Direct-administered municipalities of China

Last updated
Municipality [1]
直辖市
Zhíxiáshì
China municipalities numbered.svg
CategoryFirst-level administration
Unitary state
Location People's Republic of China
Number4 (#1 Beijing; #2 Tianjin; #3 Chongqing; #4 Shanghai)
Populations12,938,224 (Tianjin)
28,846,170 (Chongqing)
21.7 million (2016) (Beijing)
24.15 million (2016) (Shanghai)
Areas6,341 km2 (2,448.1 sq mi) (Shanghai) – 82,400 km2 (31,816 sq mi) (Chongqing)
Subdivisions
  • District, county, autonomous county

A municipality (simplified Chinese :直辖市; traditional Chinese :直轄市; pinyin :zhíxiáshì; lit. 'direct-controlled city'), formally a municipality under the direct administration of central government, is the highest level of classification for cities used by the People's Republic of China. These cities have the same rank as provinces, and form part of the first tier of administrative divisions of China.

A municipality is a "city" (Chinese :; pinyin :shì) with "provincial" (Chinese :省级; pinyin :shěngjí) power under a unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city and a province of its own right.

A municipality is often not a "city" in the usual sense of the term (i.e., a large continuous urban settlement), but instead an administrative unit comprising, typically, a main central urban area (a city in the usual sense, usually with the same name as the municipality), and its much larger surrounding rural area containing many smaller cities (districts and subdistricts), towns and villages. The larger municipality spans over 100 kilometres (62 mi). To distinguish a "municipality" from its actual urban area (the traditional meaning of the word city), the term "urban area" (Chinese :市区) is used.

History

The first municipalities were the 11 cities of Nanjing, Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin, Qingdao, Chongqing, Xi'an, Guangzhou, Hankou (now part of Wuhan), Shenyang, and Harbin when the ROC government ruled China. They were established in 1927 soon after they were designated as "cities" during the 1920s. Nominally, Dalian was a municipality as well, although it was under Japanese control. These cities were first called special municipalities/cities (特别市; 特別市; tèbiéshì), but were later renamed Yuan-controlled municipalities (院辖市; 院轄市; yuànxiáshì), then direct-controlled municipalities (直辖市; 直轄市; zhíxiáshì) by the Central Government.

After the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, Anshan, Benxi, and Fushun were also made municipalities, while Qingdao, Dalian, and Harbin were reduced to provincial municipalities. [2] Hankou was merged into Wuhan. Hence, there remained 12 municipalities, until Dalian was elevated in 1950. In November 1952, Nanjing was reduced to a provincial municipality. [3] In July 1953, Harbin was restored to municipality status, along with Changchun. [4] Except Beijing and Tianjin, which were under central control, all other municipalities were governed by the greater administrative areas.

In June 1954, 11 of the 14 municipalities were reduced to sub-provincial cities; many of them became capitals of the provinces they were in. Only Beijing, Shanghai, and Tianjin remained municipalities, until Chongqing was restored as a municipality in 1997 with a much enlarged area. Tianjin was also temporarily reverted to sub-provincial city status between 1958 and 1967.

Position in hierarchy

Municipalities are the highest-ranked cities in the PRC. Some cities of lower levels may also refer to themselves as municipalities in the English language.

Three levels of cities in the People's Republic of China:

  1. Municipalities (直辖市; 直轄市; zhíxiáshì);
  2. Prefecture-level cities (地级市; 地級市; dìjíshì), including sub-provincial cities ; and,
  3. County-level cities (县级市; 縣級市; xiànjíshì), including sub-prefecture-level cities .

Administration

In municipalities, the highest ranking government official is the Mayor. The mayor is also a delegate in the National People's Congress (the legislature) [5] and Deputy Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee. However, the highest administrative authority in the municipality belongs to the Secretary of the CPC Municipal Committee or Party Secretary.

Current PRC municipalities

ISO [6] Division nameSimplified ChineseHanyu PinyinAbbr.Population [7] Area (km²)DivisionsCity seatOrigin Province
(split date)
Origin PrefectureOrigin County
CN-11 Beijing 北京市Běijīng Shìjīng19,612,36816,801 List (16 districts) Dongcheng
Tongzhou
Hebei
(Oct. 1949)
Shuntian Daxing
CN-12 Tianjin 天津市Tiānjīn Shìjīn12,938,22411,760 List (16 districts) Heping Hebei
(Jan. 1967)
Tianjin Tianjin
CN-31 Shanghai 上海市Shànghǎi Shì23,019,1486,340 List (16 districts) Huangpu Jiangsu
(Mar. 1927)
Songjiang Shanghai
CN-50 Chongqing 重庆市Chóngqìng Shì28,846,170
(City Core 16,240,026)
82,300
(City Core 6,268)
List (26 districts, 8 counties, & 4 autonomous counties)
(City Core: 19 districts)
Yuzhong Sichuan
(May 1997)
Chongqing Ba

Former ROC and PRC municipalities

NameSimplified ChinesePinyinAbbr.City seatAdministration periodOriginal provinceOriginal prefectureOriginal county
Jingdu 京都市Jīngdū Shìjīng Dongcheng 1921–1927 Zhili
(present province: Hebei)
Shuntian Daxing
Jingu 津沽市Jīngū Shìjīn Heping 1921–1927 Zhili
(present province: Hebei)
Tianjin Tianjin
Songhu 淞沪市Sōnghù Shì Huangpu 1921–1927 Jiangsu Songjiang Shanghai
Qingdao 青岛市Qīngdǎo Shìqīng Shinan 1921–1927, 1929–1949 Shandong Jiaozhou Jiao
Harbin 哈尔滨市Hārbīn Shì Nangang 1921–1927, 1947–1949, 1953–1954 Songjiang
(present province: Heilongjiang)
Binzhou Bin
Hankou 汉口市Hànkǒu Shìhàn Jiang'an 1921–1927, 1929–1931, 1947–1949 Hubei Hanyang Hanyang
Wuxi 无锡市Wúxī Shì Binhu 1921–1927 Jiangsu Changzhou Wuxi
Hangzhou 杭州市Hángzhōu Shìháng Gongshu 1921–1927 Zhejiang Hangzhou Yuhang
Ningbo 宁波市Níngbō Shìyǒng Yinzhou 1921–1927 Zhejiang Ningbo Yin
Anqing 安庆市Ānqìng Shìān Daguan 1921–1927 Anhui Anqing Huaining
Nanchang 南昌市Nánchāng Shìhóng Donghu 1921–1927 Jiangxi Nanchang Nanchang
Wuchang 武昌市Wǔchāng Shì Wuchang 1921–1927 Hubei Wuchang Jiangxia
Guangzhou 广州市Guǎngzhōu Shìsuì Yuexiu 1921–1927, 1930, 1947–1954 Guangdong Guangzhou Panyu
Nanhai
Wuzhou 梧州市Wúzhōu Shì Changzhou 1921–1927 Guangxi Wuzhou Cangwu
Nanjing 南京市Nánjīng Shìníng Xuanwu 1927–1952 Jiangsu Jiangning Jiangning
Xi'an 西安市Xī'ān Shìhào Weiyang 1927–1954 Shaanxi Xi'an Chang'an
Wuhan 武汉市Wǔhàn Shìhàn Jiang'an 1927–1929, 1949 Hubei Hanyang
Wuchang
Hanyang
Jiangxia
Beiping 北平市Jīngdū Shìpíng Dongcheng 1928–1949 Zhili
(present province: Hebei)
Shuntian Daxing
Dalian 大连市Dàlián Shìlián Xigang 1947–1949 Andong/Liaodong
(present province: Liaoning)
Jinzhou Ninghai
Shenyang 沈阳市Shěnyáng Shìshěn Shenhe 1947–1954 Liaoxi
(present province: Liaoning)
Fengtian Fengtian
Anshan 鞍山市Ānshān Shìān Tiedong 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong
(present province: Liaoning)
Liaoyang Haicheng
Liaoyang
Benxi 本溪市Běnxī Shìběn Pingshan 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong
(present province: Liaoning)
Fengtian Benxi
Fushun 抚顺市Fǔshùn Shì Xinfu 1949–1954 Andong/Liaodong
(present province: Liaoning)
Fengtian Fushun
Lüda 旅大市Lǚdà Shì Xigang 1950–1954 Lüda
(present province: Liaoning)
Jinzhou Ninghai
Changchun 长春市Chángchūn Shìchūn Nanguan 1953–1954 Jilin Changchun Changchun

See also

Related Research Articles

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A municipality is usually a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate.

Due to China's large population and geographical area, the administrative divisions of China have consisted of several levels since ancient era. The constitution of China provides for three de jure levels of government. Currently, however, there are five practical levels of local government: the provincial, prefecture, county, township, and village.

Taiwan, officially known as the Republic of China (ROC), is divided into multi-layered statutory subdivisions. Due to the complex political status of Taiwan, there is a significant difference in the de jure system set out in the original constitution and the de facto system in use today.

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Provincial-level administrative divisions or first-level administrative divisions, are the highest-level Chinese administrative divisions. There are 34 such divisions claimed by the People's Republic of China, classified as 23 provinces, four municipalities, five autonomous regions, and two Special Administrative Regions; The political status of Taiwan Province along with a small fraction of Fujian Province remain in dispute, those are under separate rule by the Republic of China.

Prefecture-level city

A prefectural-level municipality, prefectural-level city or prefectural city; formerly known as province-administrated city from 1949 to 1983, is an administrative division of the People's Republic of China (PRC), ranking below a province and above a county in China's administrative structure. Prefectural level cities form the second level of the administrative structure. Administrative chiefs (mayors) of prefectural level cities generally have the same rank as a division chief of a national ministry. Since the 1980s, most former prefectures have been renamed into prefectural level cities.

A sub-provincial division in China is like a prefecture-level city that is governed by a province, but is administered independently in regard to economy and law.

A sub-prefectural municipality, sub-prefectural city, or vice-prefectural municipality, is an unofficial designation for a type of administrative division of China. A sub-prefectural city is officially considered to be a county-level city, but it has more power de facto because the cadres assigned to its government are one half-level higher in rank than those of an "ordinary" county-level city—though still lower than those of a prefecture-level city.

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District (China)

The term district, in the context of China, is used to refer to several unrelated political divisions in both ancient and modern China.

County-level city

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County (Taiwan)

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Special municipality (Taiwan)

A special municipality is an administrative division unit in the Republic of China (Taiwan). Under the administrative structure of the ROC, it is the highest rank of division and is equivalent to a province. Since the streamlining of provinces in 1998, the special municipalities along with provincial cities and counties have all been directly under the central government.

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References

  1. "Local Governments". Chinese Government's Official Web Portal. Archived from the original on 13 March 2012. Retrieved 10 January 2015.
  2. Archived March 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  3. Archived March 18, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. Archived June 19, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
  5. "Chongqing Mayor: Government Must Place Service Above Anything Else". Xinhua News Agency. March 3, 2003. Archived from the original on November 21, 2008. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
  6. ISO 3166-2:CN (ISO 3166-2 codes for the provinces of China)
  7. "Communiqué of the National Bureau of Statistics of People's Republic of China on Major Figures of the 2010 Population Census (No. 1)". National Bureau of Statistics of China. April 28, 2011. Archived from the original on January 15, 2013. Retrieved July 19, 2011.