| Administrative divisions|
A district (sum; Mongolian : сум, arrow, sometimes spelled soum or—from the Russian form—as somon) is a second level administrative subdivision of Mongolia. The 21 Provinces of Mongolia are divided into 331 districts.
On average, each district administers a territory of 4,200 km2 (1,600 sq mi) with about 5,000 inhabitants, primarily nomadic herders. It[ clarification needed ] has total revenues of 120 million Tögrög, 90% of which comes from national subsidies.
Each district is again subdivided into bags (brigades; sometimes spelled baghs). Most bags are of an entirely virtual nature. Their purpose is to sort the families of nomads in the district into groups, without a permanent human settlement.
Officially, and occasionally on maps, many district seats (sum centers) bear a name different from that of the district. However, in practice the district seat (sum center) is most often referred to under the name of the district, to the point of the official name of the district seat (sum center) being unknown even to the locals.
The economy of Mongolia has traditionally been based on agriculture and livestock. Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten, and gold account for a large part of industrial production. Soviet assistance, at its height one-third of Gross domestic product (GDP), disappeared almost overnight in 1990–91, at the time of the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Mongolia was driven into deep recession. Reform has been held back by the ex-communist MPRP opposition and by the political instability brought about through four successive governments under the DUC.
Ulaanbaatar, previously anglicized as Ulan Bator, is the capital and most populous city of Mongolia. The municipality is located in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 metres (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. The city was originally founded in 1639 as a nomadic Buddhist monastic centre, changing location 28 times, and was permanently settled at its current location in 1778.
Mongolia has diplomatic relations 191 UN states, the Holy See–and the European Union. Of the states with limited recognition it has relations only with the State of Palestine.
Buyant-Ukhaa International Airport, is a semi-operational international airport serving Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, situated 18 km (11 mi) southwest of the capital. Largely replaced by a new airport, it currently functions as a backup airport, with a view to be used for flight training as well as for special, charter, and government flights.
The Prime Minister of Mongolia is the head of government, and heads the Mongolian cabinet. The Prime Minister is appointed by the Mongolian parliament or the State Great Hural, and can be removed by the parliament with a vote of no confidence.
Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces or aimags and one provincial municipality. Each aimag is subdivided into several districts. The modern provinces have been established since 1921. The capital, Ulaanbaatar, is governed as an independent provincial municipality separate from Töv Province, inside which it is situated.
Choibalsan is the fourth-largest city in Mongolia after Ulaanbaatar, Darkhan, and Erdenet. The name of the city was Bayan Tümen until 1941, when it was renamed after the communist leader Khorloogiin Choibalsan in honor of the 20th anniversary of the Mongolian Revolution of 1921. It is the capital of the province of Dornod. The city administrative unit's official name is Kherlen sum, with area of 281 square kilometres or 108 square miles. It is situated at the Kherlen River, at an elevation of 747 metres or 2,451 feet above sea level.
Erdenet is the second-largest city in Mongolia, with a 2017 population of 97,814, and the capital of the aimag (province) of Orkhon. Located in the northern part of the country, it lies in a valley between the Selenge and Orkhon rivers about 240 km (149 mi) northwest of Ulaanbaatar, the capital. The road length between Ulaanbaatar and Erdenet is about 370 km (230 mi).
The president of Mongolia is the executive head of state of Mongolia. The current president is Ukhnaagiin Khürelsükh after the constitutional referendum in 2021 in which Khaltmaagiin Battulga was forced to resign.
Boroo Gold Mine is an open-pit gold mining site in Mongolia located about 110 km (70 mi) west-northwest of the capital Ulaanbaatar in Bayangol and Mandal sums (districts) of Selenge Province in northern Mongolia. Gatsuurt Gold Mine is 35 E from Boroo Gold Mine.
Mongolia–Russia relations have been traditionally strong since the Communist era, when the Soviet Union supported Mongolian People's Republic. Mongolia and Russia remain allies in the post-communist era. Russia has an embassy in Ulaanbaatar and two consulate generals. Mongolia has an embassy in Moscow, three consulate generals, and a branch in Yekaterinburg. Both countries are full members of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe.
The country of Mongolia is divided into 21 provinces and the capital Ulaanbaatar.
There is a small Mongolian community in India, comprising mostly Buddhist monks and scholars as well as international students from Mongolia.
The Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party was a political party in Mongolia which was founded in 2010 by Nambaryn Enkhbayar. The party received approval to use the Mongolian People's Party's old name by the Supreme Court of Mongolia. Enkhbayar, former chairman of the original MPRP and a former President of Mongolia, was the party's leader. It merged back into the Mongolian People's Party in 2021.
Chinggis Khaan International Airport, also referred to as New Ulaanbaatar International Airport, , is an international airport located in the Khöshig Valley of Sergelen, Töv, Mongolia, 52 km south of the capital Ulaanbaatar and 20 km southwest of Zuunmod. It started its operations on 4 July 2021 and serves as the primary airport for Ulaanbaatar and its metropolitan area, functioning as a replacement for Buyant-Ukhaa International Airport. Named after Genghis Khan, it is the largest air facility in the country, serving as a hub for all major Mongolian airlines.
Montsame is the official state owned news agency of Mongolia. Montsame is an acronym for Mongolyn Tsakhilgaan Medee Mongolian: Монголын Цахилгаан Мэдээ, or Mongolian Electronic News. It was founded in 1921. It has permanent correspondents in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolian aimag centers, Beijing, and Moscow.
Khaltmaagiin Battulga is a Mongolian politician and sambo wrestler who served as the 5th President of Mongolia from 2017 to 2021. He served as Member of the State Great Khural from 2004 to 2016 and Minister of Roads, Transportation, Construction and Urban Development from 2008 to 2012. Before his career in politics, Battulga was a sambo wrestling champion. He was the Democratic Party's candidate in the 2017 presidential election and was elected President with 50.6% in the run-off, the first-ever run-off election in modern Mongolian history. Mongolians are sharply divided about his role in the 2019 Mongolian constitutional crisis.
Mazaalai was a Mongolian nanosatellite CubeSat that was launched into space on 3 June 2017 as part of the SpaceX CRS-11 mission.
Parliamentary elections were held in Mongolia on 24 June 2020. The result was a victory for the ruling Mongolian People's Party, which won 62 of the 76 seats, a slight decrease from the 65 won in the 2016 elections.
The COVID-19 pandemic in Mongolia is part of the ongoing worldwide pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. The COVID-19 pandemic was confirmed to have reached Mongolia when its first case was confirmed in a French man who traveled from Moscow to Dornogovi on 10 March 2020.