Dijon

Last updated

Dijon
Toits-dijonnais.jpg
View of the city from Dijon Cathedral
Blason ville fr Dijon (Cote-d'Or).svg
Coat of arms
Location of Dijon
Dijon
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Dijon
Bourgogne-Franche-Comte region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Dijon
Coordinates: 47°19′00″N5°01′00″E / 47.316667°N 5.016667°E / 47.316667; 5.016667 Coordinates: 47°19′00″N5°01′00″E / 47.316667°N 5.016667°E / 47.316667; 5.016667
Country France
Region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Department Côte-d'Or
Arrondissement Dijon
Canton Dijon-1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6
Intercommunality Dijon Métropole
Government
  Mayor (2015–2020) François Rebsamen (PS)
Area
1
40.41 km2 (15.60 sq mi)
Population
 (2017-01-01) [1]
156,920
  Density3,900/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
21231 /21000
Elevation220–410 m (720–1,350 ft)
(avg. 245 m or 804 ft)
Website www.dijon.fr
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Dijon ( UK: /ˈdʒɒ̃/ , US: /dˈʒn/ , [2] [3] French:  [diʒɔ̃] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) [lower-alpha 1] is the prefecture of the Côte-d'Or department and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in Northeastern France. [4]

Contents

The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon later became a Roman settlement named Divio, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. The province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th centuries, and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power, one of the great European centres of art, learning, and science. [5] In 2017, the commune had a population of 156,920; the Greater Dijon area had 250,516 inhabitants in 2007.

The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian, Gothic, and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons (Burgundian polychrome roofs) made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green, yellow, and black and arranged in geometric patterns.

Dijon holds an International and Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France. Dijon is also home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo . Dijon is famous for Dijon mustard, which originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe.

The historical centre of the city has been registered since 4 July 2015 as a UNESCO World Heritage site. [6]

History

The earliest archaeological finds within the city limits of Dijon date to the Neolithic period. Dijon later became a Roman settlement called Divio, which may mean sacred fountain, located on the road from Lyon to Paris. Saint Benignus, the city's apocryphal patron saint, is said to have introduced Christianity to the area before being martyred.

This province was home to the Dukes of Burgundy from the early 11th until the late 15th century, and Dijon was a place of tremendous wealth and power and one of the great European centres of art, learning, and science. The Duchy of Burgundy was a key in the transformation of medieval times toward early modern Europe. The Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy now houses city hall and a museum of art.

In 1513, Swiss and Imperial armies invaded Burgundy and besieged Dijon, which was defended by the governor of the province, Louis II de la Trémoille. The siege was extremely violent, but the town succeeded in resisting the invaders. After long negotiations, Louis II de la Trémoille managed to persuade the Swiss and the Imperial armies to withdraw their troops and also to return three hostages who were being held in Switzerland. During the siege, the population called on the Virgin Mary for help and saw the town's successful resistance and the subsequent withdrawal of the invaders as a miracle. For those reasons, in the years following the siege the inhabitants of Dijon began to venerate Notre-Dame de Bon-Espoir (Our Lady of Good Hope). Although a few areas of the town were destroyed, there are nearly no signs of the siege of 1513 visible today. However, Dijon's museum of fine arts has a large tapestry depicting this episode in the town's history: it shows the town before all subsequent destruction (particularly that which occurred during the French Revolution) and is an example of 16th-century art.

Dijon was also occupied by anti-Napoleonic coalitions in 1814, by the Prussian army in 1870–71, and by Nazi Germany beginning in June 1940, during WWII, when it was bombed by US Air Force B-17 Flying Fortresses, [7] before the liberation of Dijon by the French Army and the French Resistance, 11 September 1944.

Geography

Dijon is situated at the heart of a plain drained by two small converging rivers: the Suzon, which crosses it mostly underground from north to south, and the Ouche, on the southern side of town. Farther south is the côte, or hillside, of vineyards that gives the department its name. Dijon lies 310 km (193 mi) southeast of Paris, 190 km (118 mi) northwest of Geneva, and 190 km (118 mi) north of Lyon.

Climate

The average low of winter is −1 °C (30 °F), with an average high of 4.2 °C (39.6 °F). The average high of summer is 25.3 °C (77.5 °F) with an average low of 14.7 °C (58.5 °F). Average normal temperatures are between 2.3 °C (36.1 °F) and 5.3 °C (41.5 °F) from November to March, and 17.2 to 19.7 °C (63.0 to 67.5 °F) from June to August. [8] The climate is oceanic but with a greater temperature range than closer to the Atlantic coastline.

Climate data for Dijon (DIJ), elevation: 219 m (719 ft), 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1921–present
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)16.5
(61.7)
21.1
(70.0)
23.5
(74.3)
29.0
(84.2)
34.4
(93.9)
37.3
(99.1)
39.5
(103.1)
39.3
(102.7)
34.2
(93.6)
28.3
(82.9)
21.6
(70.9)
17.5
(63.5)
39.5
(103.1)
Average high °C (°F)4.8
(40.6)
7.0
(44.6)
11.8
(53.2)
15.2
(59.4)
19.5
(67.1)
23.2
(73.8)
26.1
(79.0)
25.6
(78.1)
21.1
(70.0)
15.7
(60.3)
9.2
(48.6)
5.6
(42.1)
15.4
(59.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)2.0
(35.6)
3.3
(37.9)
7.1
(44.8)
10.1
(50.2)
14.3
(57.7)
17.7
(63.9)
20.3
(68.5)
19.9
(67.8)
16.0
(60.8)
11.6
(52.9)
6.0
(42.8)
2.9
(37.2)
11.0
(51.8)
Average low °C (°F)−0.8
(30.6)
−0.4
(31.3)
2.4
(36.3)
4.9
(40.8)
9.1
(48.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.5
(58.1)
14.3
(57.7)
10.9
(51.6)
7.4
(45.3)
2.8
(37.0)
0.3
(32.5)
6.5
(43.7)
Record low °C (°F)−21.3
(−6.3)
−22.0
(−7.6)
−15.3
(4.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−3.3
(26.1)
0.8
(33.4)
2.8
(37.0)
4.3
(39.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−4.9
(23.2)
−10.6
(12.9)
−20.8
(−5.4)
−22.0
(−7.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)57.4
(2.26)
43.8
(1.72)
48.3
(1.90)
58.2
(2.29)
86.6
(3.41)
68.1
(2.68)
66.0
(2.60)
60.1
(2.37)
64.5
(2.54)
70.9
(2.79)
73.2
(2.88)
63.4
(2.50)
760.5
(29.94)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)10.98.59.79.711.39.28.27.77.910.111.011.0115.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 63.994.4151.3185.4212.3239.1248.3233.6181.3117.267.854.21,848.8
Source: Meteo France, [9] [10]

Sights

Porte Guillaume (Guillaume Gate), Place Darcy (Darcy Square), in the center of Dijon. Dijon Porte Guillaume.JPG
Porte Guillaume (Guillaume Gate), Place Darcy (Darcy Square), in the center of Dijon.

Dijon has a large number of churches, including Notre Dame de Dijon, St. Philibert, St. Michel, and Dijon Cathedral, dedicated to the apocryphal Saint Benignus, the crypt of which is over 1,000 years old. The city has retained varied architectural styles from many of the main periods of the past millennium, including Capetian, Gothic and Renaissance. Many still-inhabited town houses in the city's central district date from the 18th century and earlier. Dijon architecture is distinguished by, among other things, toits bourguignons (Burgundian polychrome roofs) made of tiles glazed in terracotta, green, yellow and black and arranged in geometric patterns.

View of the spire of Dijon Cathedral, showing roofs with polychrome tiles. F09.St-Benigne.Dijion.0078.JPG
View of the spire of Dijon Cathedral, showing roofs with polychrome tiles.

Dijon was largely spared the destruction of wars such as the 1870 Franco-Prussian War and the Second World War, despite the city being occupied. Therefore, many of the old buildings such as the half-timbered houses dating from the 12th to the 15th centuries (found mainly in the city's core district) are undamaged, at least by organized violence.

Dijon is home to many museums, including the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon in part of the Ducal Palace (see below). It contains, among other things, ducal kitchens dating back to the mid-15th century, and a substantial collection of primarily European art, from Roman times through the present.

Among the more popular sights is the Ducal Palace, the Palais des Ducs et des États de Bourgogne or "Palace of the Dukes and the States of Burgundy" ( 47°19′19″N5°2′29″E / 47.32194°N 5.04139°E / 47.32194; 5.04139 ), which includes one of only a few remaining examples of Capetian period architecture in the region.

The church of Notre Dame is famous for both its art and architecture. Popular legend has it that one of its stone relief sculptures, an owl (la chouette) is a good-luck charm: visitors to the church touch the owl with their left hands to make a wish. (The current carving was restored after it was damaged by vandalism in the night of 5 and 6 January 2001).

The Grand Théâtre de Dijon, built in 1828 and one of the main performing venues of the Opéra de Dijon, was declared a monument historique of France in 1975. It was designed by the Dijon-born architect Jacques Cellerier (1742–1814) in the Neo-classical style with an interior modelled on Italian opera houses. [13]

Transport

Roads

Dijon is located approximately 300 km (190 mi) southeast of Paris, about three hours by car along the A38 and A6 motorways. The A31 provides connections to Nancy, Lille and Lyon. The A39 connects Dijon with Bourg-en-Bresse and Geneva, the A36 with Besançon, Mulhouse and Basel.

Public transport

Trains

Dijon is an important railway junction for lines from Paris to Lyon and Marseille, and the east–west lines to Besançon, Belfort, Nancy, Switzerland, and Italy. The Gare de Dijon-Ville is the main railway station, providing service to Paris-Gare de Lyon by TGV high-speed train (LGV Sud-Est), covering the 300 km (190 mi) in one hour and 40 minutes. For comparison, Lyon is 180 km (110 mi) away and two hours distant by standard train. The city of Nice takes about six hours by TGV and Strasbourg only 1 hour and 56 minutes via the TGV Rhin-Rhône. Lausanne in Switzerland is less than 150 km (93 mi) away or two hours by train. Dijon has a direct overnight sleeper/couchette service to Milan, Verona and Venice by the operator Thello. Numerous regional TER Bourgogne-Franche-Comté trains depart from the same station.

Trams

A new tram system opened in September 2012. Line T1 is an 8.5 kilometres (5.3 miles) line with 16 stations running west–east from the Dijon railway station to Quetigny. [14] Line T2 opened in December 2012, an 11.5 km (7.1 miles) north–south line with 21 stations running between Valmy and Chenôve.

Culture

Dijon holds its International and Gastronomic Fair every year in autumn. With over 500 exhibitors and 200,000 visitors every year, it is one of the ten most important fairs in France. Dijon is also home, every three years, to the international flower show Florissimo .

Dijon has numerous museums such as the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon, the Musée Archéologique, the Musée de la Vie Bourguignonne, the Musée d'Art Sacré, and the Musée Magnin. It also contains approximately 700 hectares of parks and green space, including the Jardin botanique de l'Arquebuse.

Dijon is home to the prominent contemporary art centre Le Consortium, a fine-arts school (ENSA), as well as a number of art galleries like the Fonds régional d'art contemporain, which holds a permanent collection including pieces by locally established artist Yan Pei-Ming.

Apart from the numerous bars, which sometimes have live bands, some popular music venues in Dijon are : Le Zenith de Dijon, La Vapeur, l'Espace autogéré des Tanneries and l'Atheneum.

A jar of Dijon mustard Maille Dijon Originale.jpg
A jar of Dijon mustard

Dijon mustard originated in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon substituted verjuice, the acidic "green" juice of not-quite-ripe grapes, for vinegar in the traditional mustard recipe. [15] In general, mustards from Dijon today contain white wine rather than verjuice. Dijon mustard is not necessarily produced near Dijon, as the term is regarded as genericized under European Union law, so that it cannot be registered for protected designation of origin status. [16] Most Dijon mustard (brands such as Amora or Maille) is produced industrially and over 90% of mustard seed used in local production is imported, mainly from Canada. In 2008, Unilever closed its Amora mustard factory in Dijon. Dijon mustard shops sell exotic or unusually-flavoured mustard (fruit-flavoured, for example), often sold in decorative hand-painted faience (china) pots.

Burgundy is a world-famous wine growing region, and notable vineyards, such as Vosne-Romanée and Gevrey-Chambertin, are within 20 minutes of the city center. The town's university boasts a renowned enology institute. The road from Santenay to Dijon is known as the "route des Grands Crus", where eight of the world's top ten most expensive wines are produced, according to Wine Searcher. [17]

The city is also well known for its crème de cassis , or blackcurrant liqueur, used in the drink known as "Kir", named after former mayor of Dijon canon Félix Kir, a mixture of crème de cassis with white wine, traditionally Bourgogne aligoté.

Dijon is home to Dijon FCO, a football team now in Ligue 1. Dijon has a its own (Pro A) basketball club, JDA Dijon Basket. The Palais des Sports de Dijon serves as playground for the team and hosted international basketball events such as the FIBA EuroBasket 1999 in the past. Dijon is home to the Dijon Ducs ice hockey team, who play in the Magnus League. [18] To the northwest, the race track of Dijon-Prenois hosts various motor sport events. It hosted the Formula 1 French Grand Prix on five occasions from 1974 to 1984.

Colleges and universities

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±%
1793 20,760    
1800 18,888−9.0%
1806 22,026+16.6%
1821 22,397+1.7%
1831 25,352+13.2%
1836 24,817−2.1%
1841 26,184+5.5%
1846 27,543+5.2%
1851 32,253+17.1%
1856 33,493+3.8%
1861 37,074+10.7%
1866 39,193+5.7%
1872 42,573+8.6%
1876 47,939+12.6%
1881 55,453+15.7%
1886 60,855+9.7%
1891 65,428+7.5%
1896 67,736+3.5%
1901 71,326+5.3%
1906 74,113+3.9%
1911 76,847+3.7%
1921 78,578+2.3%
1926 83,815+6.7%
1931 90,869+8.4%
1936 96,257+5.9%
1946 100,664+4.6%
1954 112,844+12.1%
1962 135,694+20.2%
1968 145,357+7.1%
1975 151,705+4.4%
1982 140,942−7.1%
1990 146,703+4.1%
1999 150,138+2.3%
2006 151,504+0.9%
2009 152,110+0.4%
2016 155,090+2.0%

Personalities

Twin towns - sister cities

Dijon is twinned with: [20]

Sport

The JDA Dijon is a French basketball club, based in Dijon.

See also

Notes

  1. Translated in other notable and relevant languages:

Related Research Articles

Burgundy Region of France

Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It takes its name from the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.

Côte-dOr Department of France in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté

Côte-d'Or is a department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of Northeastern France. In 2016, it had a population of 533,213. Its prefecture is Dijon and subprefectures are Beaune and Montbard.

François Rude The life of François Rude

François Rude was a French sculptor, best known for the Departure of the Volunteers, also known as La Marseillaise on the Arc de Triomphe in Paris. (1835–36). His work often expressed patriotic themes, as well as the transition from neo-classicism to romanticism.

Beaune Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Beaune is the wine capital of Burgundy in the Côte d'Or department in eastern France. It is located between Paris and Geneva.

Canal de Bourgogne canal

The Burgundy Canal is a canal in Burgundy, in east-central France. It connects the Yonne at Migennes with the Saône at Saint-Jean-de-Losne. Construction began in 1775 and was completed in 1832. The canal completes the link between the English Channel and the Mediterranean Sea, via the rivers Seine and the Yonne to the Saône and Rhône.

Gevrey-Chambertin Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Gevrey-Chambertin is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department of France in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in eastern France.

Saisy Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Saisy is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.

Gray, Haute-Saône Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Gray is a commune in the Haute-Saône department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France. It has a population of 6,175 inhabitants (2007).

University of Burgundy French University located in Dijon, created in 1722

The University of Burgundy is a university in Dijon, France.

Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dijon archdiocese

The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Dijon is a diocese of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The archepiscopal see is Dijon Cathedral, which is located in the city of Dijon. The diocese comprises the entire department of Côte-d'Or, in the Region of Bourgogne. Originally established as the Diocese of Dijon in 1731, and suffragan to the Archdiocese of Lyon, the diocese was elevated to the rank of archdiocese in 2002. The most significant jurisdiction change occurred after the Concordat of 1801, when the diocese annexed the department of Haute-Marne. In 1821, a Papal Bull re-established the Diocese of Langres. The current archbishop is Roland Minnerath, appointed in 2004.

Genlis, Côte-dOr Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Genlis is a commune in the Côte-d'Or department in eastern France. The 20th-century archaeologist Jean Charbonneaux (1895–1969) was born in Genlis.

Tart Abbey abbey located in Côte-dOr, in France

Tart Abbey, also Le Tart Abbey, was the first nunnery of the Cistercian movement. It was located in the present commune of Tart-l'Abbaye in Burgundy (Côte-d'Or), near Genlis, on the banks of the River Ouche and only a few miles away from Cîteaux Abbey, the Cistercian mother house. The community moved to Dijon in 1623, and the abbey buildings in Tart were destroyed by war shortly afterwards; only ruins remain.

Champmol Carthusian monastery located in Côte-dOr, in France

The Chartreuse de Champmol, formally the Chartreuse de la Sainte-Trinité de Champmol, was a Carthusian monastery on the outskirts of Dijon, which is now in France, but in the 15th century was the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy. The monastery was founded in 1383 by Duke Philip the Bold to provide a dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, and operated until it was dissolved in 1791, during the French Revolution. Called "the grandest project in a reign renowned for extravagance", it was lavishly enriched with works of art, and the dispersed remnants of its collection remain key to the understanding of the art of the period.

Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy Palace in Dijon (Côte-dOr)

The Palace of the Dukes and Estates of Burgundy or Palais des ducs et des États de Bourgogne is a remarkably well-preserved architectural assemblage in Dijon. The oldest part is the 14th and 15th century Gothic ducal palace and seat of the Dukes of Burgundy, made up of a logis still visible on place de la Liberation, the ducal kitchens on cour de Bar, the tour de Philippe le Bon, a "guette" overlooking the whole city, and tour de Bar. Most of what can be seen today, however, was built in the 17th and especially the 18th centuries, in a classical style, when the palace was a royal residence building and housed the estates of Burgundy. Finally, the 19th façade of the musée on place de la Sainte-Chapelle was added on the site of the palace's Sainte-Chapelle, demolished in 1802. The Palace houses the city's town hall and the musée des Beaux-Arts.

Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon art museum in Dijon, France

The Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon is a museum of fine arts opened in 1787 in Dijon, France. It is one of the main and oldest museums of France. It is located in the historic city centre of Dijon and housed in the former ducal palace which was the headquarters of the Burgundy State in the 15th century. When the duchy was assimilated to the Kingdom of France, the palace became the house of the King. In the 17th century it became the Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy following a project by Jules Hardouin-Mansart.

Mustard (condiment) Usage of mustard condiment in foods

Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant.

Jean de la Huerta Spanish sculptor

Jean de la Huerta was a Spanish sculptor of Aragonese origin. Most of his work was produced in the duchy of Burgundy.

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté Administrative region of France

Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, sometimes abbreviated BFC, is a region in the east of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Burgundy and Franche-Comté. The new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections of December 2015, electing 100 members to the regional council of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté.

The following is a timeline of the history of the city of Dijon, France.

Dijon mustard Condiment

Dijon mustard is a traditional mustard of France, named after the town of Dijon in Burgundy, France, which was the center of mustard making in the late Middle Ages and was granted exclusive rights in France in the 17th century. First used in 1336 for the table of King Philip VI, it became popular in 1856, when Jean Naigeon of Dijon replaced the usual ingredient of vinegar in the recipe with verjuice, the acidic juice of unripe grapes.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2017". INSEE . Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  2. Wells, John C. (2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Longman. ISBN   978-1-4058-8118-0.
  3. Jones, Daniel (2011). Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John (eds.). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN   978-0-521-15255-6.
  4. "Destination Dijon and Burgundy - Palais des Congrès". www.dijon-congrexpo.com. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  5. "Dukes of Burgundy, the History of Burgundy, France - burgundytoday". www.burgundytoday.com. Retrieved 19 June 2017.
  6. Climates of Burgundy.
  7. "Bombing of Dijon, France". U.S. Air Force. Retrieved 19 January 2009.
  8. HKO August 2011, weather.gov.hk
  9. "Climatological Information for Dijon, France". Meteo France. 14 February 2019.
  10. "Dijon-Longvic (21)" (PDF). Fiche Climatologique: Statistiques 1981–2010 et records (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  11. "Dijon (07280) - WMO Weather Station". NOAA . Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  12. "Normes et records 1961–1990: Dijon-Longvic (21) – altitude 219m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  13. Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication de France. Monuments historiques: Théâtre: Bourgogne, Côte-d'Or, Dijon. Retrieved 10 March 2015 (in French).
  14. "Pioneering PPP energises Dijon tram". Railway Gazette. 21 July 2010. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
  15. Jack E. Staub, Ellen Buchert (18 August 2008). 75 Exceptional Herbs for Your Garden. Gibbs Smith. p. 170. ISBN   9781423608776.
  16. "SCADPlus: Protection of Geographical Indications and Designations of Origin". Europa (web portal). Archived from the original on 10 March 2009. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  17. "World's Top 50 Most Expensive Wines". Wine-Searcher. Retrieved 5 May 2009.
  18. Dijon Hockey Club. "Duc's Official Website" (in French). Retrieved 1 October 2010.
  19. "Christian Allard – MSPs : Scottish Parliament". Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  20. "Villes partenaires". dijon.fr (in French). Dijon. Retrieved 12 November 2019.

Further reading

See also: Bibliography of the history of Dijon