Digital Video Broadcasting

Last updated

Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices Digital Video Broadcasting Logo.svg
Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices

Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB) is a set of international open standards for digital television. DVB standards are maintained by the DVB Project, an international industry consortium, [1] and are published by a Joint Technical Committee (JTC) of the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization (CENELEC) and European Broadcasting Union (EBU).

Contents

Transmission

DVB systems distribute data using a variety of approaches, including:

These standards define the physical layer and data link layer of the distribution system. Devices interact with the physical layer via a synchronous parallel interface (SPI), synchronous serial interface (SSI) or asynchronous serial interface (ASI). All data is transmitted in MPEG transport streams with some additional constraints (DVB-MPEG). A standard for temporally-compressed distribution to mobile devices (DVB-H) was published in November 2004.

These distribution systems differ mainly in the modulation schemes used and error correcting codes used, due to the different technical constraints. DVB-S (SHF) uses QPSK, 8-PSK or 16-QAM. DVB-S2 uses QPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK or 32-APSK, at the broadcasters decision. QPSK and 8-PSK are the only versions regularly used. DVB-C (VHF/UHF) uses QAM: 16-QAM, 32-QAM, 64-QAM, 128-QAM or 256-QAM. Lastly, DVB-T (VHF/UHF) uses 16-QAM or 64-QAM (or QPSK) in combination with (C)OFDM and can support hierarchical modulation.

The DVB-T2 specification was approved by the DVB Steering Board in June 2008 and sent to ETSI for adoption as a formal standard. ETSI adopted the standard on 9 September 2009. [3] The DVB-T2 standard gives more robust TV reception and increases the possible bit rate by over 30% for single transmitters (as in the UK) and will increase the maximum bit rate by over 50% in large single-frequency networks (as in Germany and Sweden).

DVB has established a 3D TV group (CM-3DTV) to identify "what kind of 3D-TV solution does the market want and need, and how can DVB play an active part in the creation of that solution?" The CM-3DTV group held a DVB 3D-TV Kick-off Workshop in Geneva on 25 January 2010, followed by the first CM-3DTV meeting the next day. [4] DVB now defines a new standard for 3D video broadcast: DVB 3D-TV.

Modes and features of latest DVB-x2 system standards in comparison:

DVB-S2DVB-T2DVB-C2
Input interface Multiple transport stream and generic stream encapsulation (GSE)Multiple transport stream and generic stream encapsulation (GSE)Multiple transport stream and generic stream encapsulation (GSE)
Modes Variable coding & modulation and adaptive coding & modulationVariable coding & modulation [5] Variable coding & modulation and adaptive coding & modulation
FEC LDPC + BCH 1/4, 1/3, 2/5, 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, 9/10LDPC + BCH 1/2, 3/5, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6LDPC + BCH 1/2, 2/3, 3/4, 4/5, 5/6, 8/9, 9/10 [6]
Modulation Single carrier, PSK or APSK, multiple streams OFDM absolute OFDM [7]
Modulation schemesQPSK, 8-PSK, 16-APSK, 32-APSKQPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM, 256-QAM16- to 4096-QAM
Guard interval Not applicable1/4, 19/256, 1/8, 19/128, 1/16, 1/32, 1/1281/64 or 1/128
Fourier transform sizeNot applicable1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, 32k DFT 4k Inverse FFT [8]
Interleaving Bit-InterleavingBit- time- and frequency-interleavingBit- time- and frequency-interleaving
Pilots Pilot symbolsScattered and continual pilotsScattered and continual pilots

Content

Digital video content is encoded using discrete cosine transform (DCT) based video coding standards, such as the H.26x and MPEG formats. Digital audio content is encoded using modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) based audio coding standards, such as Advanced Audio Coding (AAC), Dolby Digital (AC-3) and MP3.

Besides digital audio and digital video transmission, DVB also defines data connections (DVB-DATA - EN 301 192) with return channels (DVB-RC) for several media (DECT, GSM, PSTN/ISDN, satellite etc.) and protocols (DVB-IPTV: Internet Protocol; DVB-NPI: network protocol independent).

Older technologies such as teletext (DVB-TXT) and vertical blanking interval data (DVB-VBI) are also supported by the standards to ease conversion. However, for many applications more advanced alternatives like DVB-SUB for subtitling are available.

Encryption and metadata

The conditional access system (DVB-CA) defines a Common Scrambling Algorithm (DVB-CSA) and a physical Common Interface (DVB-CI) for accessing scrambled content. DVB-CA providers develop their wholly proprietary conditional access systems with reference to these specifications. Multiple simultaneous CA systems can be assigned to a scrambled DVB program stream providing operational and commercial flexibility for the service provider.

DVB is also developing a Content Protection and Copy Management system for protecting content after it has been received (DVB-CPCM), which is intended to allow flexible use of recorded content on a home network or beyond, while preventing unconstrained sharing on the Internet. DVB-CPCM has been the source of much controversy in the popular press and it is said that CPCM is the DVB's answer to the failed American Broadcast Flag. [9]

DVB transports include metadata called Service Information (DVB-SI, ETSI EN 300 468, ETSI TR 101 211) that links the various elementary streams into coherent programs and provides human-readable descriptions for electronic program guides as well as for automatic searching and filtering. The dating system used with this metadata suffers from a year 2038 problem in which due to the limited 16 bits and modified Julian day offset used will cause an overflow issue similar to the year 2000 problem. By comparison, the rival DigiCipher 2 based ATSC system will not have this issue until 2048 due in part to 32 bits being used.[ citation needed ]

Recently, DVB has adopted a profile of the metadata defined by the TV-Anytime Forum (DVB-TVA, ETSI TS 102323). This is an XML Schema based technology and the DVB profile is tailored for enhanced Personal Digital Recorders. DVB lately also started an activity to develop a service for IPTV (DVB-IPI, ETSI TR 102033, ETSI TS 102034, ETSI TS 102814) which also includes metadata definitions for a broadband content guide (DVB-BCG, ETSI TS 102 539).

Software platform

The DVB Multimedia Home Platform (DVB-MHP) defines a Java-based platform for the development of consumer video system applications. In addition to providing abstractions for many DVB and MPEG-2 concepts, it provides interfaces for other features like network card control, application download, and layered graphics.

Return channel

DVB has standardized a number of return channels that work together with DVB(-S/T/C) to create bi-directional communication. RCS is short for Return Channel Satellite, and specifies return channels in C, Ku and Ka frequency bands with return bandwidth of up to 2  Mbit/s. DVB-RCT is short for Return Channel Terrestrial, specified by ETSI EN 301958.

Adoption

DTT broadcasting systems. Digital broadcast standards.svg
DTT broadcasting systems.

DVB-S and DVB-C were ratified in 1994. DVB-T was ratified in early 1997. The first commercial DVB-T broadcasts were performed by the United Kingdom's Digital TV Group in late 1998. In 2003 Berlin, Germany was the first area to completely stop broadcasting analog TV signals. Most European countries are fully covered by digital television and many have switched off PAL/SECAM services.

In Europe, as well as in Australia, South Africa and India, DVB is used throughout. This also holds true for cable and satellite in most Asian, African and many South American countries. Many of these have not yet selected a format for digital terrestrial broadcasts (DTTV) and a few (Canada, El Salvador, Honduras, Mexico, South Korea and the United States) have chosen ATSC instead of DVB-T.

Africa

Kenya

DVB-T broadcasts were launched by the President of Kenya, Mwai Kibaki on 9 December 2009. Broadcasts are using H.264, with the University of Nairobi supplying the decoders. Kenya has also been broadcasting DVB-H since July 2009, available on selected Nokia and ZTE handsets on the Safaricom and other GSM networks. [10]

Madagascar

Since 2011, the pay TV operator Blueline [11] launched a DVB-T service branded BluelineTV. [12] It supplies both smart cards and set-top-boxes.

South Africa

Since 1995, the pay TV operator DStv used the DVB-S standard to broadcast its services. In 2010 it started a DVB over IP service, and in 2011 it started DStv mobile using the DVB-H standard. [13]

In late 2010, the South African cabinet endorsed a decision by a Southern African Development Community (SADC) task team to adopt the DVB-T2 standard. [14]

Asia

In Asia several Standards are under implementation

China

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, several cable TV operators such as TVB Pay Vision and Cable TV have already started using DVB-S or DVB-C. The government however has adopted the DMB-T/H standard, developed in mainland China, for its digital terrestrial broadcasting services which has started since 31 December 2007. [15]

Iran

On 17 March 2009, DVB-H and DVB-T H.264/AAC broadcasting started in Tehran. DVB-T broadcasting now available in other cities like: Isfahan, Mashhad, Shiraz, Qom, Tabriz and Rasht.

Israel

DVB-T broadcasts using H.264 commenced in Israel on 1 June 2009 with the broadcast trial and the full broadcast began on 2 August 2009. Analog broadcasts were originally planned to end in 18 months after the launch, but analog broadcasts were switched off on 31 March 2011 instead.

During 2010, DVB-T broadcasts have become widely available in most of Israel and an EPG was added to the broadcasts. [16]

Japan

With the exception of SKY PerfecTV!, Japan uses different formats in all areas (ISDB), which are however quite similar to their DVB counterparts. SkyPerfect is a satellite provider using DVB on its 124 and 128 degrees east satellites. Its satellite at 110 degrees east does not use DVB, however.

Malaysia

In Malaysia, a new pay television station MiTV began service in September 2005 using DVB-IPTV technology while lone satellite programming provider ASTRO has been transmitting in DVB-S since its inception in 1996. Free-to-air DVB-T trials began in late 2006 with a simulcast of both TV1 and TV2 plus a new channel called RTM3/RTMi. In April 2007, RTM announced that the outcome of the test was favourable and that it expected DVB-T to go public by the end of 2007. However, the system did not go public as planned. As of 2008, the trial digital line-up has expanded to include a music television channel called Muzik Aktif, and a sports channel called Arena, with a news channel called Berita Aktif planned for inclusion in the extended trials soon. Also, high definition trials were performed during the Beijing Olympics and the outcome was also favourable. It was announced that the system would go public in 2009.

In 2009, MiTV closed down, changed its name to U-Television and announced that it was changing to scrambled DVB-T upon relaunch instead of the DVB-IPTV system used prior to shutting down. However, RTM's digital network again did not go public, although around this time TVs that are first-generation DVB-T capable went on sale. The government has since announced that they will be deploying DVB-T2 instead in stages starting in mid-2015 and analog shutoff has been delayed to April 2019.

Philippines

In the Philippines, DVB-S and DVB-S2 are the two broadcast standards currently used by satellite companies, while DVB-C is also used by some cable companies. The government adopted DVB-T in November 2006 for digital terrestrial broadcasting but a year later, it considered other standards to replace DVB-T. The country has chosen the ISDB-T system instead of DVB-T.

Taiwan

In Taiwan, some digital cable television systems use DVB-C, though most customers still use analog NTSC cable television. The government planned adopting ATSC or the Japanese ISDB-T standard as NTSC's replacement. However, the country has chosen the European DVB-T system instead. Public Television Service (PTS) and Formosan TV now provided high definition television. The former has a channel called HiHD; the latter uses its HD channel for broadcasting MLB baseball.

Europe

Cyprus

Cyprus uses DVB-T with MPEG-4 encoding. Analog transmission stopped on 1 July 2011 for all channels except CyBC 1.

Denmark

In Denmark, DVB-T replaced the analog transmission system for TV on 1 November 2009. Danish national digital TV transmission has been outsourced to the company Boxer TV A/S, [17] acting as gatekeeper organization for terrestrial TV transmission in Denmark. [18] [19] However, there are still several free channels from DR.

Finland

DVB-T transmissions were launched on 21 August 2001. The analogue networks continued alongside the digital ones until 1 September 2007, when they were shut down nationwide. Before the analogue switchoff, the terrestrial network had three multiplexes: MUX A, MUX B and MUX C. MUX A contained the channels of the public broadcaster Yleisradio and MUX B was shared between the two commercial broadcasters: MTV3 and Nelonen. MUX C contained channels of various other broadcasters. After the analogue closedown, a fourth multiplex named MUX E was launched. All of the Yleisradio (YLE) channels are broadcast free-to-air, likewise a handful of commercial ones including MTV3, Nelonen, Subtv, Jim, Nelonen Sport, Liv, FOX, TV5 Finland, AVA and Kutonen. There are also several pay channels sold by PlusTV.

Italy

In Italy, DVB-S started in 1996 and the final analogue broadcasts were terminated in 2005. The switch-off from analogue terrestrial network to DVB-T started on 15 October 2008. Analogue broadcast was ended on 4 July 2012 after nearly four years of transition in phases.

Netherlands

In the Netherlands, DVB-S broadcasting started on 1 July 1996, satellite provider MultiChoice (now CanalDigitaal) switched off the analogue service shortly after on 18 August 1996. DVB-T broadcasting started April 2003, and terrestrial analog broadcasting was switched off December 2006. It was initially marketed by Digitenne but later by KPN. Multiplex 1 contains the NPO 1, NPO 2 and NPO 3 national TV channels, and a regional channel. Multiplexes 2~5 have the other encrypted commercial and international channels. Multiplex 1 also broadcasts the radio channels Radio 1, Radio 2, 3 FM, Radio 4, Radio 5, Radio 6, Concertzender, FunX and also a regional channel. As of June 2011, the Dutch DVB-T service had 29 TV channels and 20 radio channels (including free to air channels). DVB-T2 will be introduced during 2019/2020.

Norway

In Norway, DVB-T broadcasting is marketed under RiksTV (encrypted pay channels) and NRK (unencrypted public channels). DVB-T broadcasting via the terrestrial network began in November 2007, and has subsequently been rolled out one part of the country at a time. The Norwegian implementation of DVB-T is different from most others, as it uses H.264 with HE-AAC audio encoding, while most other countries have adapted the less recent MPEG-2 standard. Notably most DVB software for PC has problems with this, though in late 2007 compatible software was released, like DVBViewer using the libfaad2 library. Sony has released several HDTVs (Bravia W3000, X3000, X3500, E4000, V4500, W4000, W4500, X4500) that support Norway's DVB-T implementation without use of a separate set-top box, and Sagem ITD91 HD, Grundig DTR 8720 STBs are others.

Poland

Currently, Poland uses the DVB-T standard with MPEG-4 encoding. Analogue broadcast switch-off started on 7 November 2012 and was completed on 23 July 2013. [20]

Portugal

Portugal follows the DVB-T implementation, using H.264 with AAC audio encoding. It has been live since 29 April 2009 and the switch-off date for all analog signals was on 26 April 2012.

Romania

Romania started digital terrestrial broadcasting in 2005 but it was virtually unknown by many people in Romania due to the lack of content, cable TV and satellite TV being far more popular, however it was the first platform to deliver HD content. Today, Romania is using DVB-T2 as terrestrial standard, but also DVB-S/S2, and DVB-C which is extremely popular. The only analogue broadcast remains on cable. Romania adopted the DVB-T2 standard in 2016 after a series of tests with mpeg2, mpeg4 on DVB-T, and has today fully implemented DVB-T2. DVB-C, which was introduced in late 2005, still remains with mpeg2 on SD content and mpeg4 on HD content. DVB-S (introduced in 2004 focus sat being the first such platform) is used in basic packages with standard definition content, while DVB-S2 set top boxes are provided for both SD and HD content.

Russia

Fully switched to digital in 2019, Russia uses the DVB-T2 standard for broadcasting 2 channel packs with about ten main national radio and TV channels (Channel One, Rossiya 1/2/K/24, NTV, Radio Mayak, Radio Rossii etc.

United Kingdom

In the UK DVB-T has been adopted for broadcast of standard definition terrestrial programming, as well as a single DVB-T2 multiplex for high-definition programming. The UK terminated all analogue terrestrial broadcasts by the end of 2012. The vast majority of channels are available free-to-air through the Freeview service. DVB-T was also used for the now-defunct ONDigital/ITV Digital and Top Up TV service.

All satellite programming (some of which is available free-to-air via Freesat or free-to-view via Freesat from Sky; the remainder requires a subscription to Sky), is broadcast using either DVB-S or DVB-S2.

Subscription-based cable television from Virgin Media uses DVB-C.

North America

In North America, DVB-S is often used in encoding and video compression of digital satellite communications alongside Hughes DSS. Unlike Motorola's DigiCipher 2 standard, DVB has a wider adoption in terms of the number of manufacturers of receivers. Terrestrial digital television broadcasts in Canada, Mexico, El Salvador, Honduras, and the United States use ATSC encoding with 8VSB modulation instead of DVB-T with COFDM. Television newsgathering links from mobile vans to central receive points (often on mountaintops or tall buildings) use DVB-T with COFDM in the 2 GHz frequency band.

Oceania

Australia

In Australia, DVB broadcasting is marketed under the Freeview brand name, and more recently 'Freeview Plus', denoting the integration of online HbbTV and EPG in certain DVB devices. Regular broadcasts began in January 2001 using MPEG 2 video and MPEG 1 audio in SD and HD.

Changes to broadcasting rules have enabled broadcasters to offer multi-channeling, prompting broadcasters to use H.264 video with MPEG 1 or AAC audio encoding for some secondary channels.

Specifications for HD channels now differ depending on the broadcaster. ABC, Nine and Ten use 1920x1080i MPEG 4 video with Dolby Digital audio. Seven and SBS use 1440x1080i MPEG 2 video with Dolby Digital and MPEG 1 audio respectively. [21]

New Zealand

In New Zealand, DVB broadcasting is marketed under the Freeview brand name. SD MPEG-2 DVB-S broadcasts via satellite began on 2 May 2007 and DVB-T (terrestrial) broadcasts began April 2008 broadcasting in HD H.264 video with HE-AAC audio.

South America

Colombia

Since 2008, Colombia has adopted as a public policy the decision to migrate from the analog television implemented in 1954 to Digital Terrestrial Television (DVB-T2). This measure allows the viewers access to the open television (OTA) of public and private channels, with video quality in HD. As planned, analogue television broadcasts will end in 2021.

DVB compliant products

Companies that manufacture a product which is compliant to one or more DVB standards have the option of registering a declaration of conformity for that product. Wherever the DVB trademark is used in relation to a product – be it a broadcast, a service, an application or equipment – the product must be registered with the DVB project office. [22]

Although DVB is the universal standard for digital television signal transmission and reception, there are more international standards available: ATSC originally from UE and ISDB originally from Japan, digital terrestrial television format.

See also

Related Research Articles

Digital television Transmission of audio and video by digitally processed and multiplexed signal

Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television audiovisual signals using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier analog television technology which used analog signals. At the time of its development it was considered an innovative advancement and represented the first significant evolution in television technology since color television in the 1950s. Modern digital television is transmitted in high definition (HDTV) with greater resolution than analog TV. It typically uses a widescreen aspect ratio in contrast to the narrower format of analog TV. It makes more economical use of scarce radio spectrum space; it can transmit up to seven channels in the same bandwidth as a single analog channel, and provides many new features that analog television cannot. A transition from analog to digital broadcasting began around 2000. Different digital television broadcasting standards have been adopted in different parts of the world; below are the more widely used standards:

DVB-T, short for Digital Video Broadcasting — Terrestrial, is the DVB European-based consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television that was first published in 1997 and first broadcast in Singapore in February, 1998. This system transmits compressed digital audio, digital video and other data in an MPEG transport stream, using coded orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing modulation. It is also the format widely used worldwide for Electronic News Gathering for transmission of video and audio from a mobile newsgathering vehicle to a central receive point. It is also used in the US by Amateur television operators.

DVB-C stands for "Digital Video Broadcasting - Cable" and it is the DVB European consortium standard for the broadcast transmission of digital television over cable. This system transmits an MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 family digital audio/digital video stream, using a QAM modulation with channel coding. The standard was first published by the ETSI in 1994, and subsequently became the most widely used transmission system for digital cable television in Europe, Asia and South America. It is deployed worldwide in systems ranging from the larger cable television networks (CATV) down to smaller satellite master antenna TV (SMATV) systems.

The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks. ISDB supersedes both the NTSC-J analog television system and the previously used MUSE Hi-vision analog HDTV system in Japan as well as the NTSC, PAL-M, and PAL-N broadcast standards in South America and the Philippines. Digital Terrestrial Television Broadcasting (DTTB) services using ISDB-T started in Japan in December 2003 and Brazil in December 2007 as a trial. Since then, many countries have adopted ISDB over other digital broadcasting standards.

Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) standards are an American set of standards for digital television transmission over terrestrial, cable and satellite networks. It is largely a replacement for the analog NTSC standard and, like that standard, is used mostly in the United States, Mexico, Canada, and South Korea. Several former NTSC users, in particular Japan, have not used ATSC during their digital television transition, because they adopted their own system called ISDB.

Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services.

Broadcast television systems are the encoding or formatting standards for the transmission and reception of terrestrial television signals. There were three main analog television systems in use around the world until the late 2010s (expected): NTSC, PAL, and SECAM. Now in digital terrestrial television (DTT), there are four main systems in use around the world: ATSC, DVB, ISDB and DTMB.

Digital terrestrial television is a technology for terrestrial television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format. DTTV is a major technological advance over the previous analog television, and has largely replaced analog which had been in common use since the middle of the 20th century. Test broadcasts began in 1998 with the changeover to DTTV beginning in 2006 and is now complete in many countries. The advantages of digital terrestrial television are similar to those obtained by digitising platforms such as cable TV, satellite, and telecommunications: more efficient use of limited radio spectrum bandwidth, provision of more television channels than analog, better quality images, and potentially lower operating costs for broadcasters.

Datacasting is the broadcasting of data over a wide area via radio waves. It most often refers to supplemental information sent by television stations along with digital terrestrial television, but may also be applied to digital signals on analog TV or radio. It generally does not apply to data which is inherent to the medium, such as PSIP data which defines virtual channels for DTT or direct broadcast satellite systems; or to things like cable modem or satellite modem, which use a completely separate channel for data.

Digital terrestrial television in the United Kingdom encompasses over 100 television, radio and interactive services broadcast via the United Kingdom's terrestrial television network and receivable with a standard television set. The majority of digital terrestrial television (DTT) services, including the five former analogue channels, are broadcast free-to-air, and a further selection of encrypted pay TV services are also available.

Television in Germany began in Berlin on 22 March 1935, broadcasting for 90 minutes three times a week. It was the first public television station in the world, named Fernsehsender Paul Nipkow. The German television market had approximately 36.5 million television households in 2000, making it the largest television market in Europe. Nowadays, 95% of German households have at least one television receiver. All the main German TV channels are free-to-air.

Multiplexed Analogue Components

Multiplexed analogue components (MAC) was a satellite television transmission standard, originally proposed for use on a Europe-wide terrestrial HDTV system, although it was never used terrestrially.

A multiplex or mux is a grouping of program services as interleaved data packets for broadcast over a network or modulated multiplexed medium. The program services are split out at the receiving end.

Digital television adapter

A digital television adapter (DTA), commonly known as a converter box or decoder box, is a television tuner that receives a digital television (DTV) transmission, and converts the digital signal into an analog signal that can be received and displayed on an analog television set. Some also have an HDMI output since some TVs with HDMI do not have a digital tuner. The input digital signal may be over-the-air terrestrial television signals received by a television antenna, or signals from a digital cable system. It normally does not refer to satellite TV, which has always required a set-top box either to operate the big satellite dish, or to be the integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) in the case of direct-broadcast satellites (DBS).

DVB-T2 is an abbreviation for "Digital Video Broadcasting — Second Generation Terrestrial"; it is the extension of the television standard DVB-T, issued by the consortium DVB, devised for the broadcast transmission of digital terrestrial television. DVB has been standardized by ETSI.

High-definition television (HD) describes a television system providing an image resolution of substantially higher resolution than the previous generation of technologies. The term has been used since 1936, but in modern times refers to the generation following standard-definition television (SDTV), often abbreviated to HDTV or HD-TV. It is the current de facto standard video format used in most broadcasts: terrestrial broadcast television, cable television, satellite television, and Blu-ray Discs.

A Web-to-TV installation provides a way to show web television or other over-the-top content from the Internet, to a television set. Various technologies to do this include Home theater PCs, digital media receivers, and Smart TVs.

Television in North Macedonia was first introduced in 1964; it remains the most popular news medium. The public broadcaster is the Macedonian Radio Television, founded in 1993. TEKO TV (1989) from Štip is the first private television channel in the country. Other popular private channels are: Sitel, Kanal 5, Telma, Alfa TV, Alsat-M and TV 24.Most private media are tied to political or business interests and state media tend to support the government. Public broadcast networks face stiff competition from commercial stations, which dominate the ratings. A European Union sponsored report says that with scores of TV and radio networks, the market is overcrowded and many local broadcasters are struggling to survive financially.

Television in Poland was introduced in 1937. It was state owned, and was interrupted by the Second World War in 1939. Television returned to Poland in 1952 and for several decades was controlled by the communist government. Colour television was introduced in Poland in 1971. Private television stations in Poland appeared around the time of the fall of communism, with PTV Echo becoming the first private station in Poland.

References

  1. "DVB - Digital Video Broadcasting". www.dvb.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  2. "New DVB-S3 TV broadcast standard proposed". Advanced Television. 19 July 2011. Retrieved 8 January 2021.
  3. "Work Programme: Details of 'DEN/JTC-DVB-228' Work Item Schedule". ETSI. Retrieved 29 August 2010.
  4. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 January 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2010.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Frame structure channel coding and modulation for a second generation digital terrestrial television broadcasting system (DVB-T2)" (PDF). DVB consortium. February 2011.
  6. "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Frame structure channel coding and modulation for a second generation digital transmission system for cable systems (DVB-C2)" (PDF). DVB consortium. 7 May 2010.
  7. "Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Implementation Guidelines for a second generation digital cable transmission system (DVB-C2)" (PDF). DVB consortium. 19 November 2010.
  8. "DVB-C2 The second generation transmission technology for broadband cable" (PDF). Dirk Jaeger, Philipp Hasse, Joerg Robert, Institut fuer Nachrichtentechnik at Technische Universitaet Braunschweig. 8 April 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 April 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2013.
  9. "Europe's Broadcast Flag". Electronic Frontier Foundation. 29 September 2005. Archived from the original on 13 October 2005. Retrieved 15 August 2007.
  10. "Digital TV a reality in Kenya". Nation Media. Retrieved 9 December 2009.
  11. "Blueline Madagascar". www.blueline.mg. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  12. BluelineTV
  13. http://www.multichoice.co.za/multichoice/content/en/page44122
  14. "SA to adopt European TV standard: report". 24.com. Retrieved 18 January 2011.
  15. "Digital TV". www.digitaltv.gov.hk. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  16. "About - DVB". www.dvb.org. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  17. "Fleksible tv-pakker og bredbånd hos Boxer - Tv-udbyder med valgfrihed". www.boxertv.dk. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  18. "Kulturministeriets hjemmeside" (PDF). www.kum.dk. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  19. "Kulturministeriets hjemmeside". www.kum.dk. Archived from the original on 8 October 2009. Retrieved 1 April 2018.
  20. "General information about the digital broadcasting system in Poland". Ministry of Administration and Digitalization of Poland. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  21. "ABC HD is now live". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  22. Benoit, Herve. (2009). Digital Television : Satellite, Cable, Terrestrial, IPTV, Mobile TV in the DVB Framework. Taylor & Francis. ISBN   978-1-136-02714-7. OCLC   1024255874.