onwards chaired by MNO leader Safvet-beg Bašagić, worked on an agreement. However, almost all four of the meetings they had included Serbian and Croatian nationalist arguments of their right over Bosnia and Herzegovina, which started even with the first bill concerning the opening of a postal savings bank. This together with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 finally led to the cessation of the meetings on July 9. World War I shortly followed. The Bosnian Diet was officially dissolved by order of 6 February 1915.
Until World War I, Bosnia and Herzegovina was a separate governing body within the structure of the Austro-Hungarian monarchy. It had a special legal system and a special status in which its citizens were treated as neither Austrians nor Hungarians. Such political subjectivity was mainly reflected through Bosnian Council. But even after the Bosnian Council was abolished, the country still had special legal and political status that was often discussed among the highest representatives of the monarchy.
Stjepan Sarkotić, the governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina during World War I, suggested forming an administrative senate instead of a Bosnian Council that would function as a sort of representative body. The suggestion was rejected with an explanation that Bosnian Council was not abolished and that it would be brought to function again as soon as circumstances changed.
The legal status of Bosnia was seriously considered with an effort to prevent the possible destruction of Austro-Hungary and to obstruct the solution of the Yugoslav question. Austria insisted on the annexing of Bosnia to Austria, while Hungary insisted on annexing it to Hungary. Moreover, various plans for dividing Bosnia among the two countries existed. Hungary would get regions of Banja Luka and Bihać, while Austria would get the remaining regions.
The prime minister of the Hungarian government István Tisza thought that political balance in the Monarchy could only be achieved by annexing Bosnia to Hungary, since Poland was already annexed to Austria. This failed when the Yugoslav orientated politicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mainly Serbs and Croats, on September 20, 1918 requested that Bosnian people be allowed to choose their own status. Meanwhile, the Yugoslav question was highly active with the goal to form one unified country, Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
Austria-Hungary, often referred to as the Austro-Hungarian Empire or the Dual Monarchy, was a constitutional monarchy in Central and Eastern Europe between 1867 and 1918. It was formed when the Austrian Empire adopted a new constitution; as a result Austria (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) were placed on equal footing. It dissolved into several new states at the end of the First World War.
Count Gyula Andrássy de Csíkszentkirály et Krasznahorka was a Hungarian statesman, who served as Prime Minister of Hungary (1867–1871) and subsequently as Foreign Minister of Austria-Hungary (1871–1879). Andrássy was a conservative; his foreign policies looked to expanding the Empire into Southeast Europe, preferably with British and German support, and without alienating Turkey. He saw Russia as the main adversary, because of its own expansionist policies toward Slavic and Orthodox areas. He distrusted Slavic nationalist movements as a threat to his multi-ethnic empire.
Bosnia and Herzegovina, sometimes referred to simply as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. It has had permanent settlement since the Neolithic Age. By the early historical period it was inhabited by Illyrians and Celts. Christianity arrived in the 1st century, and by the 4th century the area became part of the Western Roman Empire. Germanic tribes invaded soon after, followed by Slavs in the 6th Century. In 1136, Béla II of Hungary invaded Bosnia and created the title "Ban of Bosnia" as an honorary title for his son Ladislaus II of Hungary. During this time, Bosnia became virtually autonomous, and was eventually proclaimed a kingdom in 1377. The Ottoman Empire followed in 1463 and lasted over 400 years. They wrought great changes to the political and administrative system, introduced land reforms, and class and religious distinctions. A series of uprisings began 1831, which culminated in the Herzegovinian rebellion, a widespread peasant uprising, in 1875. The conflict eventually forced the Ottomans to cede administration of the country to Austria-Hungary through the Treaty of Berlin in 1878. The establishment of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929 brought the redrawing of administrative regions into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia which purposely avoided all historical and ethnic lines, and removed any trace of Bosnian identity. The kingdom of Yugoslavia was conquered by Nazi forces in World War II, and Bosnia was ceded to the Independent State of Croatia (NDH), which led to widespread persecution and genocide. Three years of war began in 1992 which caused around 100,000 deaths and 2 million refugees.
More than 96% of population of Bosnia and Herzegovina belongs to one of its three autochthonous constituent peoples: Bosniaks, Serbs and Croats. The term constituent refers to the fact that these three ethnic groups are explicitly mentioned in the constitution, and that none of them can be considered a minority or immigrant. The most easily recognizable feature that distinguishes the three ethnic groups is their religion, with Bosniaks predominantly Muslim, Serbs predominantly Orthodox Christians, and Croats Catholic.
The State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs was a political entity that was constituted in October 1918, at the end of World War I, by Slovenes, Croats and Serbs resident in what were the southernmost parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Although internationally unrecognized, this was the first incarnation of a Yugoslav state founded on the Pan-Slavic ideology. Thirty-three days after it was proclaimed, the State joined the Kingdom of Serbia to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.
This article is about the history of Sarajevo in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is part of the "History of Sarajevo" series, and includes separate articles for each of the discussed periods of time.
Islam is the most widespread religion in Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was introduced to the local population in the 15th and 16th centuries as a result of the Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Muslims comprise the single largest religious community in Bosnia and Herzegovina (51%).
Petar Kočić was a Bosnian Serb writer, activist and politician. Born in rural northwestern Bosnia in the final days of Ottoman rule, Kočić began writing around the turn of the twentieth century, first poetry and then prose. While a university student, he became politically active and began agitating for agrarian reforms within Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had been occupied by Austria-Hungary following the Ottomans' withdrawal in 1878. Other reforms that Kočić demanded were freedom of the press and freedom of assembly, which were denied under Austria-Hungary.
The Bosnian Crisis of 1908–09, also known as the Annexation crisis or the First Balkan Crisis, erupted in early October 1908 when Austria-Hungary announced the annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, territories formerly within the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire. This unilateral action—timed to coincide with Bulgaria's declaration of independence from the Ottoman Empire—sparked protestations from all the Great Powers and Austria-Hungary's Balkan neighbours, Serbia and Montenegro. In April 1909 the Treaty of Berlin was amended to reflect the fait accompli and bring the crisis to an end. The crisis permanently damaged relations between Austria-Hungary on one hand, and Italy, Serbia, and the Russian Empire on the other. It helped lay the grounds for World War I. Although the crisis ended with what appeared to be a total Austro-Hungarian diplomatic victory, Russia became determined not to back down again and hastened its military build-up. Austrian–Serbian relations became permanently stressed.
The Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina are one of the three constitutive nations of the country, predominantly residing in the political-territorial entity of Republika Srpska.
The official name "Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen" denominated the Hungarian territories of Austria-Hungary during the totality of the existence of the latter. This union is sometimes denominated "Archiregnum Hungaricum", pursuant to Medieval Latin terminology. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement of 1868, this territory was officially defined as "a state union of Kingdom of Hungary and Triune Kingdom of Croatia, Slavonia and Dalmatia". The Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen disintegrated after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary.
The Islamic Ottoman Empire era of rule in the Bosnia and Herzegovina provinces lasted from 1463/1482 to 1878.
This article is about the history of the Bosniak people.
Stjepan Freiherr Sarkotić von Lovćen was an Austro-Hungarian Army lieutenant field marshal who served as Governor of Bosnia and Herzegovina and military commander of Dalmatia and Montenegro during the World War I.
Bosniaks are the fourth largest ethnic group in Serbia after Serbs, Hungarians and Roma, numbering 145,278 or 2.02% of the population according to the 2011 census. They are concentrated in south-western Serbia, and their cultural centre is Novi Pazar.
Elections for the Diet of Bosnia and Herzegovina were held from 18 May to 28 May, 1910. This was the only Bosnian-Herzegovinian election held during Austro-Hungarian rule. 72 Members of parliament (MPs) were elected. There were three major political parties, though two other smaller political parties were elected also. The first vote consisted of landowners, college-educated citizens, priests, active and retired civil servants, and others. The second vote consisted of the population belonging to that of the city, which were artisans, merchants, petty bourgeoisie, etc.. The third and final vote consisted of the rural population. The first vote elected 18 seats of parliament, voted in by 6,866 voters. The second vote elected 20 seats of parliament, voted in by 4,725 voters. And the third vote elected 34 seats of parliament, voted in by 347,573 voters. The number of MPs were determined by religious percentage. Thus, the most populous religion at the time in the area, Eastern Orthodox Christianity, had 31 MPs elected. The next largest was Islam, where 24 MPs had been elected. The other tho religions elected were Catholicism, and Judaism.
In the history of the Austria-Hungary trialism was the political movement that aimed to reorganize the bipartite Empire into a tripartite one, creating a Croatian state equal in status to Austria and Hungary. Franz Ferdinand promoted trialism before his assassination in 1914 to prevent the Empire from being ripped apart by Slavic dissent. The Empire would be restructured three ways instead of two, with the Slavic element given representation at the highest levels equivalent to what Austria and Hungary had at the time. Serbians saw this as a threat to their dream of a new state of Yugoslavia. Hungarian leaders had a predominant voice in imperial circles and strongly rejected Trialism because it would liberate many of their minorities from Hungarian rule they considered oppressive.
Poles are one of 17 constitutionally recognized ethnic minorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina. They arrived during the Austro-Hungarian rule in Bosnia and Herzegovina and settled mostly in the north of Bosnia proper, bringing new technology and skilled manpower. Their destiny was tied closely to that of the Ukrainian minority, with whom they joined the Yugoslav Resistance after the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia. After the Second World War, Bosnian Poles faced difficulties with establishing their rights as a minority as well as persecution by local population and remaining fascist collaborators. This forced a vast majority to answer the Polish government's call for repatriation. There were around 30,000 Poles in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1930, while their number today is estimated to be less than a thousand, with communities in the major cities of Sarajevo, Banja Luka, Zenica and Mostar.