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The districts of Turkmenistan (Turkmen : etraplar, sing. etrap) are territorial entities below the provinces of Turkmenistan (Turkmen : welaýatlar, sing. welaýat ). They may be counties, cities, or boroughs of cities. The heads of the districts (Turkmen : häkim, translated as "governor" for districts of a welaýat and "mayor" for cities or boroughs of a city) are appointed by the President of Turkmenistan (Constitution of Turkmenistan, Articles 80-81).
Regarding cities "with district status" (Turkmen : etrap hukukly), by Turkmen law, "...such cities must have population over 30,000 and be the administrative center of a province (welaýat); headed by a presidentially appointed häkim." Though this officially limits the possible number of such cities to five (the number of provinces), in reality other cities are periodically accorded the status of a district. As of 5 January 2018, 11 cities in Turkmenistan enjoyed the status of districts, including four of the five provincial (welaýat) centers. One city, the capital city of Ashgabat, enjoys the status of a province.
Two cities in Turkmenistan feature subordinate districts headed by mayors. Such districts are best rendered into English as "boroughs" to distinguish them from municipal districts without their own governments, which are also called etraplar in Turkmen (but are called микрорайоны in Russian). Ashgabat has four boroughs and Turkmenbashy has two.
See also Map of the Boroughs of Ashgabat
As of January 5, 2018, Ashgabat includes four boroughs (uly etraplar):
This number is a reduction from the previous number of boroughs.
See also Map of Districts (Etraplar) of Dashoguz Province
Under Turkmen law, some cities are granted "district status" (Turkmen : etrap hukukly), meaning they are headed by a presidentially appointed mayor (Turkmen : häkim) and control their own budgets. Cities without this status (cities "in a district", Turkmen : etrapdaky) are headed by a town council (Turkmen : geňeş) chaired by an arçyn rather than a mayor. Cities in Turkmenistan with district status are:
These districts no longer exist.
Ashgabat, formerly named Poltoratsk between 1919 and 1927, is the capital and the largest city of Turkmenistan. It is situated between the Karakum Desert and the Kopet Dag mountain range in Central Asia. It is also near the Iran-Turkmenistan border.
Ahal Region is one of the regions of Turkmenistan. It is in the south-center of the country, bordering Iran and Afghanistan along the Kopet Dag Range. Its area is 97,160 km2 (37,510 sq mi) and population 939,700.
Balkan Region is one of the five approximately equal regions of Turkmenistan. It is that in the far west of the country. Clockwise from north it borders Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan (north); two regions of Turkmenistan (east), Iran (south) and the Caspian Sea (west). Its capital is Balkanabat, formerly known as Nebit Dag. The territory of the region is identical to the territory of the former region of Krasnovodsk Oblast, a Soviet-era Oblast of the Turkmen S.S.R.. This oblast was liquidated and restored many times in the mid to late 19 hundreds and in 1988 it was abolished for good. However, the administrative boundaries of the region were restored in 1991 when Balkan Region was established.
Daşoguz Region is one of the regions of Turkmenistan. It is in the north of the country, bordering Uzbekistan. The area of the province is 73,430 square kilometers, and the total population is 1,370,400. The capital is Daşoguz (Дашогуз).
Lebap Region is one of the regions of Turkmenistan. It is in the northeast of the country, bordering Afghanistan, Uzbekistan along the Amu Darya. Its capital is Türkmenabat. It has an area of 93,727 square kilometers, and a population of 1,334,500 people.
Türkmenbaşy, formerly known as Krasnovodsk, Kyzyl-Su, and Shagadam is a city in Balkan Province in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea. It sits at an elevation of 27 metres. The population was 86,800, mostly ethnic Russians, Armenians and Azeris. As the terminus of the Trans-Caspian Railway and site of a major seaport on the Caspian, it is an important transportation center. The city is also the site of Turkmenistan's largest oil refining complex.
Turkmenistan is divided into five regions or welaýatlar and one capital city (şäher). They are Ahal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary, plus the capital city of Ashgabat. Each province is divided into districts. As of January 1, 2020, there were 43 districts, 51 cities, including 11 cities with district status, 62 towns, 504 rural councils and 1717 villages in Turkmenistan.
See also Ashgabat / Districts
Bäherden is a city and the seat of Baherden District in south-western Turkmenistan in Ahal Province. It lies on the northern rim of the Kopet Dag mountain range, south-west of the resort village of Archman.
Beýik Türkmenbaşy District was a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan. It was abolished in November 2017 and its territory transferred to Döwletli District.
Garabekewül District is a former district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan. The administrative center of the district is the town of Garabekewül.
Saýat District is a district of Lebap Province in Turkmenistan. The administrative center of the district is the town of Saýat.
Garabekewül is a city in Halaç District in Lebap Province, Turkmenistan.
Berkararlyk District is a borough of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan. As a borough, it is headed by a presidentially appointed mayor.
Bagtyyarlyk District is a borough of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan. As a borough, it is headed by a presidentially appointed mayor.
Kopetdag District is a borough of Aşgabat in Turkmenistan. As a borough, it is headed by a presidentially appointed mayor.
Avaza District is a city borough of Türkmenbaşy in Balkan Region in Turkmenistan, on the Krasnovodsk Gulf of the Caspian Sea.
Atamyrat Niyazov was a soldier in the Red Army during World War II from the Soviet Republic of Turkmenistan who was the father of the first post-Soviet President of Turkmenistan Saparmurat Niyazov. He was also a school teacher and a financial officer.
Altyn Asyr is a city in Tejen District, Ahal Province, Turkmenistan. Its main economic activity is cotton farming.