Dnestr radar

Last updated

Dnestr/Dnestr-M/Dnepr
Hen house radar.JPEG
A US military artist's concept of a Dnestr-M/Dnepr.
Country of origin Soviet Union, Russia
Introduced1963 (1963) (Dnestr-M)
No. built15
Type space surveillance (Dnestr)
Early warning radar (Dnestr-M, Dnepr, Dnepr-M)
Frequency154–162 MHz (VHF) [1]
Beamwidth 0.5°(N-S), 10°(E-W) [1]
Pulsewidth0.8 ms long [2]
Range3,000 kilometres (1,864 mi) [3] 1,900 kilometres (1,181 mi) for targets with an area of 1 m2 [2] [4] :75
DiameterEach array is 244 metres (801 ft) long, 20 metres (66 ft) high and 12 metres (39 ft) wide [1]
Azimuth 30°, [5] 30 per transmitter giving 120 in total [2] [4] :75
Elevation5° to 35° [4] :75
Precision± 1 km range, 10 min azimuth, 50 min elevation, 5 m/s range rate [4] :75
Powerpeak power of 1.25 MW per transmitter [2] [4] :75
Radiating power 200 kW [4] :75
Consumed power 2100 kW [4] :75
Other Names NATO: Hen House [6]
GRAU: 5N15 (Dnestr), 5N15M (Dnestr-M), 5N86 (Dnepr)

Dnestr radar (Russian : Днестр) and Dnepr radar (Russian : Днепр), both known by the NATO reporting name Hen House [note 1] are the first generation of Soviet space surveillance and early warning radars. Six radars of this type were built around the periphery of the Soviet Union starting in the 1960s to provide ballistic missile warnings for attacks from different directions. They were the primary Soviet early warning radars for much of the later Cold War. In common with other Soviet and Russian early warning radars they are named after rivers, the Dnestr and the Dnepr. [note 2]

Contents

The Dnestr/Dnepr radars were intended to be replaced by the newer Daryal radars starting in the 1990s. Only two of the planned Daryal radars became operational, due to issues such as the dissolution of the Soviet Union. As of 2012, the Russian early warning network still consists of some radars of this vintage. It is likely that all the existing radars will be replaced by the third generation Voronezh radars by 2020.

TsSO-P

The Dnestr radar came from work on ballistic missile defence undertaken in the late 1950s and early 1960s. System A, the prototype for the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system, was set up in the Sary Shagan testing grounds, in the Kazakh SSR. [7] :123 Work on the system was led by design bureau KB-1 which proposed using VHF radar RTN (Russian:РТН) and the Dunay-2 UHF radar. Other alternatives were sought from Soviet industry and RTI proposed using VHF radar TsSO-P (Russian:ЦСО-П) and UHF radar TsSS-30 (Russian:ЦСС-30). [8]

TsSO-P (standing for Russian:центральная станция обнаружения – полигонная meaning central detection station – test site) was selected for further development, together with the Dunay-2. [8] TsSO-P had a long horn antenna 250 metres (820 ft) long and 15 metres (49 ft) high. It had an array with an open ribbed structure and used 200 microseconds pulses. Hardware methods were designed for signal processing as the intended M-4 computer could not run. It was built at area 8 in Sary Shagan and was located at 46°00′04.65″N73°38′52.11″E / 46.0012917°N 73.6478083°E / 46.0012917; 73.6478083 . It first detected an object on 17 September 1961. [8]

TsSO-P took part in the 1961 and 1962 Soviet Project K nuclear tests above the Sary Shagan range to examine the effects of high altitude nuclear explosions on missile defence hardware. [8]

Dnestr

KH-7 Gambit US spy satellite image of a Dnestr space surveillance radar at Balkhash Radar Station, 28 May 1967. Note the radar arrays are in straight line. Sary-Shagan Dnestr radar (cropped).jpg
KH-7 Gambit US spy satellite image of a Dnestr space surveillance radar at Balkhash Radar Station, 28 May 1967. Note the radar arrays are in straight line.

TsSO-P was effective at satellite tracking and was chosen as the radar of the Istrebitel Sputnikov (IS) anti-satellite programme. This programme involved the construction of two sites separated in latitude to form a radar field 5,000 kilometres (3,100 mi) long and 3,000 kilometres (1,900 mi) high. The two sites chosen were at the village of Mishelevka near Irkutsk in Siberia, which was called OS-1, and at Cape Gulshad on Lake Balkhash near Sary Shagan, which was called OS-2. Each site received four Dnestr radar systems in a fan arrangement. [8] [9] [10] [11] :421 [11] :433 [12]

A Dnestr radar was composed of two TsSO-P radar wings joined together by a two-story building containing a joint computer system and command post. Each radar wing covered a 30-degree sector with a 0.5 degree scanning beam. The elevation scanning pattern was a 'spade' with a width of 20 degrees. The radar systems were arranged to create a fan shaped barrier. Of the four radars, called cells (Russian:РЛЯ, tr. RLYa roughly radio location cell), two faced to the west and two faced to the east. All scanned between +10 degrees and +90 degrees in elevation. [8]

Construction at the two sites started between 1962 and 1963 with improvements in the TsSO-P test model being fed back into the deployed units. They gained an M-4 2-M computer with semiconductors, although the rest of the radar used Vacuum tubes. The radar systems were completed in late 1966 with the fourth Dnestr at Balkhash being used for testing. [8] In 1968 the Dnepropetrovsk Sputnik target satellite, DS-P1-Yu, was used to test the ability of the system. [12] [13]

The Dnestr radars were accepted for service by the Soviet Air Defence Forces in April 1967 and became part of the space surveillance network SKKP. [8] [11] :434 [14]

Dnestr-M

Parallel with the implementation of the Dnestr space surveillance units, a modified version of the original Dnestr units, Dnestr-M radar, was being developed to act as an early warning radar to identify attacks by ballistic missiles. The first two were built at Murmansk in northern Russia (Olenegorsk – RO-1) and near Riga in the then Latvian SSR (Skrunda – RO-2). They constituted the beginning of the Soviet SPRN network, the equivalent of the NATO BMEWS. [11] :421 [8] [15]

The first Dnestr-M at Olenegorsk was completed by 1968. [8] In 1970, the radars at Olenegorsk and Skrunda, and an associated command centre at Solnechnogorsk, were accepted for service. According to Podvig (2002), it seems they were positioned to identify missile launches from NATO submarines in the Norwegian and North Seas. [5]

The Dnestr-M included many improvements over the previous versions such as an increase in the pulse length from 200μs to 800μs which increased the range of objects identified, more semiconductors, and many other scanning and processing changes. [8]

A version of this radar was built at the Sary Shagan test site and was called TsSO-PM (Russian:ЦСО-ПМ). After this had completed tests in 1965 it was decided to upgrade nodes 1 and 2 of the two OS sites to Dnestr-M, keeping nodes 3 and 4 as Dnestr. These radars remained as space surveillance radars which scanned between +10 and +90 degrees, comparative to scanning between +10 and +30 degrees for the missile warning radars. A space surveillance network of four Dnestrs and four Dnestr-Ms, and two command posts was formally commissioned in 1971. [8]

Map of Dnepr radar site at Mukachevo. The two arrays are at 196 and 260 degrees (south and west) Mukachevo dnepr openstreetmap.svg
Map of Dnepr radar site at Mukachevo. The two arrays are at 196 and 260 degrees (south and west)

Dnepr

Work to improve the radar continued. An improved array was designed which covered 60 degrees rather than 30. The first Dnepr radar was built at Balkhash as a new radar, cell 5. It entered service on 12 May 1974. [2] The second was a new early warning station at Sevastopol. New Dneprs were also built at Mishelevka and another at Skrunda, and then one at Mukachevo. The remaining radars were all converted to Dnepr with the exception of cells 3 and 4 at Balkhash and Mishelevka which remained space surveillance radars. [5] [8] [11] :422

All current operational radars are described as Dnepr, and have been updated incrementally. [2] [16]

Technical details

Each Dnepr array is a double sectoral horn antenna 250m long by 12 m wide. [2] It has two rows of slot radiators within two waveguides. At each end of the two arrays, there is a set of transmitting and receiving equipment. It emits a signal covering a sector 30 degrees in azimuth and 30 degrees in elevation, with the scanning controlled by frequency. Four sets mean the radar covers 120 degrees in azimuth and 30 degrees in elevation (5 to 35 degrees). [2]

The Dnepr involved the horn antenna being reduced from 20 to 14 metres in height and the addition of a polarising filter [8]

Current status

Map this section's coordinates using: OpenStreetMap  
Download coordinates as: KML

These radars have been installed at six different radar stations and as of 2012 are operational at three – Balkhash, Mishelevka and Olenegorsk. [2] [16] [17] The 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty required that early warning radars were located on the periphery of national territory and faced outwards. This caused problems when the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991 as many of the radar stations were now in newly independent states. [5] [15] [18] [19] The first station to close was Skrunda, in newly independent Latvia. A 1994 agreement between Russia and Latvia agreed that the two Dnepr radars there would stop working in 1998, and would be fully demolished by 2000. [20] :129 [21] :65 [11] :426

Russia signed an agreement with Ukraine in 1992 allowing it to continue using the Dnepr radars at Sevastopol and Mukachevo. The stations were run by Ukrainian personnel and data was sent to the headquarters of the Russian early warning system in Solnechnogorsk. [22] [23] In 2008 Russia announced that it was pulling out of the agreement with Ukraine and that the last data given to Russia from the stations would be in 2009. [24] [25] :76 [26] The Ukrainian government announced that the stations were to be used part-time for space surveillance. [27] [28]

The remaining stations in Russia and abroad are being replaced by the Voronezh radar. The Dneprs in Mishelevka, Irkutsk will close once the second array of the new Voronezh radar is operational. [29] The Dnepr at Olenegorsk, Murmansk will be replaced by a Voronezh as well. It is planned to start construction there in 2017. [17] [30]

DesignationLocationCoordinatesAzimuth [5] TypeBuiltDetails
OS-1 Mishelevka Radar Station, Irkutsk, Siberia, Russia 52°52′39″N103°16′24″E / 52.877574°N 103.273323°E / 52.877574; 103.273323 (Mishelevka Dnepr radar) 70, 200Dnepr1972–1976Operational. [31] [32]
52°52′53″N103°15′58″E / 52.881511°N 103.266027°E / 52.881511; 103.266027 (Mishelevka Dnepr radar) 135Dnestr-M1964–1970Dismantled 1970s. Replaced by Dnepr radar at the new position. [32]
52°52′59″N103°15′29″E / 52.883013°N 103.258045°E / 52.883013; 103.258045 (Mishelevka Dnepr radar) 265Dnestr1964–1968Modernised to an incoherent scatter radar. Used for research since 1993. [1] [32]
52°52′33″N103°15′23″E / 52.875787°N 103.256414°E / 52.875787; 103.256414 (Mishelevka Dnepr radar) 265Dnestr1964–1968Decommissioned 1990s. Dismantled. [32]
52°52′29″N103°15′39″E / 52.874829°N 103.260791°E / 52.874829; 103.260791 (Mishelevka Dnepr radar) 135Dnestr-M1967–1972Modernised to Dnepr 1976. Operational. [31] [32]
OS-2 Balkhash Radar Station, Sary Shagan, Kazakhstan 46°36′27″N74°31′24″E / 46.60741°N 74.523304°E / 46.60741; 74.523304 (Balkhash Dnepr radar) 270Dnestr1964–1967Decommissioned September 1995. Dismantled. [2] [5]
46°36′52″N74°31′23″E / 46.614574°N 74.523132°E / 46.614574; 74.523132 (Balkhash Dnepr radar) 270Dnestr1964–1967Decommissioned January 1984. Dismantled. [2] [33]
46°37′31″N74°31′02″E / 46.625333°N 74.51721°E / 46.625333; 74.51721 (Balkhash Dnepr radar) 60Dnestr-M1964–1971Modernised to Dnepr 1974. Decommissioned January 1984. Dismantled. [2] [33]
46°37′53″N74°30′45″E / 46.631463°N 74.512618°E / 46.631463; 74.512618 (Balkhash Dnepr radar) 60Dnestr-M1964–1971Modernised to Dnepr 1974. Decommissioned September 1988. Dismantled. [2] [33]
46°36′11″N74°31′52″E / 46.603076°N 74.530985°E / 46.603076; 74.530985 (Balkhash Dnepr radar) 180, 124Dnepr1968–1972Decommissioned 2020. [2] [33] [34] [35]
RO-1 Olenegorsk-1, Kola Peninsula, Russia 68°06′51″N33°54′37″E / 68.1141°N 33.9102°E / 68.1141; 33.9102 (Olenegorsk Dnepr radar) 323, 293Dnestr-M1965–1968Modernised to Dnepr 1978, works with the Daugava radar. Operational. [36]
RO-2 Skrunda-1, Latvia 56°42′55″N21°57′47″E / 56.715176°N 21.963036°E / 56.715176; 21.963036 (Skrunda Dnepr radar) 323, 293Dnestr-M1965–1969Modernised to Dnepr 1979. Demolished 1999. [5]
56°42′30″N21°56′28″E / 56.7082°N 21.9410°E / 56.7082; 21.9410 (Skrunda Dnepr radar) 8, 248Dnepr1968–1976Demolished 1999. [5]
RO-4 [37] Sevastopol Radar Station, Crimea, Ukraine/Russia 44°34′44″N33°23′10″E / 44.5788°N 33.3862°E / 44.5788; 33.3862 (Sevastopol Dnepr radar) 172, 230Dnepr1968–1979Closed 2009. To be replaced by Voronezh radar. [38]
RO-5 [37] Mukachevo Radar Station, Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine 48°22′40″N22°42′27″E / 48.377689°N 22.707446°E / 48.377689; 22.707446 (Mukachevo Dnepr radar) 196, 260Dnepr1968–1979Closed 2009. Derelict? [24] [39] [40]

Notes

  1. NATO gave these the code name "Hen House" presumably because they looked like chicken coops, according to Forden [6]
  2. Other examples are Voronezh radar named after the Voronezh River, the Don-2N radar named after the Don river and the Dunay radars named after the Dunay (Danube).

Related Research Articles

Sary Shagan Missile defence test site in Kazakhstan

Sary Shagan is an anti-ballistic missile testing range located in Kazakhstan.

Russian Space Forces Sub-branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces

The Russian Space Forces are a branch of the Russian Aerospace Forces, that provides aerospace warning, air and space sovereignty, and other related protection for Russia. Having been reestablished following August 1, 2015 merger between the Russian Air Force and the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces after the independent arm of service was dissolved in 2011. The Russian Space Forces were originally formed on August 10, 1992, and the creation of the Russian Armed Forces. The organization shared control of the Baikonur Cosmodrome with the Russian Federal Space Agency. It also operated the Plesetsk and the Svobodny Cosmodromes. However the Russian Space Forces were dissolved in July 1997 and incorporated into the Strategic Missile Forces.

A-135 anti-ballistic missile system Anti-ballistic missile

The A-135 is a Russian anti-ballistic missile system deployed around Moscow to intercept incoming warheads targeting the city or its surrounding areas. The system was designed in the Soviet Union and entered service in 1995. It is a successor to the previous A-35, and complies with the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

ABM-1 Galosh anti-ballistic missile (ABM)

The ABM-1 Galosh was a Soviet, nuclear armed surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile. The Galosh was a component of the A-35 anti-ballistic missile system. Its primary mission was to destroy U.S. Minuteman and Titan intercontinental ballistic missiles targeting Moscow.

Joint CIS Air Defense System is a unified system that comprises air defense units and elements of the former Soviet republics under control of the Coordination Committee on Air Defense of the Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS. Currently there are 6 de facto members of JADS: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia and Tajikistan. 70% of all expenditures of the military budget of the Commonwealth of Independent States are directed to the improvement and development of the unified air defense system.

Daryal radar Soviet and Russian early warning radar

The Daryal-type radar is a Soviet bistatic early-warning radar. It consists of two separate large active phased-array antennas separated by around 500 metres (1,640 ft) to 1.5 kilometres (4,921 ft). The transmitter array is 30 m × 40 m and the receiver is 80 m × 80 m in size. The system is a VHF system operating at a wavelength of 1.5 to 2 meters. Its initial transmit capacity was 50 MW with a target capacity of 350 MW.

Voronezh radar

Voronezh radars are the current generation of Russian early-warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack and aircraft monitoring. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020.

Oko, is a Russian missile defence early warning programme consisting of satellites in Molniya and geosynchronous orbits. Oko satellites are used to identify launches of ballistic missiles by detection of their engines' exhaust plume in infrared light, and complement other early warning facilities such as Voronezh, Daryal and Dnepr radars. The information provided by these sensors can be used for the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system which defends Moscow. The satellites are run by the Russian Aerospace Forces, and previously the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces and Russian Space Forces. As of December 2015, it is being replaced by the new EKS system.

Pechora Radar Station Radar station in the Komi Republic

Pechora Radar Station is an early warning radar near Pechora in the Komi Republic, northern Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack and was built by the Soviet Union, becoming operational in 1984. It is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Mishelevka Radar Station Soviet radar station in Irkutsk, Siberia

Mishelevka Radar Station is the site of three generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located in Irkutsk in Siberia and provides coverage of China and missile launches from submarines in the Pacific Ocean. There have been seven radars at this site and it is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. In 2012 a new Voronezh-M radar is being built at the site.

Balkhash Radar Station Radar station in Kazakhstan

Balkhash Radar Station is the site of two generations of Soviet and Russian early warning radars. It is located on the west coast of Lake Balkhash near Sary Shagan test site in Kazakhstan. Although it was used for monitoring satellites in low Earth orbit it was mainly a key part of the Russian system of warning against missile attack. It provided coverage of western and central China, India, Pakistan and submarine missile launches in the Bay of Bengal. There have been six radars at this site, the last one was removed from service on 1 June 2020, and it was run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Olenegorsk Radar Station Soviet radar station in Murmansk

Olenegorsk Radar Station is the site of a Soviet and Russian early warning radar. It is located near Olenegorsk on the Kola Peninsula, north of the Arctic Circle in north west Russia. It is considered to be a key part of the Russian early warning system against ballistic missile attack, and provides coverage of ballistic missile launches in the Norwegian Sea and North Sea. The station is operated by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Lekhtusi Radar Station

Lekhtusi Radar Station is an early warning radar near Lekhtusi in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack, going on combat duty on 11 February 2012. It is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces.

Armavir Radar Station Russian radar station in Armavir

Armavir Radar Station is an early warning radar station near Armavir in Krasnodar Krai, Russia. It is a key part of the Russian early warning system against missile attack and is run by the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces. There are two radars here - one faces south west and one south east. They provide radar coverage of the Middle East.

Yeniseysk-15

Yeniseysk-15 was the site of a disputed Soviet phased array radar near Yeniseysk in Krasnoyarsk Krai, Siberia. The never operational Daryal radar installation was demolished in 1989 after the United States claimed it was in breach of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.

Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning

The 820th Main Centre for Missile Attack Warning is the Russian early warning network against ballistic missile attack. It has headquarters in the village of Timonovo near Solnechnogorsk outside Moscow and is part of the Russian Space Forces. The centre consists of a network of early warning radar stations which transmit their data to the control centre near Solnechnogorsk. Other information comes from the early warning Oko and EKS satellites as well as the Don-2N missile defence radar. Information from the centre could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Sevastopol Radar Station Soviet radar station in Crimea

Sevastopol radar station was a Soviet radar station providing early warning of ballistic missile attack. It is located between the Cape of Chersones and the auxiliary airfield "Chersones" in Sevastopol and was part of the Soviet missile attack warning system. Information from this station could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Mukachevo Radar Station Former Soviet radar station in Ukraine

Mukachevo radar station is a Ukrainian radar station, originally built during the Soviet period for providing early warning of ballistic missile attack. Currently it is the property of the State Space Agency of Ukraine. It is located in Shipka in the far south west of Ukraine and was part of the Soviet, and then Russian missile attack warning system. Information from this station could be used for a launch on warning nuclear missile attack or to engage the A-135 anti-ballistic missile system.

Main Centre for Reconnaissance of Situation in Space

The 821st Main Centre for Reconnaissance of Situation in Space is the headquarters of the Russian military's space surveillance network, SKKP. The centre is part of the Russian Space Forces and receives intelligence from a network of reporting stations which includes the Russian missile attack early warning network as well as some stations only used for space surveillance such as Okno and Krona. The purpose of SKKP is to detect satellites, identify them and to discern their orbits. It maintains the Russian catalogue of space objects and provides data which could be used to support space launches, feed an anti-satellite programme and provide intelligence on hostile military satellites. It is the Russian equivalent of the United States Space Surveillance Network.

Space Command was the part of the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces responsible for military space-related activities. It was formed on 1 December 2011 when the Russian Aerospace Defence Forces were created as a merger of the Russian Space Forces with part of the Russian Air Force. Responsibilities of the command included missile attack warning, space surveillance and the control of military satellites. The use of the term Space Command may be influenced by the United States Space Command.

References

  1. 1 2 3 4 "Incoherent Scatter Radar". East Siberian Center for the Earth's Ionosphere Research. 2002-06-25. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-02.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 "Днепр" на Балхаше ["Dnepr" in Balkhash] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. July 2009. Archived from the original on 2010-11-09. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  3. Мощные РЛС дальнего обнаружения РЛС СПРН и СККП [Powerful radar early warning radar early warning system and space surveillance] (in Russian). RTI Mints. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Nikolai Spassky, ed. (2002). Encyclopedia "Russia's Arms and Technologies. The XXI Century Encyclopedia": Volume 5 — "Space weapons" (in English and Russian). Moscow: Publishing House "Arms and Technologies". ISBN   978-5-93799-010-5.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Podvig, Pavel (2002). "History and the Current Status of the Russian Early-Warning System" (PDF). Science and Global Security. 10 (1): 21–60. Bibcode:2002S&GS...10...21P. CiteSeerX   10.1.1.692.6127 . doi:10.1080/08929880212328. ISSN   0892-9882. S2CID   122901563. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-15.
  6. Forden, Geoffrey (May 3, 2001). "Reducing a Common Danger: Improving Russia's Early-Warning System" (PDF). Cato Policy Analysis No. 399. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved May 5, 2012.
  7. Zaloga, Steven (2002). The Kremlin's Nuclear Sword: The Rise and Fall of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces 1945–2000. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN   978-1588340078.
  8. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Ivantsov, Viktor. От "Днестра" до "Днепра" [From Dnestr to Dnepr] (in Russian). VKO. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-22.
  9. O'Connor, Sean (2009). "Russian/Soviet Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems". Air Power Australia: 1. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-07.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  10. "Hen House". Federation of American Scientists. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Bukharin, Oleg; Kadyshev, Timur; Miasnikov, Eugene; Podvig, Pavel; Sutyagin, Igor; Tarashenko, Maxim; Zhelezov, Boris (2001). Podvig, Pavel (ed.). Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press. ISBN   978-0-262-16202-9.
  12. 1 2 Votintsev, Yu.V. (1993). "Unknown Troops of the Vanished Superpower". Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Zhurnal. 11: 12–27. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02.
  13. "DS-P1-Yu (11F618)". Gunter's Space Page. 2012-03-31. Archived from the original on 2012-10-11. Retrieved 2012-09-16.
  14. Votintsev, Yu.V. (1993). "Unknown Troops of the Vanished Superpower". Voyenno-Istoricheskiy Zhurnal. 9: 26–38. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02.
  15. 1 2 Karpenko, A (1999). "ABM AND SPACE DEFENSE". Nevsky Bastion. 4: 2–47. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02.
  16. 1 2 Potekhin, Anna (2011-01-16). Зелёных вам фонарей! [Green light for you!] (in Russian). Красная звезда [Krasnaya Zvezda]. Archived from the original on 2013-08-22. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  17. 1 2 Модернизация радаров СПРН в Северо-Западном округе начнется в 2015 году [Upgrading early warning radars in the Northwest District will begin in 2015] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 2011-12-12. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
  18. Marinin, I (2011). Отечественной СПРН – 40 лет [Patriotic SPRN – 40 years] (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. Archived from the original on May 20, 2012. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
  19. Marinin, I (2011). Отечественной СПРН – 40 лет [Patriotic SPRN – 40 years]. Novosti Kosmonavtiki (in Russian) (339): 44–46. ISSN   1561-1078. Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2012-07-24.
  20. Chandra, Ramesh (2004). Minority: Social and Political Conflict. Delhi, India: Isha Books. ISBN   978-81-8205-140-9.
  21. Hadonina, Dzidra (1998). "Environmental Situation and Remediation Plans of Military Sites in Latvia". In Fonnun, F; Paukstys, B; Reimer, K; et al. (eds.). Environmental Contamination and Remediation Practices at Former and Present Military Bases. Springer. pp. 63–69. ISBN   978-0792352471.
  22. Wilk, Andrzej (2008-01-29). "Russia starts to dismantle the Soviet early warning system". Centre for Eastern Studies. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-09.
  23. Kramnik, Ilya (2009-02-26). Арифметика СПРН: минус два "Днепра", плюс один "Воронеж" [Early warning arithmetic: minus two Dnepr, plus one Voronezh] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-15.
  24. 1 2 "Russia to stop using Ukrainian radars". RIA Novosti. 2008-02-04. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  25. Baev, Pavel (2010). "Neither Reform nor Modernisation: the Armed Forces Under and After Putin's Command". In Galeotti, Mark (ed.). The Politics of Modern Security in Russia. Ashgate. pp. 69–88. ISBN   978-0-7546-7408-5.
  26. Podvig, Pavel (2009-02-12). "Armavir radar fills the gap". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09.
  27. "Ukrainian radars withdrawn from operation in Russia's interests to undergo technical maintenance". Kyiv Post. 2009-02-26. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  28. "Source: Ukraine radar to be used to protect German satellites". Kyiv Post. 2010-02-09. Archived from the original on 2021-07-11. Retrieved 2012-07-11.
  29. "Russia Turns on New Missile Warning Radar". RIA Novosti. 2012-05-23. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-07-27.
  30. "ЦАМТО / Новости / Совет Федерации денонсировал соглашение с Казахстаном по узлу "Балхаш"". Archived from the original on 2020-07-26. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  31. 1 2 Podvig, Pavel (2011-06-21). "Daryal-U radar in Mishelevka demolished". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  32. 1 2 3 4 5 Holm, Michael (2011). "46th independent Radio-Technical Unit". Soviet Armed Forces 1945–1991. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  33. 1 2 3 4 Holm, Michael (2011). "49th independent Radio-Technical Unit". Soviet Armed Forces 1945–1991. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-10.
  34. Вручение знамени 16601 [Presentation of the Flag 16601](video) (in Russian). Zvezda News. 2010-12-12. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-01.
  35. "Four advanced radars shielding Russia's southern strategic area". Archived from the original on 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-26.
  36. SityShooter (2011). "РЛС "Днестр" – "Днепр-М" (actually is Daugava left)" [Radar Dnestr-Dnepr-M] (in Russian). Archived from the original (photograph) on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-29.
  37. 1 2 Всевидящий глаз России [Seeing Eye Russia]. Novosti Kosmonavtiki (in Russian) (5): 52–53. May 2009. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19. Retrieved 2012-07-23.(subscription required)
  38. "В Крыму установят новейшую РЛС "Воронеж-СМ"". Archived from the original on 2017-08-16. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
  39. "Russia Won't Rent Ukrainian Radar". Kommersant. 2008-01-16. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-01-30.
  40. Podvig, Pavel (2008-08-25). "Russia pulls out of an early-warning arrangement with Ukraine". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-01.